1CH11 Organizational Behavior 261 Gabrielle Durepos Sex at WorkCH11Organizational Behavior 261Gabrielle Durepos
2Reminders Attendance Group Papers due now at the front of class Marking group work will be done ASAPAll your group work might be returned at the final exam; one large envelope per groupPresentations & Critiques begin on WednesdaySee MOODLE for scheduleSection 13 – See MOODLE for minor changes to presentation scheduleGroup 2 presents firstGroup 8 critiques group 6 (and not group 1)Final ExamNON- CumulativeFormat: Short Answer & MCWritten in the Oland gymDec 13th 7-9pm
3Outline Sex and organizational life… why should we care? Toward an understanding of:SexGenderSexualityQuick Exercise…And why we should careApproaches to OB Focused on Gender:Liberal FeminismRadical FeminismIssues in sex and organizational researchGendered Research?Equity IssuesSex Power and Authority IssuesConclusions
4Sex and Organizational Life… Why Should I Care? Sex discrimination is outdated… employment equity is now a fact of life…AND… if anything, the white heterosexual able-bodied male is now the target of discriminationBy always talking about sex, gender and sexuality at work and its negative implications for women… the inequities are reinforced, which makes things worst, not better…A focus on the continuance of workplace inequities can suggest that few strides have been made, and it is not even worth trying…But to get to the issues surrounding gender and work, we need to understand:SexGenderSexuality
5The biological differences between men and women SEXThe biological differences between men and women
6GENDERThe various assumptions, associations and characteristics that we come to associate with ‘what it means to’ be a man or womanWe get these cues from interacting within societyOur socialization within particular cultures influences the way we make sense of what it means to be a:ManWoman
7SEXUALITY A persons sexual self Those aspects of a person that make them sexually attractive or appealing to another
8We are born with certain biological features (SEX), and using these features as a basis, people attribute particular characteristics to the person (GENDER).An important part of becoming a “man” or “woman” involves assumptions about the physical attractiveness of that person (SEXUALITY)
9Quick Exercise 1/6 Look at the images: What is the sex of the individuals depicted?Can you list characteristics that describe their gender?Can you tell me things about their sexuality?Is the sexuality of some of the individuals depicted more pronounced?
14Quick Exercise 6/6 Look at the images: What is the sex of the individuals depicted?Can you list characteristics that describe their gender?Can you tell me things about their sexuality?Is the sexuality of some of the individuals depicted more pronounced?
15And why we should we care… 1/4 Organizations are powerful contexts in which we spend most of our livesOrganizations are important sites which contribute to and shape how we make sense of what it means to be a:ManWomanWe have come to associate certain types of work with:MasculinityFemininity
16And why we should we care… 2/4 Sexual Division of Labour In 2008, women make up 47.1% of the labour forceBy sector – Goods & Services2008 – 66% of working women are employed in service sector workBy Authority2008 – women hold 13% of board seats in FP500 firms2008 – women hold 16.9% of corporate officer positions in FP500 firms2008 – women hold 26% of senior management positions2008 – women hold 36% of other management positionsPart time work & Full time work% of working women are involved in part-time workPaid vs. unpaid labour (domestic)2008 – women make up 47.1% of the labour forceWomen bear the greater responsibility for child and elder care (unpaid labour)In 2004, women earn, on average, 81.6 cents for every dollar earned by menThe sexual division of labour might explain the pay gap between men and women
17And why we should we care… 3/4 IF organizations contribute to the way weunderstand what it means to be a:ManWomanAND if women are devalued at work due to being:UnderrepresentedPaid lessOnly suitable for particular formsof work…… THEN this contributes to the way we come to understand:Women and Men at workWomen’s work and Men’s work
18And why we should we care… 4/4 Our view of what it means to be a man and a women influences the way we behave at workThis can lead to:Sexual harassmentIn its most explicit form is any type of unwanted attention of a sexual natureCan be physical, verbal or otherwise suggestive in natureIs a form of sexual discriminationThe devaluing of certain forms of sexual orientationsProhibition (explicit) and norms (embedded in the culture) against homosexualityCan lead to law suits or individual stress
19Approaches to OB focused on Gender: The Feminist Approach Feminist organizational studies is dedicated to understanding:The experience of work from the woman’s point of viewConcern with identifying and exposing processes of sexual discriminationFeminist OB investigates the impact of:Individual men; individual womenGroups of men; groups of womenMasculinist values and behavior and feminist values and behaviorWithin organizations to address and expose sexual discriminationThere are many different forms of feminism
20Approaches to OB focused on Gender: The Liberal Feminist From the woman’s point of viewConcern: there are not enough females in the workplaceHow to bring in more women at work?How to include them in senior management roles?Focus on:Body counting, focus on overt changesSimilar to Women in Management(mentioned later)
21Approaches to OB focused on Gender: The Radical Feminist 1/3 From the point of view of the woman's experienceThe workplace is DOMINATED by traditionally masculine associated characteristicsThe workplace CELEBRATES traditionally masculine associated characteristicsWho BUILT the market economy in which we operate?Male dominated until the second world war…Is it a surprise that masculine traits are privileged by a system built primarily by males?
