Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

CANADA’S NATIONAL LABORATORY FOR PARTICLE AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "CANADA’S NATIONAL LABORATORY FOR PARTICLE AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS"— Presentation transcript:

1 CANADA’S NATIONAL LABORATORY FOR PARTICLE AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS
Owned and operated as a joint venture by a consortium of Canadian universities via a contribution through the National Research Council Canada E-Linac Initiative: New Electron Driver for RIB Science Design for ½ MW SC linear accelerator driver for independent photo-fission production of RIBs Shane Koscielniak, TRIUMF Accelerator Physicist International Peer Review, 24 September 2008 Good after noon panel. I am Shane Koscielniak, a TRIUMF scientist. I started my career as an accelerator physicist, at the Rutherford Laboratory, more than twenty years ago. I have led the e-linac design since May 2007, and it is a real pleasure to tell you about the “E-Linac Initiative”: an exciting new project to bring an ½ MW Electron Driver for Rare Isotope Beams to TRIUMF. LABORATOIRE NATIONAL CANADIEN POUR LA RECHERCHE EN PHYSIQUE NUCLÉAIRE ET EN PHYSIQUE DES PARTICULES Propriété d’un consortium d’universités canadiennes, géré en co-entreprise à partir d’une contribution administrée par le Conseil national de recherches Canada

2 NRC International Peer Review
E-linac Talk Outline Introduction Motivation/Impacts Performance milestones E-linac Specification Superconducting RF Because Relation to TESLA/ILC ILC: voltage-gradient limited design E-linac: power-gradient limited design Baseline design High Power RF building blocks (2 slides) Layout – functional & flexible Capitalize on existing equipment designs Activity in support of design effort (3 slides) Summary I will list the multiple compelling motivations for the e-linac. Briefly explain why we chose SCRF and the connection of the E-linac technology to other projects such as ILC. I will go over the building blocks of the baseline design and their relation to existing equipment designs. I will tell you about recent activities in support of the design proposal, And close with a summary. 2008 Sep 24 NRC International Peer Review

3 NRC International Peer Review
E-Linac Motivation/Impact New Science: Nuclear physics with neutron-rich RIBs, and 9Be(γ,p)8Li for β-NMR studies in Materials and Molecular Sciences. Complementary & independent driver for RIB production. Implements strategy of multiple beams (e, p) to multiple users to accelerate science output. E-Linac will operate through annual cyclotron shutdowns providing strong year-round RIB experimental program. Leverages valuable existing infrastructure: Proton Hall, shielded vault with services World-class experimental apparatus (detectors) Builds further SCRF expertise base from (β«1, 100 MHz, 4K) to (β=1, 1 GHz, 2K) - β=v/c relativistic speed Prepares Canada for SCRF projects world-wide (ILC, CERN-SPL) Qualifies commercial partner (PAVAC) to build SCRF cavities. The electron linac, as a RIB driver complementary to the proton cyclotron, brings many benefits to the Five Year Plan. Lithium eight Examples of world-class detectors: TITAN, EMMA, TIGRESS, DESCANT, etc 2008 Sep 24 NRC International Peer Review

4 NRC International Peer Review
Performance milestones for RIB targets Year E-linac capability Target capability April 2010 – start of 5 Year Plan 2013 4 mA, ≥ 25 MeV (100 kW) 2 mA, ≥ 25 MeV (50 kW) 2014 April 2015 – start of next 5 Year Plan 2017 10 mA, ≥ 50 MeV (500 kW) 4 mA, ≥ 50 MeV (200 kW) 2019 This table represents a refinement over the 5YP document. It identifies, on the right, definite milestones for the RIB target capability. Note that at all times, the E-linac has reserve capability to deliver whatever is requested from the RIB production program and the convertor/target R&D program. Material in this e-linac talk covers Section (pp ) of the 5 Year Plan document. 2008 Sep 24 NRC International Peer Review

5 E-Linac Specification
Beam power (MW) 0.5 Duty Factor 100% Average current (mA) 10 Kinetic energy (MeV) 50 Photo-fission products distribution using 50 MeV 10 mA electrons on to Hg convertor & UCx target The e-linac ½ MW specification is a response to the desire for in-target fission rates up to 10^13, and to the production efficiency versus electron beam energy which falls steeply below 20 MeV and saturates above 50 MeV. The 100% duty factor is advantageous to the target since there is no thermal cycling or shocking which can reduce target lifetime. Number of photo-fission /second versus electron energy for 100 kW e-beam on Ta convertor and U target. 2008 Sep 24 NRC International Peer Review

