Presentation on theme: "Implementing Medication Reconciliation in Long-Term Care O’Connell Date: April 14, 2008 by Bonnie Walker Risk Manager /Patient Safety Advisor."— Presentation transcript:
Implementing Medication Reconciliation in Long-Term Care O’Connell Date: April 14, 2008 by Bonnie Walker Risk Manager /Patient Safety Advisor
Safer Health Care Now! National Canadian Patient Safety Campaign! National Steering Committee - Canadian Patient Safety Institute (CPSI) Purpose:to help teams,hospitals develop skills/capacity to make quality improvements and monitor their performance Provide ideas, supports and resources to hospital teams across the country with the goal of providing safer care. Focus is harm reduction and improving care processes and outcomes for patients, families and caregivers
Canadian Adverse Events Study 7.5% of all hospital admissions are associated with an adverse event (2000) 36.9% of which were deemed preventable Translates to 70,000 preventable adverse events per year Contributing to between 9,000 and 24,000 preventable deaths in Canada (2000) Adverse Events in Canadian Hospitals (Baker, R. & Norton, P. et al (2004))
The Evidence Many patients (37% on average) had drug omissions at admission. Cohen J, Wilson C, Ward F. Pharmacy in Practice 1998;13-6. Many patients (70%) not receiving medication instructions at discharge. Alibhal SMH, Han RK, Naglie G. J Gen Intern Med 1999;14: Medication histories are often incorrect or complete: - 25% of Rx. Medications not listed - 61% of patients have 1+ med not listed Lau HS et al. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2000; 49:
The Evidence Chart reviews have revealed that over half of all hospital medication errors occur at the interfaces of care Rozich et al., J. Clin Outcomes Manage. 2001; 8(10):27-34) J Clin Outcomes Manage 2001;8:27-34 Implementation of medication reconciliation along with other interventions decreased the rate of medication errors by 70% and adverse drug events by 15%, over a seven month period. Whittington J, Cohen H. OSF healthcare’s journey in patient safety. Qual Manag Health Care 2004;13(1):53-59
The Evidence A successful medication reconciling process reduces work and rework - reduced nursing time at admission by over 20 minutes per patient - reduced pharmacists time at discharge by over 40 minutes Rozich,JD, Howard RJ,Justeson JM, Macken PD, Lindsay ME,Resar RK. J Quality Saf. 2004: 30(1):5-14
Medication Reconciliation As of March 2008: 240 healthcare organizations and 885 teams enrolled nationwide (325 Med Rec Teams) 26 districts / organizations enrolled from Atlantic Canada
Medication Reconciliation Goals: –The primary goal of medication reconciliation in long-term care is to eliminate undocumented intentional discrepancies (documentation errors) and unintentional discrepancies (medication errors:omissions, additions etc.) by reconciling all medications, at all interfaces of care, for all residents. –Improve the process of obtaining, updating and communicating a complete Best Possible Medication History (BPMH) The primary emphasis is to create systems of care that dramatically reduce the number of Adverse Drug Events through the reconciliation of medications.
Medication Reconciliation Measures of Success 1. # of undocumented intentional discrepancies (documentation accuracy). 2. # of unintentional discrepancies (medication error). 3.% of residents that are reconciled.
What is Medication Reconciliation? A process in which medications are compared at interfaces of care: 4Admission 4Transfer 4Discharge Discrepancies are identified and reconciled with physician Intervention minimizes patient harm from unintended discrepancies ISMP Canada 2005
What is Medication Reconciliation? “a formal process of obtaining a complete and accurate list of each patient’s current home medications-including name, dosage, frequency and route- and comparing the physician’s admission, transfer, and/or discharge orders to that list. Discrepancies are brought to the attention of the prescriber and, if appropriate, changes are made to the orders. Any resulting changes are documented.” ISMP Canada 2005
What’s a BPMH? (Best Possible Medication History) Documentation of all medications that a resident has been taking previously including drug name, dose, frequency and route.
Obtaining BPMH Community pharmacy Review medication lists, MARs, vials Interview resident and /or family Consult notes from referring physician H&P
Obtaining BPMH Nursing/pharmacist (referral) to collect information at admission Physician-as a reference and/or order when writing initial orders for medications Physicians/nurses/pharmacists throughout the resident’s stay as a reference
Virtually all hospitals who have successfully addressed admission medication reconciliation have created a special form as part of the solution!
Completing the Medication History / Admission Orders form!
Include all sources required to thoroughly complete the BPMH. Include history of illnesses. Note height and weight and known allergies.
Continue to Complete by: List name, dose, route, frequency for each medication. Signature,date and time when BPMH is completed. To be done within 24 hrs. Obtain physicians intention to continue, change, discontinue or hold. Obtain reason.
Continue to Complete by: Obtain physician admission orders for pre admission medications. Indicate risk score for pharmacy referral. Indicate disposition of residents medications.
Continue to Complete by: Note additional pre- admission medications identified after 24 hrs here. Sign, date and time additional medications noted. Ensure orders for additional medications are noted on routine Physician Order pink sheet.
Complete Risk Score: Score all categories and add final risk score. Fax all completed risk scores to Pharmacy!
Include: Current home medications including dose,route and frequency Medications ordered at admission Continue,start, stop Time of last dose Source of the information Assessment of patient compliance OTC’S and herbals (organization decision) Medication History Taking
Interview: Encourage questions from the resident / patient Encourage bringing medications and use of medication wallet card or home list Prompt regarding non-pill dosage forms and PRNs –Creams, drops, inhalers, spray, samples
Medication History Taking Interview: Balance open-ended questions with yes/no questions Nonbiased questions No leading questions Vague responses may indicated non-adherence Avoid medical jargon
Medication History Taking Interview Questions: Do you have any allergies to medication? Describe the reaction. What medication were you taking prior to admission? Did a doctor change the dose or stop any of your medication recently? Have you changed the dose or stopped any of your medication recently? Have you recently started any medications?
Medication History Taking Interview Questions: Have any of your medications been causing side effects? When you feel better, do you sometimes stop taking your medication? Sometimes if you feel worse when you take your medication, do you stop taking it? Are the pills in the bottle the same as what is on the label? Have you changed your daily routine to accommodate your medication schedule?
Source: SHN Medication Reconciliation Getting Started Kit (2007)
Why Medication Reconciliation? Medication reconciliation fits with culture of safety and optimal patient / resident care Medication reconciliation evidence has shown reduced medication discrepancies Medication reconciliation will save time for nurses, physicians, and pharmacists Already take a medication history: now we are doing it on one form and it will be easier to find
Why Medication Reconciliation? Will know that a medication change is intentional (rather than wonder if there was a transcription error or a missed order), and be able to advise the patient / resident and family members accordingly It will be easy to find the at-home medication list in order to reconcile on transfer / discharge as all preadmission medications will be on the new admission form Outcomes from the changes with medication reconciliation are being monitored for improvements