2Personality Personality - A unique pattern of consistent feelings, thoughts,and behaviorsthat originate within the individual.
3Freudian Classical Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality Developed by Sigmund Freud in the late nineteenth century and continued until his death in 1939Believed sex was a primary cause of emotional problems and was a critical component of his personality theoryRemains an important influence in Western cultureespecially pop culture
4Freud’s Three Levels of Awareness The conscious mind is what you are presently aware of, what you are thinking about right nowThe preconscious mind is stored in your memory that you are not presently aware of but can gain access toThe unconscious mind is the part of our mind of which we cannot become awareFreudian slips
8The Id (The Devil)Is the original personality, the only part present at birth.Resides in the unconscious mindIncludes our biological instinctual drives:Life instincts (EROS) for survival, reproduction, and pleasureDeath instincts, (THANATOS) destructive and aggressive drives detrimental to survival: VIOLENCE both to oneself and othersOperates on a pleasure principle -demands immediate gratification for these drives without the concern for the consequences of this gratification
9The Superego (The Angel) Represents one’s conscience and idealized standards of behavior in their cultureOperates on a morality principle, threatening to overwhelm us with guilt and shame if we misbehave
10The Ego (The Decider/Mediator) Starts developing during the first year or so of life to find realistic and socially-acceptable outlets for the id’s needsOperates on the reality principle, finding gratification for instinctual drives within the constraints of reality (the norms and laws of society)Makes decisions based on the desires of the id and the morality of the superego.
11To prevent being overcome with anxiety because of trying to satisfy the id and superego demands, the ego uses what Freud called…Defense mechanisms - processes that distort reality and protect us from anxiety
16Defense Mechanisms Repression Unknowingly placing an unpleasant memory or thought in the unconscious so that we are not anxious about them; the primary defense mechanismNot remembering a traumatic incident in which you witnessed a crimeRegressionReverting back to immature behavior from an earlier stage of developmentThrowing temper tantrums as an adult when you don’t get your wayDisplacementRedirecting unacceptable feelings from the original source to a safer substitute targetTaking your anger toward your boss out on your spouse or children by yelling at them and not your boss
17Defense Mechanisms Sublimation Replacing socially unacceptable impulses with socially acceptable behaviorChanneling aggressive drives into playing football or inappropriate sexual desires into artReaction FormationActing in exactly the opposite way to one’s unacceptable impulsesBeing overprotective of and lavishing attention on an unwanted childProjectionAttributing one’s own unacceptable feelings and thoughts to others and not yourselfAccusing your boyfriend of cheating on you because you have felt like cheating on himRationalizationCreating false excuses for one’s unacceptable feelings, thoughts, or behaviorJustifying cheating on an exam by saying that everyone else cheats
18Freud’s Psychosexual Stage Theory Was developed chiefly from his own childhood memories and from his interactions with his patients.An erogenous zone is the area of the body where the id’s pleasure-seeking psychic energy is focused during a particular stage of psychosexual developmentFixation occurs when a portion of the id’s pleasure-seeking energy remains in a stage because of excessive gratification or frustration of our instinctual needs.Educational Video
20Freud’s Psychosocial States of Personality Development Stage (age range)Erogenous ZoneActivity FocusOral (birth - 1½ years)Mouth, lips, and tongueSucking, biting, and chewingAnal (1½ - 3 years)AnusBowel retention and eliminationPhallic (3 - 6 years)GenitalsIdentifying with same-sex parent to learn gender role and sense of moralityLatency (6 years - puberty)NoneCognitive and social developmentGenital (puberty - adulthood)Mature sexual orientation and experience of intimate relationships
21Potty TrainingParents try to get the child to have self-control during toilet trainingIf the child reacts to harsh toilet training by trying to get even with the parents by withholding bowel movements, an anal-retentive personality with the traits of orderliness, neatness, stinginess, and obstinacy developsThe anal-expulsive personality develops when the child rebels against the harsh training and has bowel movements whenever and wherever he desires
22IdentificationIn the process of identification, the child adopts the characteristics of the same-sexed parents and learns their gender role (the set of behaviors expected of someone of a particular sex)
23Phallic Stage Conflicts In the Oedipus conflict, the little boy becomes sexually attracted to his mother and fears the father (his rival) will find out and castrate himFamily GuyIn the Electra conflict, the little girl is attracted to her father because he has a penis; she wants one and feels inferior without one (penis envy)Big Bang
24Evaluation of Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality So, was Freud right about the Id, Ego, Superego, and defense mechanisms?First, you’ll need to remember that Freud was practicing in the late 1800’s to the early 1900’s.Recent research contradicts many of Freud theories.Freud believed that sexual repression caused vast psychological disorder.Well….that has been proven to be false on many counts.
