2 19th Century Characteristics Industrial RevolutionSciencePositivismRationalism – ReasonRapid ChangeProgressChristianity under attackAge of EmpirePhilosophy of HistoryWith the industrial revolution literally steaming ahead the 19th century was a century of rapid change
3 To the Victorian mind it was far better to be civilized than to be a “savage”
4 Anthropology: A Branch of History `the history, not of tribes or nations, but of the condition of knowledge, religion, art, custom, and the like among them' (Tylor 1871 I: 5)."no conception can be understood except through its history is a maxim which all ethnographers may adopt as a standing rule". (Tylor 1871).`the past is continuously needed to explain the present and the whole to explain the part' (Tylor 1865: 2).`there seems no human thought so primitive as to have lost its bearing on our own thought, nor so ancient as to have broken its connection with our own life' (Tylor 1871).
5 The Savage Becomes the Primitive Making Stone Tools New Guinea AustraliaThe Savage Becomes the Primitive`the master-key to the investigation of man's primeval condition is held by Prehistoric Archaeology.Making Stone Tools New GuineaThis key is the evidence of the Stone Age, proving that men of remotely ancient ages were in the savage state' (Tylor 1871 I: 58).
6 “Looking over a collection of their [quaternary man's] implements and weapons on a museum shelf we may fairly judge by analogy that in their moral habits, as in their material arts, they had much in common with the rudest savages of modern times, users like them of chipped stone and flint.” (Tylor 1873a: 702)
7 Central tenetOna of Tierra del Fuego“The condition of savage and barbarous tribes often more or less fairly represent stages of culture through which our own ancestors passed long ago' (Tylor 1871)Anthropologists could then use the `indirect evidence' provided by contemporary savagery `as a means of re-constructing the lost records of early or barbarous times' (1865: 5).
8 Writing, urban life; flowering of arts, architecture CIVILIZATION:Writing, urban life; flowering of arts, architectureuniversal sequence of “stages” through which it was hypothesized all societies will sooner or later pass unless their development is arrested by some exogenous circumstance (extinction, conquest, absorption by another society or achieving a perfect equilibrium with the environment)BARBARISM: settled life; markets, rise of chiefs and kings, agriculture, arts developSAVAGERY: hunting and gathering; no surplus production; no permanent cohesive unit wider than band, stone tools
9 U N I F O R M I T Y O F S T A G E SA present day society in the stage of Barbarism (e.g. Hawai’i or Samoa) could shed light on the distant past when northern European society was in the stage of Barbarismjust as an Australian Aboriginal society could inform Europeans of their history in the stage of SavageryEuropeansHawai’iAustralianAborigines
10 Uniformitarian principle The same kind of development in culture which has gone on inside our range of knowledge has also gone on outside it, its course of proceeding being unaffected by our having or not having reporters present. If any one holds that human thought and action were worked out in primæval times according to laws essentially other than those of the modern world, it is for him to prove by valid evidence this anomalous state of things, otherwise the doctrine of permanent principle will hold good, as in astronomy or geology. That the tendency of culture has been similar throughout the existence of human society, and that we may fairly judge from its known historic course what its prehistoric course may have been, is a theory clearly entitled to precedence as a fundamental principle of ethnographic research. (1871a I: 32-33)
11 “The phenomena of Culture may be classified and arranged, stage by stage, in a probable order of evolution” (1871 I: 6)Hand Gonne c.1400MatchlockWheellockFlintlock“it is desirable to work out a systematically as possible a scheme of evolution of this culture along its many lines”. P. 21
12 SurvivalsAmong evidence aiding us to trace the course which the civilization of the world has actually followed, is that great class of facts to denote which I have found it convenient to introduce the term “Survivals”.Maypole Dancing Outskirts of London, 1891These are processes, customs, opinions, and so forth which have been carried on by force of habit into a new state of society different from that in which they had their original home, and they thus remain as proofs and examples of an older condition of culture out of which a newer has evolved…. Such examples lead us back to the habits of hundreds and even thousands of years ago, p. 16. “games, popular sayings, customs, superstitions, and the like”.
