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Sergey Shleev, Dr. Sci., Assoc. Prof. Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science & Technology Faculty of Health and Society Malmö University Concentrations (powers). How do we calculate different concentrations?

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Natural mixtures (e.g. physiological liquids) Artificial mixtures Origin

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Qualitative description mixture 1 g/L solution, diluted or concentrated? Quantitative description

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Concentrations (lat. Concentratio – concentration, co-location) the measure of how much of a given substance there is mixed with (an)other substance(s) mass fraction; mass concentration homogeneous heterogeneous mixture

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Mass versus volume (g/L) Mole fraction/percentage [X, mol %] (% or number) Mass fraction/percentage [weight-weight %, w/w%, or wt%] (% or number) Mass-volume fraction/percentage [% m/v or % w/v] (% or number) Volume-volume fraction/percentage [% v/v] (% or number) Parts-per notation (e.g. ppm, ppb, ppt)

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Molarity Molality Normality (mol/L, M, C M ) (mol/kg, m, C m ) (gram equivalents/L, N, C N ) N A = mol -1 v=m/M w M (C M )=v/V 22.4 L

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Powers base Power (index of the base) Concentrations in chemistry

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