22Approaches to OB focused on Gender: The Radical Feminist 2/3 The radical feminist asks:What is privileged in the workplace?Competitiveness; Aggression; Winning at any cost; Progress; Faster and better and more efficient; Execution; Strong; Be tough; Untouchable; Don’t let things get to you; rise above; Do not let your emotions get in the way; be rationalWhat is not privileged in the workplace?Nurture; Care; Emotions; ….Which of these lists of characteristics areassociated with what it means in our Western society to be:Male?female?
23Approaches to OB focused on Gender: The Radical Feminist 3/3 The radical feminist would tell us:The problem is not so much that there are not enough women in the workplaceIt is rather the women who ARE THERE MUST abandon or temporarily hide their “feminine” characteristics to do well or advance to the next level of the hierarchyWomen must act like men to get ahead because femininity is not valued in the workplace!
24Issues in sex and organizational research: Gendered Research? 1/3 Sex and Gender are not only a feature of work but also an important SUBJECT of STUDYMuch of organizational research has been undertaken by male researchersBut it has been assumed as gender neutralNot much acknowledgment about who is being studied, women or men?Assume that women and men respond in the same way at workWhat about the “power relationship” between the researchers and subjects?Assume that research findings about men at work would be the same when applied to women – and vice versa
25Issues in sex and organizational research: Gendered Research: The Hawthorn Studies 2/3 Roethlisberger and Dickson: The Hawthorn Studies at Western ElectricThe study:Group 1 (control): the bank wiring room – they continue their work as usualGroup 2 (experimental): the relay assembly test room – are taken out of their normal environment, closely supervised, told to improve productivity and given individual attentionConclusion:People are motivated by social as well as economic rewardsLook at group membership and how this affects behaviorWork studies should focus:On factors of “human relations”On communication, participation, leadership
26Researchers did not perceive gender as affecting results Issues in sex and organizational research: Gendered Research: The Hawthorn Studies 2/2Gender was completely left out of this study and its conclusionsGroup 1 was an all male groupGroup 2 was an all female groupWho were young, unmarried, immigrants, very likely to comply…All researchers and supervisors (in positions of authority) were menThey supposedly gave the experimental group a “choice” to participateResearchers did not perceive gender as affecting results
27Issues in sex and organizational research: Equity Issues Employment equity is recognized in our Western Industrial worldAlthough there have been many positive changes for women, some consider the change slowResearchers examine the workplace for clues to understand issues of sexual discrimination at workCommunicationCulture (Hofstede)Pathways (Gutek & Larwood: careers)
28Issues in sex and organizational research: Sex, Power and Authority Issues 1/2 Women in Management (WIM)Looks for inequities in the workplaceProblem: not enough women in the workplaceFocus on: body countingFocus on:Woman’s circumstances at work: issues of sexual harassmentBarriers to entryThe glass ceiling: How to rise in the current hierarchal structures?This research focuses on sex differencesWomen are as such because of their biological differencesMen are as such because of their biological differencesThis approach is under attack by many “gender” scholarsBecause they argue that the biological differences are just a start – it is how we are socialized that forms the bulk of discrimination and problems at work
29Masculinity Men are to act as “real men” Issues in sex and organizational research: Sex, Power and Authority Issues 2/2MasculinityMen are to act as “real men”What is the impact on a man who espouses more feminine associated traits?Notions of excessive competitiveness and aggressionCan these be detrimental to organizational outcomes?The Challenger Disaster 1986
30Conclusions Should we even bother studying gender at work? Is this topic irrelevant?Is it too much of a fight – should we just quit now?Women are more equal now than they have ever been – why are they still complaining…?The real problem now is equality for men…?There is no one best approach to study gender at workOrganizations affect the way we construct our gender and sexualityThrough education about gender, sexuality and sex at work we can redress work practices that are detrimental to individuals