13 E.B. Tylor 1832-1917 1871 Primitive Culture correlates the three levels of social evolution to types of religion:Savagery — animismbarbarism — polytheismcivilization — monotheismAlso linked to morality
14 John Ferguson McLennan, (1827-81) 1865 Primitive Marriage: An Enquiry into the Origin of the Form of Capture in Marriage Ceremoniesfirst stage was a time of sexual promiscuityFemale infanticide led to a shortage of women, who had to be shared in a polyandrous matriarchal situationBecause men don’t like to share wives they captured them from neighbors (exogamy) – patriarchy and monogamy
15 Lewis Henry Morgan (1818 – 1881) 1851 League of the Iroquois 1871 Systems of Consanguinity and Affinity1877 Ancient Society
16 Assumptions of Nineteenth Century Evolutionism 1. Like the natural world the cultural world is governed by laws that science can discover.2. These laws operated on the distant past as they do on the present. - Uniformitarianism3. The present grows out of the past by a continuous process - developmentalism4. This growth is simple to complex.5. All humans share a single psychic nature – are rational6. The moving force of cultural development is interaction with the environment.
17 Assumptions of Nineteenth Century Evolutionism Continued 7. Different development is due to different environments.8. These differences can be measured.9. In these terms cultures can be ordered in a hierarchical manner.10. Certain contemporary cultures are like earlier stages.11. In the absence of data these stages can be reconstructed by the comparative method.12. The results of the comparative method can be confirmed by the study of survivals.
18 CRITIQUE OF EVOLUTIONISM Is the Central Tenet Valid?Is it Ethnocentric?Did the Data support the theory?Is the Doctrine of survivals valid?
19 The Growth of Fieldwork N. Chagnon in Brazil with the Yanomamo
20 3 Impetuses Increasing knowledge of other cultures dissatisfaction with the quality and quantity of much of the data contained in the ethnological writingsthe belief that the ‘savage’ tribes in their ‘natural’ state were rapidly disappearing in the face of contact with the more civilized nations
21 Increasing knowledge of other cultures Explorers and travellers were replaced by government officials and missionaries who formed a closer association with the people they were in contact with.Appearance of Literary journals such asThe Fortnightly Review ( ),The Nineteenth Century (1877),The Academy (1871)The Contemporary Review (1866- )First Monographse.g. The Native Tribes of Central Australia (1899), B. Spencer and F. GillenQuestionnaires
22 Notes and Queries on Anthropology 1874 Purpose: `to promote accurate anthropological observation on the part of travellers, and to enable those who are not anthropologists to supply the information, which is needed for the scientific study of anthropology at home' (BAAS 1874: vii).
23 Fear that “primitive” tribes were rapidly disappearing Tierra del Fuego has probably been inhabited for at least 9000 years.Around 1880 there were between 3500 and 4000 OnaIn 1919 there were < 300By 1930 < 100 Ona remained.the last full-blooded Ona died in 1977.Onas hunting in Tierra Del Fuego c. 1900`In view of the fast vanishing "primitive" cultures, and the rapid extinction of some of the more primitive and ethnologically interesting races the importance of such efforts to secure information ere it is too late cannot be over-estimated' (Balfour 1905: 15).
