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A Jovian Satellite: The Tormented Fireball of our Solar System! By: Kimberly Miller.

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Presentation on theme: "A Jovian Satellite: The Tormented Fireball of our Solar System! By: Kimberly Miller."— Presentation transcript:

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2 A Jovian Satellite: The Tormented Fireball of our Solar System! By: Kimberly Miller

3 Historical Findings The satellite Io was discovered on January 7 th, 1610 by Astronomer and Scientist Galileo Galilei using a homemade telescope. Appearing as three stars linearly transecting Jupiter, intrigue captivated the astronomer the following night, as these stars seemed to shift in the wrong direction. This allowed for the discovery of a forth star (later known as Ganymede) and the notion that, after a week of observation, these were indeed planetary bodies that remained in the orbiting realm of Jupiter. This discovery was historical in providing evidence that sustained the Copernican system theories and how the Earth is not the center of the Universe. Io was numerically labeled: I, according to the Medicean planet system (Europa II, Ganymede III, and Callisto IV). Died: January 8 th, 1642 Born: February 15 th, 1564

4 Simon Marius is also given credit for discovering the satellites within the same time frame and was in fact the provider of the names we are familiar with presently (Io, Callisto, Europa, and Ganymede). Io was named, based on a suggestion from Johannes Kepler, after the maiden daughter of the River (according to Roman mythology), having been clandestinely courted by the Roman God, Jupiter.

5 Mass (kg)8.94e+22 Mass (Earth = 1)1.4960e-02 Equatorial radius (km)1,815 Equatorial radius (Earth = 1)2.8457e-01 Mean density (gm/cm^3)3.55 Mean distance from Jupiter (km)421,600 Rotational period (days)1.769138 Orbital period (days)1.769138 Mean orbital velocity (km/sec)17.34 Orbital eccentricity0.004 Orbital inclination (degrees)0.040 Escape velocity (km/sec)2.56 Visual geometric albedo0.61 Mean surface temperature-143°C Magnitude (Vo)5.02 Data Table: Io

6 Io is the innermost Galilean satellite of Jupiter, and much like its siblings, is characterized by an extremely unique feature. During the Voyager encounters of the 1970s, initial pictures displayed an unusually young surface, the only body in the solar system with no substantial impact craters. As images were taken for navigation purposes, immense eruptive plumes were recorded inadvertently. Subsequent observations confirmed that Io is horded by volcanic activity. In October 1989, the artificial satellite Galileo was launched into orbit, its mission to recuperate a more detailed analysis of the Jovian system only viewed in flybys of the Voyager mission. Galileo reached within 900 km of Io's surface preceding the orbit insertion in 1995, however it did not revisit until October 11 th 1999, as scientists thought the task too risky. Satellite Images

7 Jupiter’s hold on Io is due to: The reason Galileo has spent less time observing Io is due to the danger to the spacecraft; Io lies deep in Jupiter's intense radiation belts. When the Galileo satellite recorded its images, it observed that as Io passed through Jupiter's shadow, it was outlined by a thin ring of glowing gas, illuminated by the impact of electrons from Jupiter's magnetosphere. As Jupiter rotates with its magnetosphere, it brushes by Io collecting with it about 1,000 kilograms (1 ton) of material per second. The ionized gases from Io's volcanic eruptions create a torus of plasma, resembling a doughnut shaped cloud around Jupiter, that is emanated by ultraviolet. The heavy ions in the torus migrate outward creating a pressure that inflates the Jovian magnetosphere, doubling its relative size. The more energetic sulphur and oxygen ions that fall along the magnetic field, and into the planet's atmosphere, are few that manage to result in auroras. Io acts as an electrical generator as it moves through the Jovian magnetic field, developing 400,000 volts across its diameter and generating an electric current of 3 million amperes that flows along the magnetic field into Jupiter's ionosphere. This hypothesis explains the active volcanism on Io as a result of Jupiter’s magnetic field, in turn amounting to the largest known electric circuit in the solar system.

8 THE MAGNETIC FIELDS OF GALILEAN SATELLITES

9 Io: Internal and Composition Speculation Io is relatively the size of the Earth’s moon. Io’s violent volcanic activity has raised scientists curiosity, as recorded average surface temperatures were around -143°C, a result of this satellite’s far distance from the sun, questioning the interior’s continuous molten state. Even though eruptions occur on Io at magnificently high temperatures, once the volcanic gases are emitted, they instantly freeze and condense. Even though Io exhibits an iron core, it is still only a minor amount of the overall content. The interior characteristics of the moon are inferred from gravity field and magnetic field measurements by the Galileo spacecraft. Io has a metallic (iron, nickel) core (shown in gray) drawn to the correct relative size. The core is surrounded by a rock shell (shown in brown). Io's rock or silicate shell extends to the surface. (© Copyright Calvin J. Hamilton)

