Presentation on theme: "H A I T I E D U C A T I O N F U N D 4. Christopher Columbus Arrived in 1492 when his ship ran aground Named the island Hispaniola Found gold in what is."— Presentation transcript:
Christopher Columbus Arrived in 1492 when his ship ran aground Named the island Hispaniola Found gold in what is now the Dominican Republic and other Spanish settlers flocked to the island They forced the aboriginals to mine and raise food The aboriginals were treated so poorly that by 1530 only a few were left alive and the Spanish brought in Africans as slaves.
The Spanish Leave Spanish settlers leave for more prosperous settlements in Mexico and Peru 1606- King of Spain ordered remaining settlers to move to Santa Domingo in the Dominican Republic French, English and Dutch settlers took over the northern and western coasts and became buccaneers that stole Spanish silver and gold In 1667, Spain recognized French control over the western third of the country.
The French The French named its new colony Saint- Domingue and brought in Africans as slaves to develop coffee and spice plantations. By 1788, there were eight times as many slaves as colonists.
The Haitian Revolution 1771-slaves rebelled against French masters and destroyed plantations and towns. Toussaint Louverture, a former slave, took control of the government and restored some order He wrote constitution to separate Saint-Domingue from France
The Haitian Revolution con ’ t 1799 - Napoleon came to power ; sent army to capture Toussaint and imprisoned him in France (where he later died) During this time many French soldiers caught yellow fever and died. After a long campaign African rebels defeated French and General Jean-Jacques Dessalines (leader of the rebels) proclaimed the colony an independent country named Haiti on January 1, 1804
The Fight for Control Dessalines -nation ’ s first chief of state killed in 1806; country was divided in two by other generals (Alexandre Petin and Henri Christophe) 1818 Jean-Pierre Boyer reunited the country and ruled until the colony revolted in 1844. During the next 70 years 32 different men ruled Haiti. Unrest spread throughout the country.
The US Steps In 1915 - President Woodrow Wilson sent marines to restore order. He feared other nations may try to take Haiti if unrest continued. U.S.A. made Haiti make payments on its large debts to other countries U.S.A. strengthened the government, built highways, schools and hospitals. U.S.A. withdrew in 1934 and Haiti regained control of its affairs. Some foreign investment followed but the upper class mulattoes benefited most. Between 1946 and 1957 the army stepped in to control the country twice.
Francois (Papa Doc) Duvalier 1957 - Francois (Papa Doc) Duvalier, a country doctor, elected as President 1964 - he declared himself President for Life 1971 - Constitution was amended to allow the president to choose his successor – his son Jean-Claude. Francois died in April 1971 and Jean Claude (only 19 yoa) succeeded him, declared himself President for Life and ruled as a dictator. The Duvaliers controlled Haiti ’ s armed forces and had a secret police force.
General Henri Namphy Early 1970 ’ s - many people began to leave Haiti because of poor economic conditions and severe treatment by secret police 1986 - Haitians staged a revolt against Jean-Claude and he fled. Lieutenant General Henri Namphy became the head of the government and failed at disbanding the secret police. 1987 - constitution adopted that allowed for elections by the people, however in 1988 Namphy overthrew the government and seized power;declared himself president of a military government.
And it continues … September 1988 - officers from the Presidential guard seized power from Namphy Lieutenant General Prosper Avril declared himself and ruled as a dictator. He resigned in March 1990 December 1990 - Haitian people elected Jean-Bertrand Aristide as President. September 1991 - Aristide overthrown by the military and fled
A Trade Boycott Follows The Organization of American States (OAS) led a trade boycott against Haiti to force Aristide ’ s return to power. The UN later imposed a boycott Following the coup many Haitians attempted to flee to the United States in small boats. At first the US sent the refugees back to Haiti. Later, they sent fleeing refugees to the US military base in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba.
