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1 Welcome to study English: starting with Words Every language starts with a word. Every language starts with a word. The word can be a noun. It then goes.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Welcome to study English: starting with Words Every language starts with a word. Every language starts with a word. The word can be a noun. It then goes."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Welcome to study English: starting with Words Every language starts with a word. Every language starts with a word. The word can be a noun. It then goes through a derivation or inflection process. The word is then modified into verbs, adjectives and adverbs. The word can be a noun. It then goes through a derivation or inflection process. The word is then modified into verbs, adjectives and adverbs. The modification is obtained by adding the base word with extra words. The addition can be at the end or the at the beginning of the word.. The modification is obtained by adding the base word with extra words. The addition can be at the end or the at the beginning of the word.. Adding a word at the beginning of a word is called prefix ( affix ) and making additional to the end known as suffix. Theses processes that words go through to change meaning are called Morphemes. Adding a word at the beginning of a word is called prefix ( affix ) and making additional to the end known as suffix. Theses processes that words go through to change meaning are called Morphemes. As we mentioned above, the words now form morphemes and the morphemes are then turned into nouns, adjectives and adverbs. The science of studying langauage in this way is called Morphology As we mentioned above, the words now form morphemes and the morphemes are then turned into nouns, adjectives and adverbs. The science of studying langauage in this way is called Morphology Let us now take the FORM. We then add prefix, and turn it into a verb. Adding + in ( a prefix ) Let us now take the FORM. We then add prefix, and turn it into a verb. Adding + in ( a prefix ) The word becomes inform. Inform is a verb. Inform is to tell, let someone know, bring it to update, or report to. We see now the word has friends who tell us the same things about the word inform. This process is called Synonym. The word becomes inform. Inform is a verb. Inform is to tell, let someone know, bring it to update, or report to. We see now the word has friends who tell us the same things about the word inform. This process is called Synonym. Let us now add suffixes to inform. We have inform+ al= Informal, like informal meeting. We can have a synonym of : casual or unofficial meeting Let us now add suffixes to inform. We have inform+ al= Informal, like informal meeting. We can have a synonym of : casual or unofficial meeting We can again add + ed at the end to the verb Inform as INFROMED Ex the police are informed about the crime. We can again add + ed at the end to the verb Inform as INFROMED Ex the police are informed about the crime. we can have a learned scholar /person informed, meaning educated as oppose to an ignorant person. We can further add another prefix to informed it then becomes uninformed which is uneducated. we can have a learned scholar /person informed, meaning educated as oppose to an ignorant person. We can further add another prefix to informed it then becomes uninformed which is uneducated.

2 2 Let us continue Studying English In+form+ation. +ally, +ality + ative + ant Please visit our Web site for a further information and formality Form+ally, adding ally with the existing word to form an adverb The rescue team formally called off the search for the missing bodies from a boat capsized in the Indian Ocean. Informative, something that is revealing, useful Informant, an spy ( The police had an informant in the gang. Summary: We took Form and turned into Inform (Verb), Informed (verb) Informal (adjective) Information (Noun) informality (noun) formally (adverb) informative (adjective)

3 3 Continue Word formation Application. 1 st example, we have received seven applications for the accounting position. Let us chop it into pieces and apply prefixes and suffixes. 1 st example, we have received seven applications for the accounting position. Let us chop it into pieces and apply prefixes and suffixes. We have apply as a verb. Seven people applied for the accounting vacancy/position/job. We have apply as a verb. Seven people applied for the accounting vacancy/position/job. 2 nd example, I would like to apply for the accounting position [ vacancy as a Synonym] advertised in the Guardian Newspaper on the 22 nd December nd example, I would like to apply for the accounting position [ vacancy as a Synonym] advertised in the Guardian Newspaper on the 22 nd December rd example, I have recently applied for an accounting position in your company. We can further say, we have seven applicants [ candidates as a Synonym]) for the accounting position. 3 rd example, I have recently applied for an accounting position in your company. We can further say, we have seven applicants [ candidates as a Synonym]) for the accounting position. Summary. we had :application, added a suffix of ly and ed and turned it into verbs present and past tenses respectively. we further added nts found an adjective for it. Lastly, we had two Synonymies as vacancy as a job and candidates as applicants we had :application, added a suffix of ly and ed and turned it into verbs present and past tenses respectively. we further added nts found an adjective for it. Lastly, we had two Synonymies as vacancy as a job and candidates as applicants

4 4 Welcome back to Studying English Continue with Morphology or morphemes. Continue with Morphology or morphemes. I have centre and I would to create new bases. I have centre and I would to create new bases. Central [adjective ], centralise [verb], centralised [verb, past tense], centralisation [noun] Central [adjective ], centralise [verb], centralised [verb, past tense], centralisation [noun] Centralised administration. Centralised policy. Centralised administration. Centralised policy. Centralised education as oppose to decentralised education Centralised education as oppose to decentralised education These formation of words fall into three parts : These formation of words fall into three parts : Lexical words, function words and inserts. Lexical words, function words and inserts. The lexical words tell us about the meaning of the word in a sentence. The lexical split into :nouns, lexical verbs, adjectives and adverbs The lexical words tell us about the meaning of the word in a sentence. The lexical split into :nouns, lexical verbs, adjectives and adverbs. Unfaithfulness. Un+ faith+ ful+ness.. Unfaithfulness. Un+ faith+ ful+ness.

