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Dr. Alida Bundy Fisheries and Oceans Canada Bedford Institute of Oceanography HRM, Nova Scotia, Canada Dr. Anthony Davis Department of Sociology and Social.

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Presentation on theme: "Dr. Alida Bundy Fisheries and Oceans Canada Bedford Institute of Oceanography HRM, Nova Scotia, Canada Dr. Anthony Davis Department of Sociology and Social."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dr. Alida Bundy Fisheries and Oceans Canada Bedford Institute of Oceanography HRM, Nova Scotia, Canada Dr. Anthony Davis Department of Sociology and Social Anthropology Mount Saint Vincent University HRM, Nova Scotia, Canada

2 Introduction Resource management failures Alternative approaches Among these, ecosystem based management (EBM) EBM initiatives to identify ecologically and biologically significant areas (EBSAs) In Canada, 3 step process, science led* Three main criteria designated as defining EBSAs* – (1) uniqueness, (2) aggregation, (3) fitness consequences, And two secondary criteria - (4) resilience, and (5) naturalness *DFO, Identification of Ecologically and Biologically Significant Areas. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Ecosystem Status Rep. 2004/006.

3 Introduction Resource user and aboriginal ‘experential knowledge’ specified as potentially important contributor to identifying EBSAs, particularly in settings where science- based research is insufficient Here we explore the potentials for marine harvester local ecological knowledge (LEK) to contribute to defining EBSAs Focus here on potential LEK contributions to understanding EBSA criteria uniqueness, aggregation, fitness consequences

4 EBSA Criteria (DFO 2004) Each of these is a continuum and can refer to species, communities of physical features of an area. Uniqueness - areas whose characteristics are “unique, rare, distinct, and for which alternatives do not exist” Aggregation - areas where species collect for part of the year, for a specific life-history function (eg spawning) Fitness consequences -features that are important to the survival of one or more species. Related to life history – eg., an area which is the only feeding area for a species has important fitness consequences for that species. In practice, potential EBSAs are scored on all 3 criteria, then ranked, based on a prioritisation process (DFO 2007/010). DFO Guidance Document on Identifying Conservation Priorities and Phrasing Conservation Objectives for Large Ocean Management Areas. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Ecosystem Status Rep. 2007/010.

5 What is Local Ecological Knowledge? While inconsistent and debated within the research literature (cf. Davis and Ruddle 2010), for our purposes... (1) LEK is a shared system of knowledge about the environment and ecosystem relationships that is (2) developed through direct experience within a specific physical setting and (3) is transmitted inter-generationally As a system of knowledge LEK must be demonstrably shared among a community or group of marine harvesters

6 Research Design Two independent studies employing a similar methodology – Chedebucto Bay and Scotia-Fundy on Atlantic coast Nova Scotia Two step design Ist step – representative survey of marine harvesters to solicit peer recommendations of harvesters most knowledgeable about the local fishing grounds 2nd step – interview those receiving the most peer recommendations, i.e., each site’s ‘local ecological knowledge experts’

7 The Study Site – Atlantic Nova Scotia A = Chedebucto Bay 1 = Cape North 2 = Mira Bay/ Gabarus Bay 3 = St Peters Bay 4 = Country Island 5 = Ship Harbour/ Chezzetcook Bay 6 = St. Margarets Bay 7 = La Have 8 = Port Mouton 9 = Port La Tour CANADA NOVA SCOTIA

8 Social Context – Step 1 Key Social and Marine Harvesting Attributes Background Attributes Cape Breton – Eastern Shore (2006) South Shore (2006) Chedebucto Bay (2001) (N=153) (N=160) (N=158) %% Fulltime Licenses Lobster Herring Mackerel Groundfish Mean Std. D Age Years Fishing Weeks Fishing (Previous Year)

9 Likelihood of re-entering fishing if they had their life to live over Response Category Cape Breton – Eastern Shore (2006) South Shore (2006) Chedebucto Bay (2001) Atlantic Coast Captains (1990) (N=153) (N=160) (N=158) (N=126) %% Definitely Probably Probably Not Definitely Not Data affirms similarities among marine harvesters

10 Research Design – Step 2 LEK experts were interviewed until information saturation was achieved 11 interviews completed around Chedebucto Bay 54 interviews completed throughout Scotia-Fundy This Study: Controlled comparison of two sites Chedebutco Bay (11 interviews) La Have (6 interviews)