Aristide returns to office? July 3, 1993 - Haitian military agreed to allow Aristide to return to office and restore a democratic government by October 30 th. However, this was not followed through. September 1994 - the US began sending troops to Haiti to force the military to restore democratic government October 1994 - Aristide returned to office
Under Aristide Haiti suffered economic hardship and political instability Opponents claimed that elections held in 2000 were fraudulent resulting in foreign donors refusing to release aid to Haiti Coup attempts and demonstrations both for and against Aristide erupted Political opposition groups refused to take part in or deal with a government that included Aristide
2004 Violent rebellion spread across Northern Haiti where rebels (former members of Haiti military) demanded Aristide ’ s resignation February 29 th, 2004 - Aristide fled to Africa; soon after a US peacekeeping force arrived in Haiti Chief Justice of Haiti ’ s Supreme Court, Boniface Alexandre, became President of a transitional government May, 2004 - flash floods caused wide spread destruction; 1,400 people killed and 1,800 were missing (between Haiti and Dominican Republic) September - Tropical Storm Jeanne; mudslides killed 3000 in Haiti
2006 February - Haitians voted for a president and parliament to replace the interim government that had held power since 2004 Rene Preval declared winner after accusations of election fraud and protests in his favour He belongs to the L ’ Espwa (The Hope) Party and have wide spread support amongst the poor.
2008 August and September - tropical storms and hurricanes kill hundreds of Haitians. Haiti’s agriculture suffered huge loses April - rioting broke out in Les Cayes and Port-au-Prince over steeply rising food prices More political instability followed with replacement of the Prime Minister twice.
2010 The region ’ s worst earthquake in 200 years struck. HAS THE COUNTRY EVEN HAD AN OPPORTUNITY TO BECOME STABLE?
A Recent History of Haiti 2004: As the country celebrates 200 years of independence, a violent uprising begins against President Jean-Bertrand Aristide. Rebels seize cities and dozens are killed. The president is forced into exile and an interim government takes over. Peacekeepers arrive in June while gang violence plagues Port-au-Prince.
2006: In the first elections since the uprising, Rene Preval wins.
POOREST COUNTRY IN THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE AMONG POOREST IN THE WORLD HOPELESSLY CAUGHT IN “POVERTY TRAP” 1.POOR GOVERNANCE 2.POOR ECONOMY 3.GROWING POPULATION 4.LIMITED NATURAL RESOURCES 5.HIGH ILLITERACY, INFANT MORTALITY
HUMANITARIAN ASSIATANCE Humanitarian aid is material or logistical assistance provided for in response to humanitarian crises. humanitarian crises The primary objective of humanitarian aid is to save lives, alleviate sufferingsuffering maintain human dignityhuman dignity http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Humanitarian_aid
HUMANITARIAN AID VS. DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE The primary objective of humanitarian aid is: save lives, alleviate sufferingsuffering maintain human dignityhuman dignity Donations, NGO’s The United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) coordinates international humanitarian response to a crisis or emergency pursuant to Resolution 46/182 of the United Nations General Asembly.United NationsOffice for the Coordination of Humanitarian AffairsUnited Nations General Asembly Seeks to address the underlying socioeconomic factors which may have led to a crisis or emergency socioeconomic political instability, poverty, social unrest, HIV/AIDS,civil war, dictatorship, Paid, loaned by governments Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) Empowers women Education Health care Governance Economy Environmental protection http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Humanitarian_aid
PROMINENT ISSUES UPHOLDING HUMAN RIGHTS/CHILD RIGHTS LOOTING VS. SURVIVAL HOMELESSNESS FRACTURED FAMILIES LOSS OF EMPLOYMENT LOSS OF LOCAL BUSINESSES LOSS OF AGRICULTURAL LAND ORPHANS (OLD AND NEW) POLLUTION (SANITATION, DEAD BODIES, WATER) JUSTICE HUMAN TRAFFICKING CORRUPTION ACCESS TO RELIEF AID (MEDICINES, FOOD, WATER) AID DISTRIBUTION ENERGY/FUEL SOURCES ACCESS TO PUBLIC SERVICES LACKOF INFRASTRUCTURE GOVERNMENT STRUCTURE TO IMPLEMENT DONATIONS IMMEDIATE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT (TOURISM)