Presentation on theme: "By: Alicia Skinner ? - ? Syphilis. Syphilis…. is a contagious bacterial infection that is transmitted through contact with an chancre on an infected person,"— Presentation transcript:
Syphilis…. is a contagious bacterial infection that is transmitted through contact with an chancre on an infected person, usually during intimate sexual contact.
History 1493 1526 ? Origins - origin of syphilis has not been agreed on by researchers 1.Christopher Columbus and his crew or other explorers brought it back with them from the “new world”. 2. Syphilis was always present in the “old world” but it wasn’t yet identified as a separate disease from leprosy. 3.Syphilis developed from the related diseases bejel and yaws. 1495 1500 Christopher Columbus and his crew returns from the “new world” possibly carrying syphilis Fernandez de Oviedo was the first person to mention the “American origin” of syphilis # of cases in Europe reach epidemic proportions http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/columbus/older-columbus.gif Christopher Columbus The first reference to the “French sickness” is made during Charles VIII’s Italian campaign 1514 1530 The disease recieves the name syphilis from a poem entitled “Syphilis Sive Morbus Gallicus” by Jerome Francastor A complete description of the “French sickness” was given by Juan de Virgo
History 1996 the rising occurrence of syphilis around the world causes hope of eradicating the disease to lessen after being raised by the success of penicillin 1964-1965 so few cases that the medical and scientific community is prepared to consider it erradicated 2001 # of cases on the rise in western countries http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1945/fleming-bio.html 1928 Sir Alexander Fleming discovers penicillin while working on the influenza virus. 1905 Treponema Pallidum, the bacteria that causes syphilis is discovered on March 3 in Berlin by Chauvinand Hoffmann Sir Alexander Fleming
Disease - Cause/General Info classified as an STI (sexually transmitted infection) caused by the bacterium Treponema Pallidum –spiral shaped –enters through open cuts or sores in the mucous membrane contracted through contact with a chancre during sexual contact or passed from mother to baby called congenital syphilis progresses through 4 stages; primary, secondary, latent and tertiary stages stages get progressively worse if left untreated highly contagious potentially fatal http://www.uveitis.org/images/syphil1.jpg Treponema Pallidum
Disease - Symptoms chancre http://www.co.multnomah.or.us/man2manpdx/image s/primary_oral_syphilis.jpg http://www.homeomiracles.com/Index/Male/Male_article/STD/Sexually%20transmitted%20Diseases.html not all people show visible signs of the disease at the beginning Primary Stage a small painless ulcer like sore called a chancre appears at the site of initial infection chancre usually appears 2-3 weeks after the initial infection a rash near the chancre may also appear the chancre may go unnoticed because of the location in the mouth, anus, vagina or throat usually disappears in 4-6 weeks without treatment the bacteria is still multiplying in the body contagious
Secondary Stage begins a few weeks to months after the chancre heals rash with flat and raised patches - frequently on palms, soles, can be anywhere on body lesions in the mouth, vagina, penis, mucus patches; condyloma lata fever swollen glands loss of appetite fatigue aches and pains in bones or joints patchy hair loss chancre still present in some cases bacteria has spread to the blood most contagious stage resolves in 2-6 weeks without treatment Disease - Symptoms http://www.ratsteachmicro.com/Assets/Syphilis/syphilis/poem.jpg http://www.worldsbest-sexual-health-site.com/images/Hand.jpg http://www.scielo.br/img/revistas/abd/v80n1/ia09f07.jpg
Disease - Symptoms Latent Stage characterized by the lack of symptoms no symptoms may appear for months or years syphilis is still alive in the body bacteria starts to damage the internal organs; brain, heart, sexual organs damage can go unnoticed until the next stage Congenital Syphilis during the secondary stage the infection can be transferred to the baby if the mother is not treated during pregnancy it can cause deformations, or possibly death tested after birth; if the baby has syphilis it is treated right away http://services.epnet.com/GetImage.aspx/getImage.aspx?ImageIID=6227 http://www.neonatology.org/classics/hess1922/figures/fig168.gif
