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Sustainabledevelopment. Sustainable development: u meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their.

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Presentation on theme: "Sustainabledevelopment. Sustainable development: u meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sustainabledevelopment

2 Sustainable development: u meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. –World Commission on Environment and Development (1987): Our Common Future

3 Elements of sustainability Environment EconomySociety - World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987

4 the sustainable development triangle

5 Elements of sustainability Environment EconomySociety - World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987

6 Elements of sustainability Environment - World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987 biodiversitybiodiversity materialsmaterials energyenergy biophysical interactionsbiophysical interactions

7 Elements of sustainability Economy - World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987 money and capitalmoney and capital employmentemployment technological growthtechnological growth investmentinvestment market forcesmarket forces

8 Elements of sustainability Society - World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987 human diversity (cultural, linguistic, ethnic)human diversity (cultural, linguistic, ethnic) equity (dependence / independence)equity (dependence / independence) quality of lifequality of life institutional structures and organizationinstitutional structures and organization political structurespolitical structures

9 The ‘3 Es’ Model Ecology EconomyEquity

10 The Healthy Community Model SOCIETY ENVIRONMENT ECONOMY HEALTH

11 Sustainability: PROBLEMS u Depletion of finite resources –fuels, soil, minerals, species u Over-use of renewable resources –forests, fish & wildlife, fertility, public funds u Pollution –air, water, soil u Inequity –economic, political, social, gender u Species loss –endangered species and spaces - WCED, 1987

12 Sustainability: SOLUTIONS u Cyclical material use –emulate natural cycles; 3 R’s u Safe reliable energy –conservation, renewable energy, substitution, interim measures u Life-based interests –health, creativity, communication, coordination, appreciation, learning, intellectual and spiritual development

13 Two key sustainable development concepts: EQUITY LIMITS TO GROWTH -WCED 1987

14 Two key sustainable development concepts: the concept of needs, particularly the essential needs of the world’s poor the concept of needs, particularly the essential needs of the world’s poor EQUITY EQUITY -WCED 1987

15 Two key sustainable development concepts: EQUITY EQUITY the quality of being fair or impartial; fairness; impartiality the quality of being fair or impartial; fairness; impartiality something that is fair and just. something that is fair and just. -dictionary.com

16 Contrast with: EQUALITY EQUALITY the state or quality of being equal; correspondence in quantity, degree, value, rank, or ability. the state or quality of being equal; correspondence in quantity, degree, value, rank, or ability. uniform character, as of motion or surface. uniform character, as of motion or surface. -dictionary.com

17 Two key sustainable development concepts: the idea of limitations (ecological, technological, and social) which affect the environment’s ability to meet present and future needs the idea of limitations (ecological, technological, and social) which affect the environment’s ability to meet present and future needs LIMITS TO GROWTH LIMITS TO GROWTH -WCED 1987

18 Two key sustainable development concepts: LIMITS TO GROWTH LIMITS TO GROWTH - quantitative and qualitative limits - living within the regenerative and assimilative capacities of the planet -WCED 1987

19 Sustainable development... u implies limits Not predefined absolute limits, but limitations imposed by: Not predefined absolute limits, but limitations imposed by: –the ability of the biosphere to absorb the effects of human activities –adaptability of human social and political organization –technology

20 Sustainable development and economic growth Economic growth must be made: –less material intensive (‘dematerialization of the economy’) –less energy intensive –more equitable in its impacts u Economic growth may be reduced or curtailed to meet limitations imposed by environment, technology, or society

21 Institutional gaps impeding sustainable development 2 major gaps: u fragmented decision making –narrow mandates, jurisdictional rigidity, lack of communication and coordination u lack of accountability –failure to make the bodies whose policy actions degrade the environment responsible for their actions

