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Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Waste Heat Generator (WHG) Presented by Grant Terzer and Marc Rouse 2010 Regional Distributor Review & Conference Americas.

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Presentation on theme: "Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Waste Heat Generator (WHG) Presented by Grant Terzer and Marc Rouse 2010 Regional Distributor Review & Conference Americas."— Presentation transcript:

1 Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Waste Heat Generator (WHG) Presented by Grant Terzer and Marc Rouse 2010 Regional Distributor Review & Conference Americas June 14-17, 2010

2 1 Waste Heat Generator (WHG) Converts waste heat into electricity –Capable of using ‘low grade’ waste heat Waste Heat Generator (WHG)

3 2 Turbines Devices that convert fluid flow into work –Gas turbine Working fluid is combustion products and air –Water turbine (hydro) Working fluid is water –Steam turbine Rankine Cycle – water is boiled to vapor before passing through turbine –Working fluid is water vapor (steam)

4 3 Rankine Cycle Thermodynamic cycle which converts heat into work –Working fluid is often steam Requires high temperatures to vaporize water 80% of all power in the world is produced with this technology Water CONDENSER Low Temperature heat sources produce little useable steam Inherent problem is high latent heat of water in liquid-vapor phase change

5 4 Organic Rankine Cycle For many (low temperature) waste heat applications, we need a fluid that boils at a lower temperature than water –Historically, such fluids have been hydrocarbons - hence the name Organic –Modern Working Fluids include: Propane / Pentane / Toluene / HFC-R245fa These Working Fluids allow use of Lower-Temperature Heat Sources because the liquid-vapor phase change, or boiling point, occurs at a lower temperature than the water- steam phase change

6 5 Waste Heat Sources Waste heat is any source of otherwise unused heat – that is why ‘fuel’ is free –Waste heat from MicroTurbine exhaust –Waste heat from industrial processes Process stacks from drying or heating processes –Heat from waste fuel Biomass or Biogas is burned to produce heat directly –Not waste heat A boiler creates heat for vaporization in a closed loop system – not free fuel

7 6 The Complete System Integrated Power Module Evaporative Condenser Evaporator Heat Source 375F (190C) 3 MBTU/H Generate 125 kW R245fa Pump

8 7 How it Works - 1 Integrated Power Module Evaporativ e Condenser Receiver Economizer Evaporator Liquid 85F (29C) 230psig (16bar) Heat Source 375F (190C) 3 MBTU/H Generate 125 kW Liquid 85F (29C) 26psig (1.8bar) R245fa Pump The working fluid is in the receiver as a liquid at the condensing pressure and temperature. It enters the pump where the working fluid’s pressure is raised to the evaporating pressure.

9 8 How it Works - 2 Evaporative Condenser Receiver Economizer Evaporator Heat Source 375F (190C) 3 MBTU/H Liquid 118F (48C) 220psig (15bar) R245fa Pump The working fluid passes through a heat exchanger (Economizer) to take heat out of the gas leaving the Integrated Power Module. This improves system efficiency. The working fluid is now a warmer, high pressure liquid. Integrated Power Module Generate 125 kW Liquid 85F (29C) 230psig (16bar) Liquid 85F (29C) 26psig (1.8bar)

10 9 How it Works Evaporative Condenser Receiver Economizer Evaporator Vapor 240F (115C) 220psig (15bar) Heat Source 375F (190C) 3 MBTU/H R245fa Pump The working fluid enters the Evaporator, where the working fluid is exposed to waste heat which evaporates the fluid to a high pressure vapor. Integrated Power Module Generate 125 kW Liquid 118F (48C) 220psig (15bar) Liquid 85F (29C) 230psig (16bar) Liquid 85F (29C) 26psig (1.8bar)