6 NRC International Peer Review
We chose Superconducting RF because: Continuous operation is inconceivable with NC cavities – for 50 MeV, need 4-8 MW wall-plug power. With SC cavities need ≤ 1.5 MW wall-plug power - enormous operational cost savings! We chose 1.3 GHz, 2K technology because: Enormous world-wide effort in this regime since the 1990s dedicated to TESLA at DESY and now to International Linear Collider (ILC). The Tesla Technology Collaboration (TTC) exists to promote, share and disseminate the remarkable results of the effort. Technology is mature with gradients ≥ 20 MV/m routine. Projects now include: DESY X-ray FEL, Cornell Energy Recovery Linac (ERL), Daresbury ERL Prototype, KEK-Free Electron Laser (FEL). KEK and FNAL efforts for ILC, Jefferson Lab upgrade, TRIUMF e-linac, etc. TRIUMF joined TTC in April 2007. We have chosen superconducting RF acceleration because continuous or high duty factor operation is inconceivable with normal conducting cavities… The TESLA technology collaboration which coordinates R&D and shares its result is A collaboration that includes 12 countries, 50 institutes and encompasses a multitude of projects. They can benefit from the collective synergy and so will TRIUMF. Technology is mature with gradients >20 MV/m are now becoming routine. 2008 Sep 24 NRC International Peer Review

7 NRC International Peer Review
DESY single-cell and 9-cell cavities form starting point for many SCRF linac designs around the world ILC cavity module The DESY single-cell and 9-cell cavities form a starting point for many SCRF linac designs around the world. Of course, TESLA has now metamorphosed into the International Linear Collider. Elinac profits from this development of designs for TESLA & ILC. But commonality of ILC with Fission Driver stops here at the cavity level and does not extend to the cryomodule or high-power RF system. Commonality of ILC with Fission Driver stops here and does not extend to the cryomodule or High Power RF 2008 Sep 24 NRC International Peer Review

8 NRC International Peer Review
Linear Collider: duty factor = 0.5%, design is limited by accelerating gradient (31.5 MV/m) E-linac: design driven by challenges of 100% duty factor high-power CW input coupler & limited choice of klystrons 2 kelvin heat loads in CW operation ILC input coupler: ≤16kW average power Fission Driver: 500 kW CW RF power has to propagate through input couplers and cavities to beam The ILC is a low duty factor machine, whose design is limited by the achievable accelerating gradient. The e-linac design is driven by the challenges of continuous operation at relatively high average current. Particular challenges are the input coupler design and the 2 kelvin heat loads. For example, the ILC input coupler sustains < 16 kW average power. However, in the Fission Driver: 500 kW CW RF power has to propagate through input couplers and cavities to the electron beam, So we have adopted the highest power rated coupler commercially available. E-linac input coupler: ≤60kW average power Cornell/CPI-Eimac 2008 Sep 24 NRC International Peer Review

9 HP RF building block for e-linac
50 kW coupler E-linac RF unit = 100 kW/cavity 50 kW coupler 130 kW klystron This slightly grotesque cartoon shows the adaptation of existing Continuous Wave RF components, klystron and two couplers, to give a 100 kW per cavity High-power RF building block for the e-linac. Using two couplers overcomes the power distribution bottle neck. The table enumerates options for current, gradient and number of cavities; and the baseline configuration in green. Beam current Cavity gradient # cavities Beam energy Beam power 5 mA 20 MV/m 3 60 MeV 300 kW 10 mA 10 MV/m 5 50 MeV 500 kW 20 mA 5 MV/m 10 1 MW 2008 Sep 24 NRC International Peer Review

10 NRC International Peer Review
25 kW E-linac in plan 100 kW, 25 MeV 50 kW 50 kW e-GUN BEAM TRANSPORT LINE BUNCHER CAVITY INJECTOR LINAC MAIN LINAC CRYOMODULE #1 E-linac power distribution E-linac in plan 500 kW, 50 MeV 50 kW 50 kW 50 kW 50 kW 50 kW One 130 kW klystron/cavity e-GUN This schematic represents an evolution and refinement of the power distribution and disposition of cavities between cryomodules as compared with the Five Year Plan document. There are the same number of components. But they are re-assigned to increase the flexibility and performance with respect to future options such as linac-based light sources. The first figure shows the equipment deployed and the machine reach in the 5 Year Plan. The second sketch shows the addition of a second main-linac cryomodule and additional RF power sources in the subsequent 5 Year Plan to reach the ½ MW performance goal. BEAM TRANSPORT LINE INJECTOR LINAC MAIN LINAC CRYOMODULE #1 MAIN LINAC CRYOMODULE #2 BUNCHER CAVITY 50 kW 50 kW 50 kW 50 kW 50 kW 2008 Sep 24 NRC International Peer Review

