Presentation on theme: "1 Wireless and Mobile Networks Part 2 November 25, 2008 Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Western Ontario ECE 436a Networking:"— Presentation transcript:
1 Wireless and Mobile Networks Part 2 November 25, 2008 Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Western Ontario ECE 436a Networking: Principles, Protocols, and Architectures
2 What is mobility? r spectrum of mobility, from the network perspective: no mobility high mobility mobile wireless user, using same access point mobile user, passing through multiple access point while maintaining ongoing connections ( like cell phone) mobile user, connecting/ disconnecting from network using DHCP.
3 Mobility: Vocabulary home network: permanent “home” of mobile (e.g., /24) Permanent address: address in home network, can always be used to reach mobile e.g., home agent: entity that will perform mobility functions on behalf of mobile, when mobile is remote wide area network correspondent
4 Mobility: more vocabulary Care-of-address: address in visited network. (e.g., 79, ) wide area network visited network: network in which mobile currently resides (e.g., /24) Permanent address: remains constant ( e.g., ) home agent: entity in visited network that performs mobility functions on behalf of mobile. correspondent: wants to communicate with mobile
5 How do you contact a mobile friend: r search all phone books? r call her parents? r expect her to let you know where he/she is? I wonder where Alice moved to? Consider friend frequently changing addresses, how do you find her?
6 Mobility: approaches r Let routing handle it: routers advertise permanent address of mobile-nodes-in-residence via usual routing table exchange. m routing tables indicate where each mobile located m no changes to end-systems r Let end-systems handle it: m indirect routing: communication from correspondent to mobile goes through home agent, then forwarded to remote m direct routing: correspondent gets foreign address of mobile, sends directly to mobile
7 Mobility: approaches r Let routing handle it: routers advertise permanent address of mobile-nodes-in-residence via usual routing table exchange. m routing tables indicate where each mobile located m no changes to end-systems r let end-systems handle it: m indirect routing: communication from correspondent to mobile goes through home agent, then forwarded to remote m direct routing: correspondent gets foreign address of mobile, sends directly to mobile not scalable to millions of mobiles
8 Mobility: registration End result: r Foreign agent knows about mobile r Home agent knows location of mobile wide area network home network visited network 1 mobile contacts foreign agent on entering visited network 2 foreign agent contacts home agent home: “this mobile is resident in my network”
9 Mobility via Indirect Routing wide area network home network visited network correspondent addresses packets using home address of mobile home agent intercepts packets, forwards to foreign agent foreign agent receives packets, forwards to mobile mobile replies directly to correspondent
10 Indirect Routing: comments r Mobile uses two addresses: m permanent address: used by correspondent (hence mobile location is transparent to correspondent) m care-of-address: used by home agent to forward datagrams to mobile r foreign agent functions may be done by mobile itself r triangle routing: correspondent-home-network- mobile m inefficient when correspondent, mobile are in same network
11 Indirect Routing: moving between networks r suppose mobile user moves to another network m registers with new foreign agent m new foreign agent registers with home agent m home agent update care-of-address for mobile m packets continue to be forwarded to mobile (but with new care-of-address) r mobility, changing foreign networks transparent: on going connections can be maintained!
12 Mobility via Direct Routing wide area network home network visited network correspondent requests, receives foreign address of mobile correspondent forwards to foreign agent foreign agent receives packets, forwards to mobile mobile replies directly to correspondent 3
13 Mobility via Direct Routing: comments r overcome triangle routing problem r non-transparent to correspondent: correspondent must get care-of-address from home agent m what if mobile changes visited network?
14 wide area network 1 foreign net visited at session start anchor foreign agent 2 4 new foreign agent 3 5 correspondent agent correspondent new foreign network Accommodating mobility with direct routing r anchor foreign agent: FA in first visited network r data always routed first to anchor FA r when mobile moves: new FA arranges to have data forwarded from old FA (chaining)
15 Mobile IP r RFC 3220 r has many features we’ve seen: m home agents, foreign agents, foreign-agent registration, care-of-addresses, encapsulation (packet-within-a-packet) r three components to standard: m indirect routing of datagrams m agent discovery m registration with home agent
16 Mobile IP Mobile IP is best understood as the cooperation of three separable mechanisms: m Discovering the care-of address m Registering the care-of address m Tunneling to the care-of address
17 Capabilities of Mobile IP r Discovery – mobile node uses discovery procedure to identify prospective home and foreign agents r Registration – mobile node uses an authentication registration procedure to inform home agent of its care-of address r Tunneling – used to forward IP datagrams from a home address to a care-of address
18 Operation of Mobile IP r Mobile node is assigned to a particular network – home network r IP address on home network is static – home address r Mobile node can move to another network – foreign network r Mobile node registers with network node on foreign network – foreign agent r Mobile node gives care-of address to agent on home network – home agent
19 Mobile IP: indirect routing Permanent address: Care-of address: dest: packet sent by correspondent dest: dest: packet sent by home agent to foreign agent: a packet within a packet dest: foreign-agent-to-mobile packet
20 Wireless, mobility: impact on higher layer protocols r logically, impact should be minimal … m best effort service model remains unchanged m TCP and UDP can (and do) run over wireless, mobile r … but performance-wise: m packet loss/delay due to bit-errors (discarded packets, delays for link-layer retransmissions), and handoff m TCP interprets loss as congestion, will decrease congestion window un-necessarily m delay impairments for real-time traffic m limited bandwidth of wireless links
21 IP addresses: how to get one? r DHCP: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
22 IP addresses: how to get one? Q: How does host get IP address? r hard-coded by system admin in a file m Wintel: control-panel->network->configuration- >tcp/ip->properties m UNIX: /etc/rc.config r DHCP: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol: dynamically get address from as server m “plug-and-play”
23 DHCP: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Goal: allow host to dynamically obtain its IP address from network server when it joins network Can renew its lease on address in use Allows reuse of addresses (only hold address while connected an “on” Support for mobile users who want to join network (more shortly) DHCP overview: m host broadcasts “DHCP discover” msg m DHCP server responds with “DHCP offer” msg m host requests IP address: “DHCP request” msg m DHCP server sends address: “DHCP ack” msg
24 DHCP client-server scenario A B E DHCP server arriving DHCP client needs address in this network