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A Cataloguer’s Journey on the Road to FRBR * May 19, 2009 Thomas Brenndorfer Guelph Public Library * FRBR = Functional.

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Presentation on theme: "A Cataloguer’s Journey on the Road to FRBR * May 19, 2009 Thomas Brenndorfer Guelph Public Library * FRBR = Functional."— Presentation transcript:

1 A Cataloguer’s Journey on the Road to FRBR * May 19, 2009 Thomas Brenndorfer Guelph Public Library * FRBR = Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records

2 Guelph Public Library

3 The blind men and the FRBR elephant

4 OPACs – 1984 Author Title Subject

5 The cataloguer’s opportunity: The use of technology in the organization of bibliographic information The cataloguer’s dilemma: New kinds of bibliographic resources in the age of technology

6 AACR2 Cataloguing Basics AACR2 Part I – Description – “item in hand” AACR2 Part II – Access – “finding and gathering”

7 Introduction to AACR2 Part II “The rules in Part II apply to works and not to physical manifestations of those works, though the characteristics of an individual item are taken into account in some instances.” “Enter the work by one personal author under the heading for that person.”

8 AACR2 General Introduction “In Part II the rules are based on the proposition that one main entry is made for each item described, and that this is supplemented by added entries.”

9 The main entry – record for an item: Woolf, Virginia, 1882-1941. Mrs. Dalloway / Virginia Woolf. San Diego : Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, [1985], c1925. 296 p. ; 19 cm. Woolf, Virginia, 1882-1941. Mrs. Dalloway The main entry – citation for a work:

10 Identifying the work Tolkien, J. R. R. (John Ronald Reuel), 1892-1973. The annotated Hobbit / J.R.R. Tolkien.

11 The uniform title Tolkien, J. R. R. (John Ronald Reuel), 1892-1973. [Hobbit] The annotated Hobbit / J.R.R. Tolkien.

12 The SEE reference Tolkien, J. R. R. (John Ronald Reuel), 1892-1973. Annotated Hobbit See Tolkien, J. R. R. (John Ronald Reuel), 1892-1973. Hobbit

13 LC Control Number: n 79102640 HEADING: Tolkien, J. R. R. (John Ronald Reuel), 1892-1973. Hobbit 000 00727cz a2200181n 450 001 3290766 005 20050924071350.0 008 790910n| acannaabn |a aaa 010 __ |a n 79102640 |z n 87841451 035 __ |a (OCoLC)oca00334715 040 __ |a DLC |b eng |c DLC |d DLC |d InU |d WaU 100 1_ |a Tolkien, J. R. R. |q (John Ronald Reuel), |d 1892-1973. |t Hobbit 400 1_ |a Tolkien, J. R. R. |q (John Ronald Reuel), |d 1892-1973. |t Annotated Hobbit 400 1_ |a Tolkien, J. R. R. |q (John Ronald Reuel), |d 1892-1973. |t Hobbit, or, There and back again 670 __ |a Buchholz, S. The Middle-earth quiz book, 1979 (subj.) 670 __ |a The hobbit, or, There and back again, 1984. 670 __ |a The hobbit, or, There and back again, c1997. The authority record

14 100 1_ |a Mast, Edward. 245 10 |a J.R.R. Tolkien’s The hobbit : |b an adventure play / |c adapted by Edward Mast. 246 30 |a Hobbit 260 __ |a Woodstock, Ill. : |b Dramatic Pub., |c c1996. 300 __ |a 53 p. ; |c 19 cm. 500 __ |a "Based upon the work, The hobbit, by J.R.R. Tolkien."--P. 2. 700 1_ |a Tolkien, J. R. R. |q (John Ronald Reuel), |d 1892-1973. |t Hobbit. The related work added entry

15 100 1_ |a Arthur, Sarah. 245 10 |a Walking with Bilbo : |b a devotional adventure through the Hobbit / |c Sarah Arthur. 260 __ |a Wheaton, Ill. : |b Tyndale House Publishers, |c 2005. 300 __ |a xxii, 194 p. ; |c 21 cm. 504 __ |a Includes bibliographical references (p. [192]- 194). 600 10 |a Tolkien, J. R. R. |q (John Ronald Reuel), |d 1892-1973. |t Hobbit. The subject added entry