24 Alfred Court Hadddon (1855-1940) W H R Rivers1898 Cambridge Expedition to the Torres Straits
26 Survey Versus Intensive Fieldwork A typical piece of intensive work is one in which the worker lives for a year or more among a community of perhaps four or five hundred people and studies every detail of their life and culture; in which he comes to know every member of the community personally; in which he is not content with generalized information, but studies every feature of life and custom in concrete detail and by means of the vernacular language. It is only by such work that one can fully realise the immense extent of the knowledge which is now awaiting the inquirer, even in places where the culture has already suffered much change. It is only by such work that it is possible to discover the incomplete and even misleading character of much of the vast mass of survey work which forms the existing basis of anthropology” Rivers 1913
27 Still Evolutionary Theory Rivers: “the goal of anthropology is the reconstruction of the history of `primitive' peoplesBalfour: “the ethnographer's purpose is to determine their ‘place in time’” (1905: 18)Haddon's aim: “to elucidate the “nature, origin and distribution of the races and peoples of a limited ethnological area and to define their place in the evolutionary tree”
28 Two things were absent from fieldwork at this time participation`at Bendiyagalge we were particularly well situated to observe their behaviour, our camp being out of sight of the Vedda camp but within two hundred yards of it, here we could listen to their unrestrained chatter and laughter' (Seligman and Seligman The Vedda 1911: 85).Most ethnographers at this time also relied heavily on translatorsFieldwork conducted under an evolutionary paradigm did not necessitate participation. Since ethnographers were interested in establishing historical links with other cultures, the meanings which the myths and ceremonies they were describing had for the people concerned was of little interest2. sociological theory
29 Emile Durkheim 1858 - 1917 The Division of Labour in Society 1893 Rules of the Sociological Method 1895Suicide 1897Elementary Forms of the Religious Life, 1912
30 What is a Social Fact?“A social fact is every way of acting, fixed or not, capable of exercising on the individual an external constraint; or again, every way of acting which is general throughout a given society, while at the same time existing in its own right independent of its individual manifestations”When I perform my duties as a father or a husband for example, I fulfill obligations which are defined in law and custom and which are external to myself and my actions.Even when they conform to my own sentiments and when I feel their reality within me, that reality does not cease to be objective, for it is not I who have prescribed these duties; I have received them through education.
31 Social Facts Characteristics External to the Individualfound ready-made at birthObjectiveLearnedRelativeEndowed with coercive powerA new variety of phenomenasource is not the individual but in society a collective phenomenon
32 Rules of the Sociological Method Society is part of nature and a science of society must be based on the same principles as those of the natural sciencesSocial facts must be treated as things I.e. objectivelyThe properties of the totality cannot be deduced from those of the individuals who combine to form it. E.g. Suicide ratesSocial facts have to be explained in terms of their function
33 Functional Explanation function of a social item refers to its correspondence with “the general needs of the social organism not the individual”Function must be clearly distinguished from intention or purpose
34 The root idea in functionalism Human societies consist of a number of institutions whichover time achieve a harmonious “fit” to one anotherIntegrationserve adaptive ends — i.e. contribute to the survival of the overall society functiondo not just reflect universal human nature, but shape it in distinctive ways determinism
35 Functionalist view of a society (1) INSTI-TUTIONSSOCIETYPERSONA society consists of a distinct set of institutions which introject distinctive motivations into its members from earliest childhood
36 Functionalist view of a society Different institutions produce different persons with different motivations
37 Functionalism in a Nutshell how does a social phenomenon contribute to the survival of the society as a whole
38 1884 born in Kraków, Poland, then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire BRONISŁAW MALINOWSKI1884 born in Kraków, Poland, then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire1910: emigrates to England to begin postgraduate work in anthropology at the LSE1912 receives a Ph.D from the LSE for a library dissertation on the Australian aborigines1914 travels to the British Association for the Advancement of Science’s meeting in MelbourneSept 1914 War is declared while en route and Malinowski is classified as an enemy alien.spends 2 ½ years in the Trobriands
40 “Imagine yourself suddenly set down surrounded by all your gear on a tropical beach close to a native village while the launch or dinghy which has brought you sails away out of sight”.
