6 Anatomy Capsule Splenic veins Hilus Smooth, regular, VERY echogenic Only other structure normally visualizedPoorly visualized except near hilus“Whale tail”Enlargement subjectiveHilusCheck for lymphadenopathy
10 Diffuse Splenomegaly Diffuse increase in echogenicity uncommon Neoplastic (mast cell or lymphosarcoma)Diffuse decrease in echogenicity more commonCongestionExtra-medullary hematopoesisLymphosarcomaInflammation/ septicemiaTorsionNormal echogenicity can occur with lymphosarcoma & mast cell tumorBreak this slide up
19 Neoplasia Lymphosarcoma Hematoma, hemangioma, hemangiosarcoma Diffuse or focal/multifocalHypoechoic or hyperechoicCan appear normalHematoma, hemangioma, hemangiosarcomaUnable to differentiateFocalHypoechoic, hyperechoic or mixed
22 Neoplasia Other neoplasms Mast cell tumor, leiomyoma, etc.Presence of peritoneal effusion not a good indication of malignancyMetastasisLungs, liver, lymph nodes (splenic, hepatic, gastric)
23 Echogenic Focal Lesions Focal fat depositsEspecially catsSurround hepatic veins (myelolipomas)Fibrosis & calcificationSecondary to hematoma, chronic infarcts or granulomas (histoplasmosis)Primary or metastatic neoplasia
24 Definitive DiagnosisUltrasonic appearance of most splenic diseases non-specificConsider history, signalment, clinical signsFine needle aspirate usefulBiopsy generally not performedDoes this apply to neoplasms? Focal lesions? What exactly?
25 Rupture Free fluid within the abdomen Most likely a tumor Often echoic (due to blood cells)May be anechoicMost likely a tumorCannot rule out hematoma
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