16 Hyperlink to authority-controlled heading for a work

17 Book on CD version of The Hobbit (No link to 100 + 245 combination in an OPAC) 100 1_ |a Tolkien, J. R. R. |q (John Ronald Reuel), |d 1892-1973. 245 14 |a The hobbit |h [sound recording] / |c J.R.R. Tolkien. 260__ |a St. Paul, Minn. : |b HighBridge, |c p2001. 300__ |a 4 sound discs (4 hr., 30 min.) : |b digital ; |c 4 3/4 in.

18 Maxwell’s Guide to Authority Work “The title proper (combined with the author’s name, if any) in fact is the uniform title of the work...” 100 1_ |a Tolkien, J. R. R. |q (John Ronald Reuel), |d 1892-1973. 245 14 |a The hobbit Implication: The bibliographic record can function as the authority record for the work. Maxwell, Robert L. Maxwell’s Guide to Authority Work. ALA, 2002

19 OPACs – 1994 1.General Keyword 2.Author Browse 3.Author Keyword 4.Title Browse 5.Title Keyword 6.Subject Browse 7.Subject Keyword 8.Series Browse 9.Series Keyword 10.ISBN/ISSN 11.LCCN 12.Barcode 13.Dewey Number 14.System Number

20 Problem: Different Authorities for Different Indexes “Virginia Woolf” is in the author index “Virginia Woolf” is in the subject index

21 Multiple Use Authorities in Horizon 1.Main or added entry 2.Subject 3.Series Use codes:

22 1997 International Conference on the Principles and Future of AACR2, Toronto The introduction of FRBR (Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records) and a spotlight on bibliographic relationships.

23 “Bibliographic Relationships” Paper presented by Sherry L. Vellucci at the 1997 Toronto Conference. “Bibliographic relationships exist when bibliographic entities— i.e., any instances of recorded knowledge— are associated with each other in some way.”

24 Vellucci’s Bibliographic Relationships, continued... “ is important to understand the types of relationships that exist in the bibliographic universe as they have been identified to date, and the means currently used for identifying and linking bibliographic records for related bibliographic entities. It is also crucial to have a contextual understanding of this topic as it relates to the functions of the catalog; the functions of the bibliographic record; the concept of the work; the concepts of main entry, added entries, and references; bibliographic and authority record structure; and catalog design.”

25 Barbara Tillett’s Taxonomy of Relationships (1987) Equivalence Relationships Derivative Relationships Descriptive Relationships Whole-Part Relationships Accompanying Relationships Sequential Relationships Shared Characteristic Relationships

26 The 1990 Stockholm Seminar on Cataloging was held because of... the mounting costs of cataloguing and the concomitant desire for cataloguing simplification; the proliferation of electronic, multimedia, and computer related materials and the challenges these pose for both description and access; the increasing drive to economize in cataloguing by reducing duplicate efforts, nationally and internationally, and the associated need to define a core level standard to support the cooperative use of records; the exploding bibliographic universe and the continual need to effect better universal bibliographic control; the continuing pressures to adapt cataloguing practices and codes to the machine environment.

27 Study Group on the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records Its mission was to develop a framework that identifies and clearly defines:  the entities of interest to users of bibliographic records  the attributes of each entity  the types of relationships that operate between each entity

28 FRBR – starting points FRBR uses the entity-relationship model to analyze the bibliographic record FRBR assigns values on bibliographic data in terms of user needs (based on traditional user tasks – find, identify, select, obtain) FRBR defines three entity groups (Groups 1, 2, 3) FRBR Final Report, 1998

29 FRBR Group 1 Entities Work Expression Manifestation Item

30 Group 2 Entities and their Relationships to Group 1 Entities Person or Corporate Body... Creates a Work Realizes an Expression Produces a Manifestation Owns an Item