22 materials and energy

23 Obsolescent “frontier” civilization: ENERGY CONVENTIONAL URBAN SYSTEM MATERIALS HEAT WASTE & TOXINS One-way flow of materials and energy CONSUMERSOCIETY NON-RENEWABLE and RENEWABLE HIGHTHROUGHPUT

24 CONSERVERSOCIETY Sustainable civilization: Cyclical flows of materialsCyclical flows of materials Appropriate energy usageAppropriate energy usage Energy Efficiency RENEWABLE Waste Minimization Toxics control LOWTHROUGHPUT ENERGY MATERIALS Low-quality Heat Energy Low-volumeNontoxicWasteMaterials

25 information and decision making

26 Sustainable development... u considers future and present needs when making decisions about: –resource and energy use –technological development –direction of investments –social, political & institutional change...etc. etc. etc. Applied POLICY

27 ECONOMY ENV’T SOCIETY TRADITIONAL DECISION MAKING

28 ECONOMY ENV’T SOCIETY TRADITIONAL DECISION MAKING NON-PARTICIPATORY NON-PARTICIPATORY FRAGMENTEDFRAGMENTED

29 SOCIETY ENVIRONMENT ECONOMY ECONOMY ENV’T SOCIETY TRADITIONAL DECISION MAKING ECOSYSTEM-BASED DECISION MAKING ‘ECO- SYSTEM HEALTH’

30 SOCIETY ENVIRONMENT ECONOMY ECOSYSTEM-BASED DECISION MAKING PARTICIPATORY PARTICIPATORY INTEGRATED INTEGRATED ‘ECO-SYSTEMHEALTH’

31 Fragmented decision-making ISSUE federal / national municipal public private provincial / state regional otherinterests communitygroups - after Barrett and Kidd, 1991

32 Integrated decision-making regionalprovincial/ state municipalmunicipal privateprivate communitycommunity groups groups publicpublic other interests federal/ federal federal/ national national ISSUEISSUE - after Barrett and Kidd, 1991

33 decision making reactive reactive

34 decision making reactive reactive (‘end of pipe’) (‘end of pipe’)

35 decision making anticipatory anticipatory reactive reactive

36 decision making anticipatory anticipatory (planning for change) change) reactive reactive

37 decision making radical radical anticipatory anticipatory reactive reactive

38 decision making radical radical(fundamental; root causes) root causes) anticipatory anticipatory reactive reactive

39 decision making radical radical anticipatory anticipatory reactive reactive

40 radical radical anticipatory anticipatory reactive reactive Industry Industry change in demand change in demand - less consumption - less consumption - alternative consumption - alternative consumption change in process change in process - clean technology - clean technology - elimination of toxics - elimination of toxics sewage treatment plant sewage treatment plant - ‘end of pipe’ solution environment environment and and economy economy and and society society environment environmentandeconomy oreconomy

41 Originally: u Hotel sheets & towels changed every day u Leads to eutrophication / water pollution TOURISM EXAMPLE: Hotel sheet and towel policy

42 Response: u Guests given choice u Most keep same sheets and towels u Fewer towels and sheets are laundered each day TOURISM EXAMPLE: Hotel sheet and towel policy

43 Result: u Reduced environmental impact u Hotel saves money, increases profits and (...?) keeps rates down u Guests feel like they are making a positive environmental contribution TOURISM EXAMPLE: Hotel sheet and towel policy

44 Northern Telecom u based in Canada u 42 plants in various countries u manufacturer of electronic components (telecommunications) u 1988: tonnes of CFCs per year u 1992: 0 tonnes of CFCs used per year EARLY EXAMPLE:

45 Original Process 1) raw components and grease 2) manufacturing and assembly process 3) clean off grease with CFCs 4) finished product

46 Revised process 1) raw components, no grease 2) manufacturing and assembly process 3) no need to clean off grease with CFCs 4) finished product

47 Environment AND Economy u $1 million to develop new process u $4 million savings in first year (no CFCs) u $50 million savings to year 2000 u international environmental prize -> great publicity u contract with Mexico for industrial innovation (very lucrative)