11 E-Linac Baseline Layout
Injector linac Main linac (acceleration & additional bunching) Two cryomodules Two 9-cell cavities/module, 10 MV/m, Q=1010 10 mA, 40 MeV gain ≤ 400 kW beam pwr 10 MV/m, Q=1010 10 mA, 5-10 MeV gain ≤ 100 kW beam pwr NC buncher SRF Injector Module #1 Module #2 Thermionic gun: triode; 100 keV; 650 MHz Focusing & diagnostic packages Division into injector & main linacs allows: Possible expansion path to test-bed for Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) – e.g. 10 mA, 80 MeV Recirculating Linear Accelerator (RLA) – e.g. 2 mA, 160 MeV Here is a schematic of the e-linac baseline layout as it will appear in 2017. Point out the components, left to right, and briefly describe their purpose. Note the gradients are modest, as can be achieved with chemical etching alone of the niobium surfaces. The division into injector an main linacs… 2008 Sep 24 NRC International Peer Review

12 NRC International Peer Review
Capitalize on existing equipment designs TESLA 9-cell cavities Cornell/CPI 50 kW couplers e2V/CPI klystrons Normal conducting buncher cavity Previous slides RF-modulated Thermionic gun concept: NIKHEF-FELIX, Mistubishi Tuner: Costing based on INFN blade/coaxial tuner. XFEL industrialisation makes Saclay/lateral tuner a strong candidate. E-linac will use/adapt existing equipment designs wherever possible. This will speed project completion and reduce R&D costs. XFEL-type ceramic HOM loads, or Cornell-type ferrite loads 2008 Sep 24 NRC International Peer Review

13 International Comparison
E-linac is very competitive with respect to existing and other planned photo-fission based RIB facilities. ALTO at Orsay performs target yield studies with 5 kW capable LEPP Injector Linac – but limited by shielding to 10 uA 50 MeV. Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility, Oakridge: 100 kW 25 MeV electrons provided by cascaded dual rhodotron accelerators. Presently, this proposal is active but unfunded. The Holifield radioactive ion beam facility at Oak Ridge has also recognized the advantages of photo-fission, for example lower cost compared to proton-driven fissioning. Indeed they have been in the business of proposal making longer than TRIUMF. E-linac reconfigured as light source it surpasses facilities like FELIX/NIKHEF and could be comparable with JLAB IR-FEL. Ganil: deuterium on convertor makes neutron on uranium target makes fissions. No complementarity. 2008 Sep 24 NRC International Peer Review

14 International Comparison
E-linac is a competitive and ambitious driver for γ-fission, yet in other arenas there are successful existing models for technical feasibility. Light sources Jefferson Lab IR-FEL: Accelerated (& energy recovered) up to 9.1 mA at 150 MeV. Cornell ERL Injector prototype (100 mA, 5 MeV) is ready for beam tests. Hi-energy Physics Models that surpass, in some respects, the requirements of e-linac. For example, all of these facilities have the challenge of producing and maintaining electron beams with exquisite brilliance. Electron cooler ring for RHIC: proposed 22 MeV 0.5 Amp prototype Energy Recovery Linac 2008 Sep 24 NRC International Peer Review

15 Activity in support of design effort
E-linac development started May 2007 Local task force drawn from Accelerator Division Deliverable: conceptual design and bottom-up resource estimation (manpower and M&S $) for all E-linac subsystems. Presentations, spread sheets, etc, at elinac.triumf.ca Continuing seminar/visitor program: Cornell: Charles Sinclair - electron gun; Cornell: Sergei Belomestnykh - SRF linacs & High Power RF NSF: John Weisend – cryomodule design & plant TJNAF/JLab: Ed Daly – crymodule design & costing LLNL: Brian Rusnak – high power input coupler design Informal Review, 23 Jan 2008: Joe Preble (JLab), Paolo Pierini (INFN/Milan) – suggestions for cryomodule. Deliverable Being further refined by Request for Quotations. 2008 Sep 24 NRC International Peer Review