31 Relationships vs Attributes RELATIONSHIP Manifestation entity is produced by Publisher entity (MARC field 710 - added entry) ATTRIBUTE Manifestation entity has attribute Publication statement (MARC field 260 $b)

32 Group 3 Entities Concept Object Event Place... have subject relationships with Works.

33 Subject Relationships and Groups 1, 2, and 3

34 VTLS and FRBR Blinn College Library, Brenham, Texas bin/gw_xyz/chameleon bin/gw_xyz/chameleon

35 Subjects Linked at the Work Level

36 2003 proposals for the next edition of AACR Incorporate FRBR concepts and terminology Incorporate concept of authority control

37 LibraryThing and the “work” All LibraryThing books belong to a "work," a cross-user and cross-edition concept designed to improve social contact, recommendations and cataloging quality. “Link to a page, not to a search.” Tim Spalding, Creator of LibraryThing

38 LibraryThing – Link to a page for Virginia Woolf

39 OCLC WorldCat Identities

40 OCLC FictionFinder

41 AustLit Sample Page

42 AustLit work summaries

43 The Scarlet Letter – “FRBRized” with SyndeticsICE

44 ISTC – International Standard Text Code “An ISTC does not ‘belong’ to a single author/publisher; rather, it ‘belongs’ to the work it identifies. This means that the same ISTC number should be used to identify the same content even when it is being published by a different publisher and/or in a different publication format.” MARC tag: 024 7_ $a ISTC 0A9-2002-12B4A105-6 $2 istc (

45 AACR3 Part I – Description [2004] Section A – General Rules A1 General Rules for Description A2 Resources Issued in Successive Parts A3 Integrating Resources Section B – Supplementary Rules Applicable to Specific Types of Content B1 Text B2 Music B3 Cartographic Resources B4 Graphics B5 Three-Dimensional Resources B6 Sound B7 Moving Images Section C – Supplementary Rules Applicable to Specific Types of Media C1 Print and Graphic Material C2 Micrographic Media C3 Tactile Media C4 Three-Dimensional Media C5 Audio Media C5 Projected Graphic, Film, and Video Media C6 Digital Media Part II – Choice of Access Points and Part III – Form of Access Points

46 RDA 2005-2007 – Resource Description and Access RDA 2005 Part I Chapter 1 General Guidelines on Resource Description Chapter 2 Identification of the Resource Chapter 3 [Technical Description/Carrier – delayed for study of GMD/SMD] Chapter 4 Content Description Chapter 5 Information on Terms of Availability, Etc. Chapter 6 Item-Specific Information Appendix D Presentation of Descriptive Data RDA 2006 Part I (Resource Description) + Part 2 (Relationships) becomes Part A; Part III (Access Point Control) becomes Part B Part A Chapter 6 - Related Resources Part A Chapter 7 - Persons, Families, and Corporate Bodies Associated with a Resource Then later in October 2006, Chapters 6 and 7 flip Part A Chapter 6 - Persons, Families, and Corporate Bodies Associated with a Resource Part A Chapter 7 - Related Resources

47 RDA 2007 – the new organization appears Recording attributes Section 1. Recording attributes of manifestation and item Section 2. Recording attributes of work and expression Section 3. Recording attributes of person, family, and corporate body Section 4. Recording attributes of concept, object, event, and place Recording relationships Section 5. Recording primary relationships between work, expression, manifestation, and item Section 6. Recording relationships to persons, families, and corporate bodies associated with a resource Section 7. Recording subject relationships Section 8. Recording relationships between works, expressions, manifestations, and items Section 9. Recording relationships between persons, families, and corporate bodies Section 10. Recording relationships between concepts, objects, events, and places

48 Enter the Authorized Access Point “The term authorized access point refers to the standardized access point representing an entity. The authorized access point representing a work or expression is constructed using the preferred title for the work preceded by the authorized access point representing a person, family, or corporate body responsible for the work, if appropriate.” Woolf, Virginia, 1882-1941. Mrs. Dalloway