10 Molten Io Molten Io Io is recognized as the most volcanically active body in the solar system, spewing ~100 times more lava than the Earth.Io is recognized as the most volcanically active body in the solar system, spewing ~100 times more lava than the Earth. This tormented satellite is governed by the magnetic forces of attraction from Jupiter and other surrounding satellites nearby.This tormented satellite is governed by the magnetic forces of attraction from Jupiter and other surrounding satellites nearby. Io's orbit around Jupiter is elliptical, where the distance between them changes during a complete orbit. When Io is close to Jupiter, the latter’s gravity attempts to distort Io into an egg shape. The further away from Jupiter Io reaches, the more it relaxes into a spherical shape.Io's orbit around Jupiter is elliptical, where the distance between them changes during a complete orbit. When Io is close to Jupiter, the latter’s gravity attempts to distort Io into an egg shape. The further away from Jupiter Io reaches, the more it relaxes into a spherical shape. In addition, the other large Galilean satellites exert on Io their gravitational influences, pulling it in other directions still, like a giant tug-of-war.In addition, the other large Galilean satellites exert on Io their gravitational influences, pulling it in other directions still, like a giant tug-of-war. Io’s surficial rising and falling surface is relative to the same forces (gravity) that cause the rise and fall of tides of Earth's oceans. This process is called tidal flexing.Io’s surficial rising and falling surface is relative to the same forces (gravity) that cause the rise and fall of tides of Earth's oceans. This process is called tidal flexing. This flexing creates bulges as big as 100 meters, producing a great frictional tension, where heat is generated and releases a significant amount of energy in violent volcanic eruptions.This flexing creates bulges as big as 100 meters, producing a great frictional tension, where heat is generated and releases a significant amount of energy in violent volcanic eruptions.

11 Map projections: Io’s hot spots

12 Unimaginable Heat Determination of Io’s heat capacity is based on how brightly the volcanoes glow at variable visible and near-infrared wavelengths, also a necessary measurement of lava composition.Determination of Io’s heat capacity is based on how brightly the volcanoes glow at variable visible and near-infrared wavelengths, also a necessary measurement of lava composition. Plumes from the volcanoes extend to more than 300 km(190 miles) above the surface, with material being ejected at speeds up to a km(0.6 miles) per second.Plumes from the volcanoes extend to more than 300 km(190 miles) above the surface, with material being ejected at speeds up to a km(0.6 miles) per second. Typical Earth volcanoes eject basaltic lavas--iron, magnesium and calcium silicates rich in the minerals olivine and pyroxene.Typical Earth volcanoes eject basaltic lavas--iron, magnesium and calcium silicates rich in the minerals olivine and pyroxene. Basaltic melts typically have temperatures ranging from 1,300 to 1,450 in Kelvin (1,050 to 1,200 degrees Celsius). Contrary-wise, telescopic observations of Io several years ago suggested temperatures of 1,500 to 1,800 in Kelvin.Basaltic melts typically have temperatures ranging from 1,300 to 1,450 in Kelvin (1,050 to 1,200 degrees Celsius). Contrary-wise, telescopic observations of Io several years ago suggested temperatures of 1,500 to 1,800 in Kelvin. This hypothesis eliminated substances with low melting points, such as liquid sulfur, which until then had been assumed as a dominant volcanic fluid on Io.This hypothesis eliminated substances with low melting points, such as liquid sulfur, which until then had been assumed as a dominant volcanic fluid on Io. Galileo's measurements proved otherwise again, as Io’s lavas were reaching temperatures of 1,700 to 2,000 Kelvin, where magma this hot has not been common on Earth for more than three billion years.Galileo's measurements proved otherwise again, as Io’s lavas were reaching temperatures of 1,700 to 2,000 Kelvin, where magma this hot has not been common on Earth for more than three billion years. “This discovery of high-temperature silicate volcanism provides us with an extremely important clue to understanding the geophysical processes within Io” quote McEwen.“This discovery of high-temperature silicate volcanism provides us with an extremely important clue to understanding the geophysical processes within Io” quote McEwen. Io provides scientists with the possible key into the Earth's geologic youth, when its interior temperatures were higher and the composition of the upper mantle differed from present days.Io provides scientists with the possible key into the Earth's geologic youth, when its interior temperatures were higher and the composition of the upper mantle differed from present days.

13 Io: in retrospect The camera and spectrometer of Galileo together have discovered a total of 41 hot spots on Io, where a total of 60 are assumed.The camera and spectrometer of Galileo together have discovered a total of 41 hot spots on Io, where a total of 60 are assumed. Voyager 1 was able to observe nine colossal eruptions on its flyby, later verified by Voyager 2, where those visible were still violently active.Voyager 1 was able to observe nine colossal eruptions on its flyby, later verified by Voyager 2, where those visible were still violently active. Here are names of the most active volcanoes on Io: Prometheus, Zamama, Masubi, Pillan Patera, Reiden Patera, Marduk, Pele, Ra Patera, Loki Patera, and Babbar Patera.Here are names of the most active volcanoes on Io: Prometheus, Zamama, Masubi, Pillan Patera, Reiden Patera, Marduk, Pele, Ra Patera, Loki Patera, and Babbar Patera.

14 Cited Works:  http://www.solarviews.com/r/jup/io2.gifhttp://www.solarviews.com/r/jup/io2.gif  http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/news23.htmlhttp://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/news23.html  http://www.solarviews.com/eng/galdisc.htmhttp://www.solarviews.com/eng/galdisc.htm  http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/ganymede/discovery.htmlhttp://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/ganymede/discovery.html  http://www.solarviews.com/eng/io.htmhttp://www.solarviews.com/eng/io.htm  http://www.sciam.com/2000/0200issue/0200johnson.htmlhttp://www.sciam.com/2000/0200issue/0200johnson.html  http://www.sciam.com/2000/0200issue/0200johnsonbox2.html http://www.sciam.com/2000/0200issue/0200johnsonbox2.html  http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/io/vgrio.htmlhttp://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/io/vgrio.html  http://www.solarviews.com/eng/iomap.htmhttp://www.solarviews.com/eng/iomap.htm  http://www.solarviews.com/cap/jup/io4.htmhttp://www.solarviews.com/cap/jup/io4.htm  http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/news23.htmlhttp://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/news23.html


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