41 “Imagine yourself then, making your first entry into the village”
42 “Some natives flock around you, especially if they smell tobacco”
43 “He ought to put himself in good conditions of work, that is, in the main, to live without other white men, right among the natives”
44 “One step further in this line can be made by the Ethnographer who acquires a knowledge of the native language and can use it as an instrument of inquiry.” (p. 23)
45 The Goal of Ethnography The goal [of the Ethnographer] is, briefly; to grasp the native's point of view, his relation to life, to realise his vision of his world” P. 25Perhaps through realising human nature in a shape very distant and foreign to us, we shall have some light shed on our own. P. 25
46 ParticipantIt is good for the Ethnographer sometimes to put aside camera, note book and pencil, and to join in himself in what is going on p. 21ObservationAn ethnographic diary, carried on systematically throughout the course of one’s work in a district would be the ideal instrument for this sort of studyinsideviewoutside(analy-tical)view
47 Functional accounts don’t worry about how an institution arose A functional account is an analyst’s account which asks what is the `sociological function of these customs what part do they play in the maintenance and development of civilization?”Functional accounts don’t worry about how an institution arosemost institutional origins lost in the mists of timecan at most speculate about them (“conjectural history” )For functionalists, what is important is not how things originated but how they work (function)…how they contribute to peoples’ lives
48 Various Institutional Functions language binds the community togetherMagic warrants a myth's truth,Myth expresses, enhances, and codifies belief; it safeguards and enforces morality'Scientific knowledge ensures Man's survivalReligion establishes, fixes, and enhances all valuable mental attitudes, such as reverence for tradition, harmony with environment, courage and confidence in the struggle with different cultures and at the prospect of deathlaw curbs certain natural propensities, to hem in and control human instincts and to impose a non-spontaneous, compulsory behaviour'
49 Malinowski’s Hierarchy of needs ‘Basic’ needsFood, shelter, sex, etc.universalthis supplies a certain commonality to all human cultures and is ultimately what makes them comparable.Also makes ethnology scientificeach culture responds to the particular needs of its members through institutionsevery institution centres around a fundamental needFor example, tools function to provide food, and shelterThe variation in the form of the institution is culturally determined
50 instrumental’ needsbut tools require skilled artisans and trade groups etc. In a sense, the tools themselves have needs.These are instrumental needsthe three primary ones being economic organization, law, and educationintegrative needsthese institutions must in turn be functionally adjusted to each other in order to form a more or less consistent pattern…this produces requirements not of individuals but of the cultural system itself
51 2STRUCTURAL FUNCTIONALISM The dominant theoretical paradigm of the British school of social anthropology, 1930–1955.Associated with the theoretical writings of A. R. Radcliffe-Brown in Structure and function in primitive societyA. R. Radcliffe-Brown
52 FIVE BASIC PRINCIPLES1. Society is seen as an organically structured whole akin to a biological organism.2. Society has a social structure - an ordered arrangement of parts.3. Structure is ideally integrated, unified, and exists in equilibrium.4. This structure is the object of analysis; the most valued data is the structure you can abstract.5. The function of Social activities and institutions is ultimately interpreted in terms of maintaining the whole social structure of the society
53 THE STRUCTURE IS INTEGRATED INSTITUTIONS:Distinguishable sets of roles, norms, and statuses within a social system e.g. kinship systemit is to institutions that the concept of “function” is applicablethe function of an institution is its contribution to the overall perpetuation and adaptation of the societyFor social life to persist or continue the various institutions must exhibit some kind of measure of coherence or consistence
54 THE FUNCTION OF INSTITUTIONS IS TO MAINTAIN THE STRUCTURE The problem for society is to survive — to maintain its structureBut basic human nature is inherently selfish and is therefore inimical to that survival.Therefore the behaviour of individuals must be molded to the requirements society needs to surviveConflict must be restrained and the conduct of persons in their interrelations with each other must be controlled by norms or rules of behaviourFailure of the individual to follow these norms results in sanctions.
55 In the Trobriand Islands, a shaved head and a body blackened with charcoal are signs of mourning. This is followed by ritual wailing by the deceased maternal kinHow does this ritual mourning contribute to the survival of the society as a whole?
56 CRITIQUE OF FUNCTIONALISM What is the Functionalist view of Human Nature?What is the Relationship between the individual and the society?How do Functionalists account for change?How do functionalists deal with conflict?How is the function of a given institution determined?How does one decide, or know what is good for the society as a whole?Must all institutions have a function?What is its methodology?