11 Integrated Power Module 10 How it Works - 4 Evaporative Condenser Receiver Economizer Evaporator Heat Source 375F (190C) 3 MBTU/H Vapor 145F (63C) 26psig (1.8bar) R245fa Pump The working fluid (now a vapor) enters the turbine of the IPM. The working fluid’s pressure drops across the turbine to the condensing pressure, spinning the turbine (which is connected to the generator) in the process. The driving force is the pressure difference across the turbine. Generate 125 kW Vapor 240F (115C) 220psig (15bar) Liquid 118F (48C) 220psig (15bar) Liquid 85F (29C) 230psig (16bar) Liquid 85F (29C) 26psig (1.8bar)

12 11 How it Works Evaporative Condenser Receiver Economizer Evaporator Heat Source 375F (190C) 3 MBTU/H R245fa Vapor 85F (29C) 26psig (1.8bar) Pump The working fluid still has an enormous amount of heat, some of which is transferred to the pumped liquid in the economizer. This helps in two ways: 1) this heat would have otherwise been extracted in the condenser and; 2) there is less heat required at the evaporator due to the liquid being pre-warmed. Vapor 145F (63C) 26psig (1.8bar) Vapor 240F (115C) 220psig (15bar) Liquid 118F (48C) 220psig (15bar) Liquid 85F (29C) 230psig (16bar) Liquid 85F (29C) 26psig (1.8bar)

13 12 How it Works - 6 Evaporative Condenser Receiver Economizer Evaporator Heat Source 375F (190C) 3 MBTU/H Ambient Air 75F (24C) Wet Bulb R245fa Vapor 85F (29C) 26psig (1.8bar) Pump The working fluid (still a vapor) then flows to the condenser where heat is extracted and the working fluid condenses to a liquid. Vapor 85F (29C) 26psig (1.8bar) Vapor 145F (63C) 26psig (1.8bar) Vapor 240F (115C) 220psig (15bar) Liquid 118F (48C) 220psig (15bar) Liquid 85F (29C) 230psig (16bar) Liquid 85F (29C) 26psig (1.8bar)

14 13 How it Works - 7 Evaporative Condenser Receiver Economizer Evaporator R245fa Pump The low pressure, liquid working fluid drains back to the receiver and is ready to be pumped to high pressure and flow towards the integrated power module. Heat Source 375F (190C) 3 MBTU/H Ambient Air 75F (24C) Wet Bulb Vapor 85F (29C) 26psig (1.8bar) Vapor 85F (29C) 26psig (1.8bar) Vapor 145F (63C) 26psig (1.8bar) Vapor 240F (115C) 220psig (15bar) Liquid 118F (48C) 220psig (15bar) Liquid 85F (29C) 230psig (16bar) Liquid 85F (29C) 26psig (1.8bar)

15 14 Applications Turbines Exhaust – Waste heat from exhaust Industrial Stack Gas –Refineries –Incinerators –Drying processes

16 15 Applications Geothermal –Water or Steam Solar Thermal –After steam process –Indirect evap source

17 16 The ORC Power Skid Capstone supplies the ORC ‘Power Skid’ –Includes electronics, receiver, economizer, power module and various pumps –Needs external evaporator and condenser

18 Power Skid Fluid Connections Warm Liquid to Evaporator Cool Liquid from Condenser Hot Vapor from Evaporator Warm Vapor to Condenser

19 18 Power Skid Components Receiver Pump Field Connections Integrated Power Module Power Electronics Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) & Magnetic Bearing Controller (MBC) VFD for Pump Separator Inlet Control Valve Bypass Valve Economizer Separator Drain Valve Slam Valve

20 19 Power Skid Specs Turbine Expander and Generator –Hermetically sealed power module – no leaks –Magnetic Bearings – no lubricants –26,500 rpm – no vibration Power electronics – 125 kW –Grid Connect only – V, 3 phase, 3 wire 50/60 Hz Working fluid HFC-R245fa Dry weight 7,000 lbs 46” w x 112” l x 79.5” h