48 radical radical anticipatory anticipatory reactive reactive

49 radical radical anticipatory anticipatory reactive reactive Industry Industry

50 radical radical anticipatory anticipatory reactive reactive Industry Industry change in change in demand for product demand for product change in change in industrial process industrial process sewage sewage treatment treatment plant for wastes plant for wastes

51 radical radical anticipatory anticipatory reactive reactive Industry Industry change in change in demand demand change in change in industrial process industrial process sewage sewage treatment treatment plant for wastes plant for wastesBiodiversity apply landscape apply landscape ecology principles ecology principles to human activity to human activity establish national establish national parks (12%) parks (12%) to protect habitats to protect habitats zoo / seed bank for endangered species zoo / seed bank for endangered speciesTransportationTransportation better urban better urban planning planning alternative alternative energy energy catalytic catalytic converters converters

52 radical radical anticipatory anticipatory reactive reactive Tourism: Hotels change in tourist expectations for energy use change in tourist expectations for energy use fundamental redesign of hotels and resorts fundamental redesign of hotels and resorts compact fluorescent bulbs and keytag interlocks compact fluorescent bulbs and keytag interlocks Tourism: Cruise Industry replacement of cruise tourism with sustainable replacement of cruise tourism with sustainable alternative alternative forms of tourism forms of tourism cleaner, more efficient cruise ships; cleaner, more efficient cruise ships; reduction of onboard consumption reduction of onboard consumption sewage containment, onshore power feeds, recycling sewage containment, onshore power feeds, recycling Tourism: Nature based inviolate ecosystems inviolate ecosystems eco- tourism; matching traffic to capacity of habitats eco- tourism; matching traffic to capacity of habitats funding conservation of endangered wildlife funding conservation of endangered wildlife

53 valuesideologystrategies values, ideologies and strategies

54 interactions amongst values / ideologies / strategies valuesideologystrategies

55 values individual, cultural, social, spiritual, moral

56 interactions amongst values / ideologies / strategies values ideologies Definable sets of values constitute (e.g. Industrial Capitalism, Marxism, Christianity, Liberalism, Socialism, Conservatism, Judaism) individual, cultural, social, spiritual, moral

57 interactions amongst values / ideologies / strategies values ideologies strategies Definable sets of values constitute (e.g. Industrial Capitalism, Marxism, Christianity, Liberalism, Socialism, Conservatism, Judaism) …which give rise to practical applications of ideologically consistent ideas, actions, policies and programs individual, cultural, social, spiritual, moral

58 interactions amongst values / ideologies / strategies valuesideologystrategies

59 valuesideologystrategies

60 environmental values valuesideologystrategies holistic perspective holistic perspective everything is connected to everything else everything is connected to everything else parts can only be understood in the context parts can only be understood in the context of the whole of the whole nature as a living organism or system nature as a living organism or system (after Macdonald, D The Politics of Pollution. McClelland and Stewart, Toronto: p.33) McClelland and Stewart, Toronto: p.33)

61 environmental values valuesideologystrategies humans living within nature humans living within nature -> inherent value of other organisms and inanimate objects inanimate objects limits to growth limits to growth (after Macdonald, D The Politics of Pollution. McClelland and Stewart, Toronto: p.33) McClelland and Stewart, Toronto: p.33)

62 environmental values valuesideologystrategies appropriate technology appropriate technology matching the scope and scale of technology matching the scope and scale of technology to the task at hand to the task at hand principles of durability and efficiency principles of durability and efficiency recognition that new technology brings both recognition that new technology brings both benefits and problems benefits and problems

63 environmental values valuesideologystrategies appropriate scaleappropriate scale appropriate sizes for institutions, social appropriate sizes for institutions, social organizations, communities organizations, communities accessible and accountable decision-makingaccessible and accountable decision-making in public and private sectors in public and private sectors


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