57 EVOLUTIONISM DIFFUSIONISM FUNCTIONALISM BoasRadcliffe BrownMalinowskiAMERICANCULTURALANTHRO-POLOGYBRITISHSOCIALREACTION AGAINST EVOLUTIONARY THEORYFRENCHETHNO- LOGIEEVOLUTIONISMDIFFUSIONISMFUNCTIONALISMDEVELOPMENT OFNATIONAL SCHOOLSDURKHEIMIANSOCIOLOGYMODERN PERIODPERIOD OF GRAND THEORY
58 FRANZ BOASBoas en route to Baffin Island 1883 and Central Inuit; to study the reflectivity of sea-water
59 CENTRAL ESKIMO (IGULIK) STUDY Inuit can perceive and name hundreds of colors and qualities of sea-water and surfaces unknown in European languages…distinctions which can be described ‘scientifically’ in physics and opticsand which are of adaptive value to a sea-mammal hunting cultureBoas’ study: earliest anthropological attempt to describe a non-European ‘ethno-science’ in phenomenological terms
60 Analyst seeks to understand phenomena by grasping how they make sense within the framework of the subject’s thought-world i.e relativelyposing as a Kwakiutl dancer for a National Museum diorama, 1895
61 1885: First expedition to Northwest Coast (Bella Coola) 1886: First collecting trip for American Museum of Natural History (New York City) to Nootka and Kwakiutl (Kwakwaka'wakw)— massive documentation of Northwest Coast culture
62 Anti-EvolutionistEvolutionism assumes what it is trying to proveOrder of cultural traits is arbitrary, eg representative and geometric art formspositioning individual cultures on the savagery-barbarism-civilization ladder discounts their particularity and integritysidesteps the important task of reconstructing unwritten histories for non-Western peoplesRational psychological explanation is misleading i.e. people did not reason themselves out of their primitive state because one of the fundamental characteristics of people is that they act automatically and unconsciously
63 CULTURAL/HISTORICAL PARTICULARISM Three pillars explain cultural customsCultures can only be understood with reference to their particular historical development. Therefore each culture is uniqueEnvironmental conditionsIndividual psychological factors
64 CULTURAL/HISTORICAL PARTICULARISM idea was not to make a preconceived hypothesis,but to collect as much data about a particular culture without any theorygeneral theories of human Behaviour would arise once enough data had been collected“We refrain from the attempt to solve the fundamental problem of the general development of civilization until we have been able to unravel the processes that are going on under our eyes”Hallmark of historical particularism became the intensive study of specific cultures through long periods of fieldwork
65 BOASIAN CONCEPT OF CULTURE superorganic —the product of collective or group life; but the individual has an influenceunconscious — a filter through which reality is perceived, but which is not itself the object of attentionadaptive — culture ultimately helps individuals adapt to their environment.
66 Four Field Approach SOCIAL ARCHAEOLOGY AND CULTURAL PHYSICAL LINGUISTICSARCHAEOLOGYPHYSICALANTHROPOLOGY
67 FRANZ BOAS Cultural/historical particularism “race, language, and culture” as independent variablesRelativismsuperorganicCultural DeterminismData Collection “without” theoryEmphasis on Fieldwork4-field approach
68 Alfred Louis Kroeber (1876-1960) 1897 enrolled in a course in American Indian languages at Columbia University offered by Franz Boas1901 completed his dissertation on symbolism in Arapaho art in Montana and received the first doctorate in anthropology to be awarded by Columbiafirst instructor of newly created anthropology dept. at U of California, Berkeley
69 “no culture is wholly intelligible without reference to the non-cultural or so-called environmental factors with which it is in relation and which condition it" (Kroeber, 1939: 205).Arapaho camp with buffalo meat drying near Fort Dodge, Kansas William S. Soule“cultures occur in nature as wholes; and these wholes can never be entirely formulated through consideration of their elements.
70 Cultural and natural areas of Native North America (1939) ARCTICNORTHWEST COASTSUBARCTICPLAINSPLATEAUBASINEASTERNWOODLANDSPRAIRIECALIFORNIABAJA CALIFORNIAN-E MEXICOSOUTHWESTNATIVE NORTH AMERICA:CULTURE AREASMESOAMERICA
71 The Superorganic“The superorganic or superspsychic or super-individual that we call civilization appears to have an existence, an order, and a causality as objective and as determinable as those of the subpsychic or inorganic”individuals have very little if any impact on a culture’s development and changeCulture plays a determining role in individual human behaviour.Culture has an existence outside of us and compels us to conform to patterns that could be statistically demonstratede.g. changes in fashion show that cyclical patterns of change have occurred beyond the influence or understanding of any given individual. Kroeber showed that hem length, height, and width tended to move up and down in regular cycles,
72 Alfred Kroeber Superorganic Deterministic Culture AreasSuperorganicDeterministicFirst American Textbook in anthropology (1923)
73 Culture and Personality seeks to understand the growth and development of personal or social identity as it relates to the surrounding social environmentMargaret MeadRuth Benedict)
74 1922 Barnard College under Boas, Meets Ruth Benedict. months Fieldwork in SamoaMargaret Mead
75 Coming of Age in Samoa 1926Is adolescence a universally traumatic and stressful time due to biological factors or is the experience of adolescence dependent on one's cultural upbringing?nature vs nurture
76 based on a detailed study of 68 girls between 8 and 20 in three contiguous villages Mead described sexual relations as frequent and usually without consequence – or issueThe basic conclusion was that adolescence in Samoa was not a stressful period for girlsBecause, in general, Samoan society lacked stresses
77 Margaret Mead and Samoa: The Making and Unmaking of an Anthropological Myth (1983) Mead did not spend enough time in Samoa and lived in naval dispensary with an American family rather than in a Samoan householdwas not familiar with the Samoan languageignored violence in Samoan life,Failed to consider the influence of biology on behaviorDerek Freeman ( )Mead had been lied to by her female informants and thus came to erroneous conclusions about Samoan culture and the sexual freedom of the girlsalso went to Samoa with preconceived intention of showing that culture, not biology, determined human responses to life’s situations.