5 5 Welcome to study English part five The lexical verb is the main player of a sentence. The part that conveys the real action. The action can be in the past, present or future. The lexical verb is the main player of a sentence. The part that conveys the real action. The action can be in the past, present or future. 1 st example : I was organising (a lexical verb) a dinner part y last week [ or Saturday evening and etc]. The verb organising is the main player of the sentence and conveys my message to whom I am speaking to, i.e. my action which happened in the past [ last week]. The verb was is just a helper. When a help verb is used this way, it is called auxiliary verb. Its job is to supplement the main verb. 1 st example : I was organising (a lexical verb) a dinner part y last week [ or Saturday evening and etc]. The verb organising is the main player of the sentence and conveys my message to whom I am speaking to, i.e. my action which happened in the past [ last week]. The verb was is just a helper. When a help verb is used this way, it is called auxiliary verb. Its job is to supplement the main verb. 2 nd example: last summer, we were (aux- verb ) in Dubai, the whether was hot (aux-verb )and our cat stayed/rested [lexical verbs] in the shadow of a palm tree for 2 hours. Unfaithfulness. Un+ faith+ ful+ness. 2 nd example: last summer, we were (aux- verb ) in Dubai, the whether was hot (aux-verb )and our cat stayed/rested [lexical verbs] in the shadow of a palm tree for 2 hours. Unfaithfulness. Un+ faith+ ful+ness.

6 6 Welcome to Study English part six 1 st example: 1 st example: The lexical words can be : nouns, verbs[ we saw how to recognise them in part five ] adjectives and adverbs. let me explain how they are grouped before they are divided into nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs. They form two groups or classes The lexical words can be : nouns, verbs[ we saw how to recognise them in part five ] adjectives and adverbs. let me explain how they are grouped before they are divided into nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs. They form two groups or classes 1-open classes- these classes are flexible to changes. They can be prefixed and suffixed to have new meaning. For example, unfaithfulness. 1-open classes- these classes are flexible to changes. They can be prefixed and suffixed to have new meaning. For example, unfaithfulness. The word unfaithfulness consists of many parts –meaning it has gone through a derivation/inflection or changes. Or can be just a noun phrase without complex structures The word unfaithfulness consists of many parts –meaning it has gone through a derivation/inflection or changes. Or can be just a noun phrase without complex structures certificate of course completion. Or unemployment figure shocking certificate of course completion. Or unemployment figure shocking 2 nd example: 2 nd example: The functions words are called closed classes. The functions words are called closed classes. They are the prepositions [on, in, of, with and etc] coordinators [and, but and or, auxiliary verbs ( we had one example, hot summer in Dubai /organising a party sentences) and pronouns[ there eight types of pronouns [ ex personal pronoun] They are the prepositions [on, in, of, with and etc] coordinators [and, but and or, auxiliary verbs ( we had one example, hot summer in Dubai /organising a party sentences) and pronouns[ there eight types of pronouns [ ex personal pronoun] I will explain each of them in the coming videos. I will explain each of them in the coming videos. The inserts, used in conversations /dialogues. They express emotions, excitement or surprises. They are : oaky m8, see you tomorrow, Yeah man, good luck, ta, cheers, well, I aint gonna do that. The inserts, used in conversations /dialogues. They express emotions, excitement or surprises. They are : oaky m8, see you tomorrow, Yeah man, good luck, ta, cheers, well, I aint gonna do that.

7 7 Welcome to study English part seven Closed or open class that is the question. Closed or open class that is the question. The open class- [lexical words ]can have new membership [i.e. can be extended by the speaker of a language ] they can have offspring! –hence new words can be created from them. They are variable/modifiable. The open class- [lexical words ]can have new membership [i.e. can be extended by the speaker of a language ] they can have offspring! –hence new words can be created from them. They are variable/modifiable. Closed [functions and inserts ] ones cannot be changed. They do not have families [single!] Closed [functions and inserts ] ones cannot be changed. They do not have families [single!] Example of open classes are : Example of open classes are : Interviewee [interview] employee[ employ] payee [to pay] Interviewee [interview] employee[ employ] payee [to pay] Committee, darkish, greyish, franchise, centralise [central ] and stabilise [stable]. Committee, darkish, greyish, franchise, centralise [central ] and stabilise [stable].

8 8 Welcome to study English part seven When to use lexical words, function words, and inserts words? When to use lexical words, function words, and inserts words? Newspapers writers use lexical words to convey their messages to the targeted audiences. But they use very few functions and inserts i.e. used in quotations Newspapers writers use lexical words to convey their messages to the targeted audiences. But they use very few functions and inserts i.e. used in quotations Academic and fictions use both lexical and function words but in a Academic and fictions use both lexical and function words but in a However, conversation is full of functions and insert words. However, conversation is full of functions and insert words.

9 9 Inserts in conversation Inserts are lubricants of spoken English. They add a beautiful colour to the conversation and keep the momentum discourse between the speakers. They provide a waiting/thinking state of what is coming next, and allow the speaker to grab the attention of the listeners. Inserts are lubricants of spoken English. They add a beautiful colour to the conversation and keep the momentum discourse between the speakers. They provide a waiting/thinking state of what is coming next, and allow the speaker to grab the attention of the listeners. According to SGSWE, on page 449, there are classes of INSERTS. According to SGSWE, on page 449, there are classes of INSERTS. interjections [oh], greetings/farewells [Hi], discourse markers [well], attention – getters [hey], response –getters [okay], response forms [right], polite formulas [thank you], and expletive [ damn]. interjections [oh], greetings/farewells [Hi], discourse markers [well], attention – getters [hey], response –getters [okay], response forms [right], polite formulas [thank you], and expletive [ damn]. Also, it is common to have other words with INSERST. Example, Oh, sorry, oh thanks, Okay, thanks, Okay, thanks [negative ] Also, it is common to have other words with INSERST. Example, Oh, sorry, oh thanks, Okay, thanks, Okay, thanks [negative ]


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