27Neo-Freudian Theories of Personality Agree with many of Freud’s basic ideas, but differ in one or more important waysCarl Jung’s Collective UnconsciousAlfred Adler’s Striving for SuperiorityKaren Horney and the Need for Security
28Neo-Freudian thoughts Many of Freud’s followers joined the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society.This society, led by Freud, focused on Freud’s view of personality.Freud disagreed strongly with anyone who challenged his views.Several members of the group, left to form their own views of personality (schools, associations).
29Neo-freudian criticisms of Freud’s theory: 1.Rejected idea that adult personality is completely formed by 5- or 6-years old.2.Argued that Freud’s focused too much on biological instincts/nature and ignored social factors/nurture.3.Rejected overall negative tone of Freud’s theories.
30Carl Jung ( )Born in Switzerland, the son of a Protestant Minister, Jung was a quiet, introspective child who kept to himself.Pondered the nature of dreams & visions he experienced.Jung earned his M.D. degree in 1900 & went on to study schizophrenia, consciousness, & hypnosis.He became interested in Freud after reading The Interpretation of Dreams.
31More about Jung Jung & Freud met in 1907 & became close colleagues. Jung formally left Freud’s group in 1913.Jung spent the next 7 years in intense introspection—led to his theory of personality.
32Carl JUNG: The Collective Unconscious There are common themes & experiences that all people in all cultures experience.These give every individual a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species’ history.Every human is born with theseExample: Spirituality and God beliefs are found in every culture and person.
33The collective unconscious is made up of archetypes. These are emotionally charged images and thought forms that have universal meaning.These are not individual memories but are passed along in our DNA.Example: The mother archetype
35The collective unconscious is made up of archetypes . These are the universal symbolic images of a particular person, object, or experience.Example: the archetype of mother is in the child’s collective unconscious.
36Mythology: Common themes across cultures (ancient, recent) If you look throughout all human history you can identify these following themes:Hero & heroine(Luke or Leia)Villain(Darth Vader)Naïve youth & wise old-sage(Luke and Obi-Wan)
37Shadow – Our dark sideThis is the unconscious part of ourselves that is negative.Jung argued you couldn’t have good without evil.This concept is found throughout every culture.
39Jung’s ideas of archetypes have been more studied and adopted by the disciplines of art, philosophy, anthropology, religious studies and popular culturethan by psychologists.
40Jung was the first to describe the Introvert and extravert personality types.Introverts tend to be preoccupies with the internal world of their own thoughts, feelings and experiences.Extraverts tend to be interested in the external world of people and things.Talkative, friendly outgoing
41Carl Jung’s Other Terms: Jung proposed two main personality attitudes, extraversion and introversionExtraversion – Outgoingand excitable.Introversion – Quiet andslower to warm up.
42Alfred Adler’s Striving for Superiority An Austrian physician, Adler was one of the first to break from Freud’s group (1911).Rejected Freud’s notion of “penis envy,” argued that women really envy men’s power & status.Adler emphasized importance of conscious goal-directed behavior & down played unconscious influences.
43Adler’s main ideas: All humans begin life with a sense of inferiority. We are helpless as children & need adults to survive.Adler argued we struggle the rest of our lives to overcome this feeling of inferiority.
44We struggle to overcome inferiority. Adler called this natural instinct striving for superiority.“Striving for superiority” doesn’t mean being superior over others, rather to improve ourselves.Our primary motivation is to improve ourselves.
45What happens if we fail?If we fail to overcome feelings of vulnerability & weakness, we develop an inferiority complex.Here, an individual believes they are inferior & feel powerless, weak, & helpless.
46Alternative Approaches Humanistic theories developed in the 1960sThe humanistic approach emphasizes conscious free will in one’s actions,the uniqueness of the individual person,and personal growth
47The Humanistic Approach to Personality Abraham Maslow is considered the father of the humanistic movementHe studied the lives of very healthy and creative people to develop his theory of personalityMaslow’s hierarchy of needs is an arrangement of the innate needs that motivate our behavior and should lead to Self Actualization: the development or achievement of one’s potential.
48Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self-ActualizationSelf- EsteemSocialSafetyPhysiological
50Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self- ActualizationA growth-based need focused on the fullest realization of one’s potential, becoming all that one can beSelf-EsteemAchievement mastery, gaining appreciation from others for our achievements, and having a positive self-imageSocialLove, belongingness, affection, family relationships, and companionshipSafetyBeing out of danger, feeling safe and securePhysiologicalFood, water, and air
51Self-Actualization Characteristics of self-actualized people include Accepting themselves, others, and the nature of world for what they areHaving a need for privacy and only a few close, emotional relationshipsBeing autonomous and independent, democratic, and very creativeHaving peak experiences, which are experiences of deep insight in which you experience whatever you are doing as fully as possible
52How Did Maslow Determine WHO was self-actualized? Maslow interviewed people he both knew and admired.He would :1. Interview a sample of people he thought were self-actualized.He would write down a list of traits he felt each person possessed and compiled their common traitsBy refining his trait list again and again, he eventually came up with what he felt was a stable list of attributes which would define the self-actualized individual.
53Traits of Self-Actualized People: Truth, rather than dishonesty.Goodness, rather than evil.Beauty, not ugliness or vulgarity.Unity, wholeness, and transcendence of opposites, not arbitrariness or forced choicesAliveness, not deadness or the mechanization of lifeUniqueness, not bland uniformity.Perfection and necessity, not sloppiness, inconsistency, or accident.Completion, rather than incompleteness.Justice and order, not injustice and lawlessness.Simplicity, not unnecessary complexity.Richness, not environmental impoverishment.Effortlessness, not strain.Playfulness, not grim, humorless, drudgery.Self-sufficiency, not dependency.Meaningfulness, rather than senselessness.
54CritiqueMaslow hierarchy of needs is criticized for being based on non-empirical vague studies of a small number of people that he subjectively selected as self-actualized
55Trait Theories of Personality and Personality Assessment
56Trait Theories of Personality Personality traits are internally based, relatively stable characteristics that define an individual’s personalityEach trait is called a dimension,and there is a continuum ranging from one extreme of the dimension to the otherFactor analysis identifies clusters of test items that measure the same factor/trait
57Number and Kind of Personality Traits Raymond B. Cattell, using factor analysis, found that 16 traits were necessary to describe human personalityHans Eysenck, also using factor analysis, argued for three trait dimensionsEysenck’s theory is at more general than Cattell’s
60Eysenck’s Three-Factor Theory Extraversion- IntroversionNeuroticism/(emotionally unstable)- Emotional stabilityPsychoticism(no self control)- Impulse controlEysenck argued that these traits are determined by heredity
61Eysenck’s Three-Factor Theory People who are high on the neuroticism-emotional stability dimension tend to be overly anxious, emotionally unstable, and easily upsetThe psychoticism-impulse control trait is concerned with aggressiveness, impulsiveness, and empathy
64More Common Today: Five-Factor Model of Personality These five factors appear to be universal and are consistent from about age 30 to late adulthoodThe first 5 factor model was advanced by Ernest Tupes and Raymond Christal in 1961
65Five-Factor Model of Personality DimensionHigh EndLow EndOpennessImaginative, independent, having broad interests, receptive to new ideasConforming, practical, narrow interests, closed to new ideasConscientiousnessWell-organized, dependable, careful, disciplinedDisorganized, undependable, careless, impulsiveExtraversionSociable, talkative, friendly, adventurousReclusive, quiet, aloof, cautiousAgreeablenessSympathetic, polite, good-natured, soft-heartedTough-minded, rude, irritable, ruthlessNeuroticismEmotional, insecure, nervous, self-pityingCalm, secure, relaxed, self-satisfied
68Personality Assessment The main uses of personality tests are to aid in diagnosing people with problems, counseling, and making personnel decisionsThere are two typesPersonality InventoriesProjective Tests
69Personality Inventories Are designed to measure multiple traits of personality, and in some cases, disordersAre a series of questions or statements for which the test taker must indicate whether they apply to him or notUses a “True/False/Cannot Say” format with simple statements (e.g., “I like to cook”)
70Projective TestsContain a series of ambiguous stimuli, such as inkblots, to which the test taker must respond about his perceptions of the stimuliSample testsRorschach Inkblots TestThematic Apperception Test
71Rorschach Inkblots Test Contains 10 symmetric inkblots used in the test,The test taker then describes what he or she sees in the shapesAssumes the test taker’s responses are projections of their personal conflicts and personality dynamicsWidely used but not demonstrated to be reliable and valid