49 Conventions for Recording Relationships Between Works 1.Identifier for the related work Finding aid: Resource described: Andrews, Emery E., 1894-1976. Emery E. Andrews papers, 1925-1969. Archival collection of papers and related materials 2.Authorized Access Point Representing the Related Work Parody of: Tolkien, J. R. R. (John Ronald Reuel), 1892-1973. Lord of the rings Resource described: Bored of the rings : a parody of J.R.R. Tolkien’s The lord of the rings / by Henry N. Beard and Douglas C. Kenney of The Harvard lampoon 3.Structured Description of the Related Work Has sequel: Scarlett : the sequel to Margaret Mitchell’s Gone with the wind / by Alexandra Ripley. — New York, NY : Warner Books, 1991 Resource described: Gone with the wind / by Margaret Mitchell. A sequel to Mitchell’s novel, Scarlett, by Alexandra Ripley, was published in 1991 4.Unstructured Description of the Related Work Inspired by themes from the music of George Butterworth. Contains letters to Mrs. Wells and Gabrielle Gissing. Kept up to date between editions by annual supplements. Finding aid available in the repository and online.

50 RDA Appendix J Sample of work relationship designators Derivative Work Relationships based on (work) abridgement of (work) abstract of (work) adaptation of (work) dramatization of (work) motion picture adaptation of (work) novelization of (work) radio adaptation of (work) radio script based on (work) screenplay based on (work) television adaptation of (work) verse adaptation of (work) video adaptation of (work) choreography for (work) digest of (work) expanded version of (work) free translation of (work) imitation of (work) parody of (work) libretto based on (work) musical arrangement of (work) musical setting of (work) musical variations based on (work) paraphrase of (work) remake of (work) summary of (work) derivative (work) abridged as (work) abstract (work) adapted as (work) dramatized as (work) novelization (work) screenplay for the motion picture (work) screenplay for the television program (work) screenplay for the video (work) script for the radio program (work) verse adaptation (work) basis for libretto (work) choreography (work) digest (work) expanded as (work) freely translated as (work) imitated as (work) parodied as (work) musical setting (work) musical variations (work) paraphrased as (work) remade as (work) summary (work)

51 MARC Proposal No. 2009-06/1 – Relationship Designators for RDA Appendix J 245 00 $a Triumph : $b for concert band / $c by Michael Tippett. 500 ## $a “A paraphrase of music from The mask of time.” ISWC T-010.304.108-2. 700 1# $i paraphrase of (work) $a Tippett, Michael, $d 1905-1998. $t Mask of time. 100 1# $a Ravel, Maurice, $d 1875-1937. 240 10 $a Orchestra music. $k Selections 245 10 $a Orchestral works $h [sound recording] / $c Maurice Ravel. 505 0# $a Boléro -- La valse -- Rapsodie espagnole... 700 12 $i contains (work) $a Ravel, Maurice, $d 1875-1937. $t Bolero, $m orchestra. 700 12 $i contains (work) $a Ravel, Maurice, $d 1875-1937. $t Valse. 700 12 $i contains (work) $a Ravel, Maurice, $d 1875-1937. $t Rapsodie espagnole.

52 Conventions for recording work relationships– more examples... MARC Update 10 245 00 $a Triumph : $b for concert band / $c by Michael Tippett. 700 1# $i paraphrase of (work) $a Tippett, Michael, $d 1905-1998. $t Mask of time. User display: Triumph : for concert band / by Michael Tippett. Paraphrase of Tippett, Michael, 1905-1998. Mask of time. 780 example 780 00 $t TCA journal $x 1556-4223 $w(DLC) 93645762 $w (OCoLC) 26906768

53 RDA Database Implementation Scenarios Tom Delsey, RDA editor Three potential implementation scenarios for RDA.

54 Scenario 3 – Flat file

55 Scenario 2 – Linked

56 Scenario 1 – Relational database

57 FRAD – Functional Requirements for Authority Records Bibliographic Entity User tasks: find; identify; contextualize (clarify relationship between entities, and between name and entity); justify (document the authority record creator’s reason for choosing the name or form of the name on which an access point is based). RDA replaces “contextualize” and “justify” with “clarify” and “understand.”