21 20 Evaporator Transfers waste heat energy to refrigerant, resulting in vaporization –Direct, heat transfers directly from the waste heat source to the working fluid Likely choice for a Microturbine application where waste temperatures are low and exhaust stream is clean Heat source needs to be near ORC –Indirect, thermal transfer medium is used between the heat source and the working fluid (e.g. thermal oil, hot water, steam) Requires more ancillary equipment Less efficient overall Good fit if heat source is far from ORC

22 21 Condenser Rejects latent heat of working fluid, resulting in condensation –Direct – The working fluid passes through a heat exchanger that rejects heat directly to the environment. –Indirect – A medium such as water is passed through a heat exchanger and takes the rejected heat out of the working fluid. The medium then transfers the heat somewhere else. –Cooling towers, air cooled condenser (Dry Cooler), ground water, evaporative condenser Cooling towers (if already existing) and direct evaporative condensers are likely the best match for MicroTurbine applications

23 22 Installation Considerations Evaporator & Condenser must be within 50ft of the ORC power skid –Minimize refrigerant run length Minimize heat loss / absorption Minimize amount of R245fa used Condenser must be elevated (flow to receiver) Qualified technician required to handle R245fa Internal cleanliness (of R245fa loop) important

24 23 Complete Installation

25 24 Heating, Cooling, Power Cycle effectiveness is determined by the heat source and condensing source –Determine total heat and temperature available –Determine total cooling available Power available is determined by multiplying the heat available by the cycle effectiveness –More heat available => less cooling required –Less heat available => more cooling required

26 25 Available Power Output More heat is required for a given power production as condensing temp increases. Size heat source and condenser for ambient conditions. 125kW nominal is at generator terminals (inverter loss approx. 8 kW)

27 26 ORC with MicroTurbines Typical MicroTurbine implementation –6 to 8 Capstone C65 MicroTurbines –One ORC WHG Power Skid –One direct MT exhaust to refrigerant heat exchanger –One direct evaporative cooling tower or piggyback on existing cooling tower.

28 27 Free Electricity? Or, how to build a ORC WHG value proposition –System uses low grade heat that is usually wasted – no other good use –Increase overall efficiency of systems –Consumes no additional fuel –Produces no additional emissions –Wasted energy into electric power may Reduce demand charges Capture carbon credits Qualify for renewable energy incentives

29 28 Calculating New Efficiency Using waste heat to generate electric power increases overall system efficiency –Low grade waste heat is used, so assume it can not be used for any other purpose –Example, 6 Capstone C65s Produce 390kW at 29% Electric Eff A 125kW ORC WHG is added –Assume net output is 110kW (due to system losses, heat source and condensing source. 500kW is produced, using no added fuel new efficiency is –(New power/old power)*old Efficiency = 37% The ORC increases electric efficiency to over 37%

30 29 Case Study Biomass boiler test site in the south east USA.

31 30 Case Study Payback Free fuel and low Maintenance Cost provide payback Annual Run Hours 8,400 Net Electrical Output 107kWe Annual Production 8,400 x 107 = 898,800 kWh Gross Revenue 898,800 x $0.18 = $161,784 Maintenance Cost 898,800 x $ = $6,741 Net Annual Revenue $155,043 Cost of Project $298,000 Simple Payback < 2 years

32 31 Technology Advantages Very similar to those of Capstone MicroTurbines High Speed GeneratorIncreased Efficiency, Reliability, no gear box Magnetic BearingsIncreased Efficiency, Reliability, Reduced losses Power ElectronicsEfficient variable speed operation No lubrication or lubrication system Increased Reliability, Reduced parasitic losses, No contamination of process fluid No couplingIncreased reliability, fewer components Variable speed operationOptimized cycle efficiency operating point Hermetically sealedHigher reliability, fewer wear components Single moving partIncreased reliability Modular Design Simple Integration into system (like standard piping)

33 32 For More Information Contact Capstone Applications or Sales

34 Question & Answer


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