78 Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies (1935) sought to discover extent temperamental differences between the sexes were culturally determined rather than innate biologicalMead found a different pattern of male and female behavior in each of the cultures she studied, all different from gender role expectations in the United States at that time.
79 The gentle mountain-dwelling Arapesh Arapesh child-rearing responsibilities evenly divided among men and womenThe fierce cannibalistic Mundugumora natural hostility exists between all members of the same sex”. Mundugumor fathers and sons, and mothers and daughters were adversaries.The “graceful” headhunters of TchambuliWhile men were preoccupied with art the women had the real power, controlling fishing and manufacturingMead's contribution in separating biologically-based sex from socially-constructed gender was groundbreaking
80 Characteristics of Mead’s anthropology RelativismAhistoricalHolisticParticipant observationRomanticismHumans select their culture, choosing some traits and ignoring others.
81 1922 begins teaching at Barnard College as assistant to Franz Boas and meets Margaret Mead Ruth Fulton Benedict
82 Patterns of Culture 1934Demonstrated the primacy of culture over biology in understanding the differences between peopleContrasted the ways of life of the Zuni, Natives of Dobu and Kwakiutl
83 Zuni Wealth is a sign of greediness. Individual fame is a sign of selfishnessSolutionsShare all the wealth with other members of the tribe.Dare not to do anything that brings them individual fame.Extremely passive.
84 Kwakiutl Overbearing Vigorous Zest for life Strive for ecstasy in ceremoniesself-aggrandizingMegalomaniac paranoid
85 Why are they so different? Can’t be “fixed human nature.”Why not?Suppose - Newborn Zuni baby is raised by Kwakiutl parents (or vice versa).How would this baby behave when he or she becomes adult?Like their adopted parents.
86 Culture and Personality A set of core values shapes larger cultural practices resulting in a distinctive pattern of culturecultural differences were multifaceted expressions of a society’s most basic core valuescultural values relativeSocieties have a dominating cultural personalityCulture is “Personality writ large”The goal of anthropology was to document these different patterns
87 Culture and Personality “We have seen that any society selects some segment of the arc of possible human behaviour”… and in so far as it achieves integrations its institutions tend to further the expression of its selected segment and inhibit opposite expressions”.IntegratedHolisticDeterministicIndividual psychology is plastic, i.e. Is molded principally by cultural experience
88 During World War II, Benedict worked for the Office of War Information, applying anthropological methods to the study of contemporary cultures.1946 The Chrysanthemum and the Sword: Patterns of Japanese Culture
89 Culture and Personality - Critique Where’s the history?How are culture & individual psychology related? For example, does culture somehow 'cause' individual personality?Is individual behaviour patterned? How? What best accounts for the observed patterns?Circular -- Basic personality structure was inferred from some aspects of behaviour then used to explain other behaviourlinked anthropology with psychology
90 Culture and Personality - Critique Where’s the history?How are culture & individual psychology related? For example, does culture somehow 'cause' individual personality?Is individual behaviour patterned? How? What best accounts for the observed patterns?Circular -- Basic personality structure was inferred from some aspects of behaviour then used to explain other behaviourlinked anthropology with psychology