58 FRSAD – Functional Requirements for Subject Authority Data WORK has subject THEMA (THEMA is anything that can be the subject of a work, including other FRBR entities) THEMA has appellation NOMEN (NOMEN is a term used to refer to any symbols by which a THEMA is known, referred to or addressed) User tasks: find; identify; select; explore relationships between entities, correlations to other subject vocabularies and structure of a subject domain

59 FRBR hits a triple. A “triple” is a statement about a resource. Examples: THEMA <> HAS APPELATION <> NOMEN WORK <> HAS CREATOR <> PERSON

60 The Semantic Web “The semantic web provides a common framework that allows data to be shared and reused across application, enterprise, and community boundaries.” Original 2001 Scientific American article:

61 Dublin Core Metadata Initiative and RDA: New Goals The registration of the RDA element vocabulary (each element has a URI– a “uniform resource identifier” which builds a namespace) The creation of an “application profile” – schemas that combine elements from one or more namespaces to optimize a local application Article on application profiles:

62 A tale of two “resources” RDA – Resource Description and Access A “resource” is the focus for a bibliographic description. When we catalogue with RDA, we record the entities, attributes and relationships found in the resource. ZOOM OUT TO THE CATALOGUED RESOURCE RDF – Resource Description Framework Each entity, element, relationship, and role is a “resource”– parts of logical statements (called triples) which collectively constitute a “description set”. When we replace plain text values in a triple with URIs (uniform resource identifiers), we link data and controlled vocabulary to create the Semantic Web. ZOOM IN TO EACH VALUE IN A TRIPLE

63 DCMI Registry for RDA Appendix J Relationship Designators

64 The Registered “Based on (work)” Element Links to URIs move cataloguing data onto the Semantic Web.

65 Library of Congress Subject Headings and the Semantic Web

66 The Swedish National Library, FRBR and the Semantic Web Link to this record: “Making a Library Catalogue Part of the Semantic Web”:

67 RDA and MARC: the GMD is replaced 245 14 $a The hobbit $h [sound recording] / $c J.R.R. Tolkien. becomes something like 245 14 $a The hobbit / $c J.R.R. Tolkien 336 __ $a spoken word 337 __ $a audio 338 __ $a audio disc

68 The GMD is dead; long live the Content Type, Media Type and Carrier Type FRBR EntityBib/AuthFieldField NameExamples ExpressionBib/Auth336Content Type- text - performed music ManifestationBib337Media Type- unmediated - audio ManifestationBib338Carrier Type- volume - audio disc Book336 text337 unmediated338 volume DVD video336 moving image337 video338 videodisc Audio CD336 performed music337 audio338 audio disc Examples:

69 URIs for RDA Content Types

70 Details for the “Spoken word” Content Type element

71 A hypothetical Semantic Web description set Author: Work title: English patient Form of work: Language of expression: Content type: Edition: 1st ed. Place of publication: New York Publisher: Date of production: 1992 Number of units: 307 pages Resource identifier: 0679416781 Identifier: Name: Ondaatje, Michael BirthDate: Sep. 12, 1943 Identifier: PrefLabel: Novel Identifier: Name: eng PrefLabel: English AltLabel: en Identifier: Definition: A resource consisting primarily of words for reading. Identifier: Name: Knopf “Trepidation or Anticipation? The Future of Cataloging and Cataloguers” by Diane Hillman Expression Work Manifestation

72 What is it, again?

73 Starting points for FRBR and RDA: select web sites and books Web sites: IFLA’s FRBR Home Page: bibliographic-records bibliographic-records The FRBR Blog: Joint Steering Committee for Development of RDA: RDA Online: Library of Congress RDA Test: Books: Maxwell, Robert L. FRBR : A Guide for the Perplexed. ALA, 2008. Taylor, Arlene G. Understanding FRBR: What It Is and How It Will Affect Our Retrieval Tools. Libraries Unlimited, 2007. Zhang, Yin. Implementing FRBR in Libraries. Neal-Schuman, 2009.

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