Components to a Laboratory Write-Up Title Purpose/Problem Hypothesis Materials/Apparatus Procedure Observations Conclusion Discussion
Title & Purpose Title –Definitive outline as to what your lab was actually about. –Determining differences in rates of reaction due to variable changes with respect to surface area, temperature and concentration. Purpose/Problem –Statement of purpose, or aim: why is the experiment being done?
Hypothesis Hypothesis – is an IF…THEN…BECAUSE statement. If then becauseIf Alka-Seltzer tablet and water are mixed in a film canister, then the lid will explode off because the tablet and water will mix to form carbon dioxide bubbles which will create enough pressure to explode off the lid of the canister.
Materials/Apparatus Usually will make a list to refer to what was used for the experiment in which you are attempting to answer a question. –Sometimes we will use lists and/or diagrams. Sometimes will write: See Ritter et al. Biology 11. Nelson. Toronto, ON. 2002. p. 1-2. –The following changes were made: List the changes
Procedure Step by step process in which you outline exactly what you did in your experiment in an attempt to answer your question. You are looking to either prove your hypothesis right or wrong. Past passive forms - common mistakes Common mistakes Correct versionWhy? This problem solved last week. This problem was solved last week. To make a past passive form we use was/were + past participle of the verb. This problem was solve last week. This problem was solved last week. Specifics No abbreviations. Written in the third person (do not use I). Passive past tense. Main points only. Sentence form. A numerical or alphabetical listing of instruction.
Variables –Each factor that may determine the outcome of an investigation. –All variables must be controlled when completing an investigation except one. –Independent variable = Controlled variable –Dependent variable = Response variable that depends on what happens as a result of the independent variable –Control = treatment or experiment that you can compare with the results of your test groups. –Trial = the protocol is carefully designed to answer specific research questions through experimentation
Observations What did you see when you completed your lab in the attempt to answer your question? –Include both qualitative and quantitative observations in your write-ups. –Tables are the preferred organization method of data collected. –Data that is in a table should be represented in a graphical form that fits the data set for easier interpretation. –Do not forget to include a caption that indicates what the table or graphic is about.
Conclusions Come directly from your observations and should support or falsify your hypothesis. Do not forget to restate the hypothesis that you are supporting or falsifying. A hypothesis is not “sort of” correct, it is either correct or it is not based on what you have observed.
Discussion Quite commonly this will be Analysis questions from the text. However, some things to keep in mind: –Ways experiment could have been refined. –Sources of error. –Knowledge shared that could help explain the conclusion further.