Disease - Symptoms Tertiary Stage occurs many years later, 5 to 50 years after secondary stage symptoms disappear characterized by paralysis, gradual blindness, deterioration of the brain, loss of co- ordination, shooting pains, and death gummatous syphilis - destructive lesions of bones, skin or liver cardiovascular syphilis - severe damage to heart and blood vessels, inflammation of the aorta, heart disease neurosyphilis - nervous system disorders; brain, eye, spinal cord, auditory system; deafness brain - can cause paralysis, blindness, dementia or insanity http://www.ynhh.org/cardiac/heart/exterior_heart_anatomy.jpg http://www.ipmc.cnrs.fr/~duprat/neurophysiology/images/brain2.jpg
hard to diagnose because the symptoms are similar to other diseases such as the flu different tests used for the different stages primary stage - physical examination, description of symptoms taken, fluid from chancre taken and examined secondary stage - blood tests tertiary stage - spinal tap may be required in case of neurosyphilis Diagnosis http://www.raisingkids.co.uk/images/editorial/preg_test02.jpg http://www.healthsystem.virginia.edu/internet/cstap/images/IMG_1457.jpg
Treatment antibiotics; usually penicillin if allergic deoxycycline may be used administered either intramuscularly or intravenously daily then asked to attend injections for two years monthly then asked to go every three months for examination and blood test to ensure and check the success of the treatment http://www.volstate.edu/HSCenterofEmphasis/images/image2.jpg http://www.brooksidepress.org/Products/Injections/320SubQ.JPG regular check-ups are needed after the treatment to make sure the infection is gone treatment can be done at any stage but any damage done is irreversible
abstinence is the most effective way to prevent the contraction of the disease practice safe sex use a condom only provides protection if the chancre is covered, effective method of protection limit the number of sexual partners you have be tested regularly for syphilis if sexually active best way to detect syphilis early get treated if you have it, to prevent the spread avoid direct contact with blood, sores or bodily fluid avoid having sex with people that have a sore or rash learn about safe sex and injection practices get tested for syphilis if you are pregnant so you can be treated; won’t pass it on to your baby If you have it…. notify all sexual and needle sharing partners may need to be tested and possibly treated Prevention http://www.avert.org/photo_library/images/normal_photo_no_240.gif
raise awareness of the effects of the disease inform people of safe sex practices in order to prevent the spread hope to be able to eradicate syphilis using the above tactics Future Outlook http://www.cdc.gov/std/syphilis/syphilis2.jpg http://www.thedaily.washington.edu/image/preview/158?x=225
Reference Page Archaeological Institute of America Tours. (2007). Origins of Syphilis. Retrieved April 25, 2007 on the World Wide Web: http://www.archaeology.org/9701/newsbriefs/syphilis.html Canadian Association for Adolescent Health. (2007). Syphilis. Retrieved June 11, 2007 on the World Wide Web: http://www.youngandhealthy.ca/caah/Informations/STI/t428c431s509x413/Syphilis.aspx Endersbe, Julie K. (2000). Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Manakato, Minnesota: Capstone Press. Health Canada. (2004). Retirieved on April 9, 2007 on the World Wide Web: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/iyh-vsv/alt_formats/cmcd-dcmc/pdf/syphilis_e.pdf Medline Plus. (2005). Medical Encyclopedia: Syphilis. Retrieved March 17, 2007 on the World Wide Web: http://nim.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001327.html Nobel Foundation. (2007). Sir Alexander Fleming. Retrieved June 11, 2007 on the World Wide Web: http://nobelprize.org/cgi-bin/print?from=/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1945/fleming-bio.html Quetel, Claude. (1990). History of Syphilis. Cambridge: Policy Press. Secrets of the Dead. (2004). The Syphilis Enigma. Retrieved April 9, 2007 on the World Wide Web: http://www.pbs.org/wnet/secrets/case_syphilis/p_index.html Syphilis. (2003). In Diseases (Vol 8, pp.32-34). United States (CT): Scientific Publishing, Inc. Syphilis. (2002). In Health Matters (Vol 3 pp 126-127). Danbury, CT: Grolier Educational.
Reference Page Syphilis. (2005). In Encyclopedia pf Family Health (Vol 15 pp2153-2155). Tarrytown, NY: Marshall Cavendish, Crop. The Flying Walrus. (2006). Health. Retrieved April 8, 2007 on the World Wide Web: http://www.yorku.ca/walrus/06-12/health02.html The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. (2006). Sex Facts in Canada 2006. Retrieved April 9, 2007 on the World Wide Web: www.sexualityandu.ca/media-room/pdf/Sex-Stats-Fact-Sheet_e.pdf