11 Chedebucto Bay + herring - seasonality - migration - spawning lobster mackerel cod Petit-de-Gras Queensport Canso

12 La Have lobster crabs herring mackerel shellfish halibut tuna seabirds small fish seals mix of less than 5 sps Mix of more than 5 sps

13 La Havre/Ironbound Off Medway Harbour

14 Observations Criteria AreaSite UniquenessAggregationLife History Consequences Chedebucto Queensport X Y X Petit de Gras X Y X Canso X Y X La Have La Have Islands YY X Ironbound YY X Medway Harbour YY X Off Medway YY X

15 Observations – Chedebucto SiteUniquenessAggregationLife History Consequences SpeciesReason QueensportHerring Mackerel Lobster Cod Associated species Capelin Spawning Migration Spawning Migration Spawning Petit de GrasLobster Cod Mackerel Herring Associated species Haddock, Dogfish, “bait” Spawning Migration Spawning Migration Spawning Migration

16 “The fish come in there to spawn at that time of the year and that’s what we were concentrating on. They were staying on the mud bottom, sand bottom and stuff like that” "[Lobster spawn] floats on top of the water…Certain time of day before it sinks again…our spawn doesn’t stay on our ground because…the tide…"

17 Observations – La Have SiteUniquenessAggregationLife History Consequences SpeciesReason Ironbound“Ironbound bank is a pretty unique one for the inshore” “Lobster, all type of groundfish, herring, mackerel, tuna also this area here......” Tuna Mackerel Lobster Cod Pollock Herring Associated species Ducks, seagulls, comorants, guillemots, seals Feeding Spawning, nursery Spawning, nursery, migration Spawning, nursery Spawning, nursery, migration

18 Observations – La Have SiteUniquenessAggregationLife History Consequences SpeciesReason Medway Harbour High diversity: “All of it because I make my living off of it so, the whole area. There is parts in all of it that unique to what I do, need to do or like to see....” Lobster Cod Mackerel Sand crab Green crab Rock crab Soft shell clam Comorants Seagulls Additional species Eider ducks, sea ducks, Spawning, nursery Nursery Spawning

19 Discussion re: LEK and EBSA Observations derived from livelihood needs Limitation and strength (focussed attention) Spatially based and local LEK observations intersect with EBSA criteria to some degree: Most readily applicable to aggregation criteria as seen across all sites Some observations may address uniqueness Reasons not usually specific or ecological No observations specifically related to life history consequences Controlled comparison demonstrates high degree of similarity across sites

20 Implications There are no areas which appear to be particularly significant on the 3 EBSA criteria Scale issues Information received is particular to the site Creates gaps in spatial coverage Do they matter? Useful for identifying sites for more systematic research Useful for identifying representative areas Are the EBSA criteria, as defined by DFO, the appropriate tool for accessing, analysing and incorporating LEK in EBM approaches?

21 Lobster High Abundance

22 Implications There are no areas which appear to be particularly significant on the 3 EBSA criteria Scale issues Information received is particular to the site Creates gaps in spatial coverage Do they matter? Useful for identifying sites for more systematic research Useful for identifying representative areas Are the EBSA criteria, as defined by DFO, the appropriate tool for accessing, analysing and incorporating LEK in EBM approaches?

23 Next Steps Extend analysis to other sites Explore analysis at Atlantic coast scale Uniqueness Life history consequences Identify potential EBSAs based on LEK observations related to aggregation criterion Return for further LEK/science collaborative research into these areas Address question of how harvester knowledge can be engaged with fisheries management and policy

24 Acknowledgements Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (award #s , and ), Fishermen’s and Fisheries Scientists’ Research Society, and Fisheries and Oceans Canada. Ms. Lora O’Halloran, project research assistant, and Ms. Andrea Kmetty, GIS consultant All the experts who participated in the LEK surveys

25 Social Context – Step 1 Derived from Step 1 - telephone surveys In general, respondents fish for a similar length of time each year, hold a similar array of licenses, and are of similar ages As a clear demonstration of attachment to their livelihood, vast majorities claim they would choose to fish for their living if they had their lives to live over. Remarkable attachment levels given uncertainties faced since the late 1980s Data affirms similarities among marine harvesters


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