16 Activity in support of design effort
Formal Review (Accelerator Advisory Cttee), 3-4 April 2008: Hasan Padamsee (Cornell), Sergei Nagaitsev (FNAL), M. de Jong (CLS), M. Schippers (PSI), M. Lindroos (CERN), Y. Yano (RIKEN), C. Sinclair (Cornell). Working with partners VECC Kolkata collaboration: MoU covers equipment (2 horizontal test cryostats and 9-cell cavities) and personnel (2 FTEs, first arrives 1st November). U. Toronto collaboration: 2 kelvin SCRF vertical test cryostat (see Laxdal/Grassellino talks) Both vertical and horizontal test cryostats are needed. Vertical is used for signal-level measurement of quality factor of bare cavities. Horizontal for power testing of cavities dressed with helium jacket, tuner, coupler, etc. DOE Office of Nuclear Science Proposal from Lawrence Livermore Lab to Dept Of Energy ONS for collaboration with TRIUMF on high-power CW coupler design for FRIB. Competition results announced ≈ November 2008. 2008 Sep 24 NRC International Peer Review

17 NRC International Peer Review
Recent Successes June 23 – Canada Foundation for Innovation announces e-linac proposal designated as a National Project application (not subject to institutional caps) June 30 - Official submission of Notice Of Intent to CFI signed by 14 Universities – lead institute = U.Victoria, Dean Karlen October 3 - Official deadline for full CFI application NIST/JLab electron gun donated to TRIUMF e-gun development station. Vacuum pumps and HV power supplies on order. Anticipate start beam characterization in 6 months. Canada has national fund for infrastructure, CFI. It has funded the ATLAS data centre here at TRIUMF And the Sudbury Neutrino Laboratory in Ontario. UVIC & TRIUMF actively propose to obtain CFI funding to leverage the 5YP. Jefferson Lab has donated an ex-NIST electron gun under its care to TRIUMF For Development of the source. 2008 Sep 24 NRC International Peer Review

18 NRC International Peer Review
Summary E-Linac is central component of the TRIUMF 10-year vision. The fission driver represents a major new RIB source – provides complementarity to proton-driven RIB production. Suite of potential RIB applications Nuclear/astro physics Materials & molecular sciences Life/medical sciences Light source technology test bed SCRF technology provides cost effective approach to MW-class fission driver and capitalizes on world-wide R&D Participate in ILC and other SCRF projects world wide E-Linac is well-matched to the scale of the TRIUMF facility and its accelerator expertise. We can build this machine. Lessons learnt at E-linac will allow Canada to participate in ILC and other SCRF Projects world wide. And indeed some of the fission driver specs are more relaxed than ILC and/or ERLs. 2008 Sep 24 NRC International Peer Review

19 NRC International Peer Review
For the back pocket? 2008 Sep 24 NRC International Peer Review

20 NRC International Peer Review
Total M$15.7 2008 Sep 24 NRC International Peer Review

21 NRC International Peer Review
Total =108 years 2008 Sep 24 NRC International Peer Review

22 NRC International Peer Review
Science Reviews Policy and Planning Advisory Cttee (PPAC), March 2008 - University input/priorization of 5YP components Special Experimental Evaluation Cttee (SEEC), March 2008 International review panel Strong message from both: “get the science out early”. Staging Realization that greatest technical difficulty lies in the target station, not in the electron linear accelerator. Target power handling will be staged: 100 kW in 5YP, ½ MW by end of plan. Consequences: E-linac beam power will be staged, and 1st beam delivery is advanced from 2014 to 2013. 2008 Sep 24 NRC International Peer Review

23 NRC International Peer Review
Technical Summary L-band SCRF technology provides cost effective approach to MW-class fission driver. There are cell, cavity, input coupler, HOM damper, tuner, klystron, IOT, cryostat and BPM designs all pre-existing – eliminates substantial R&D & cost. C.W. operation poses some challenges c.f. TESLA/ILC – but these are being met by ERL light source designs. Minor changes since 5YP document reflect refinement of the e-linac design consistent with “earliest science” and restoring full flexibility of original 1+4 layout via configuration. And indeed some of the fission driver specs are more relaxed than ILC and/or ERLs. Detailed costing and manpower estimation of the conceptual design gives confidence for 5YP and CFI requests 2008 Sep 24 NRC International Peer Review

24 NRC International Peer Review
Minor change since 5YP document reflects refinement of the e-linac design consistent with “earliest science” and restoring full flexibility of original 1+4 layout via configuration rather than 2+3 layout reported in 5YP. 2015 Original Concept 2013 2017 5YP 2013 2017 Refined Concept 2008 Sep 24 NRC International Peer Review

25 NRC International Peer Review
CW operation has other challenges: Limited choice of c.w. klystrons, c.w. couplers Higher heat load in all RF components: cavity, input coupler, HOM coupler/absorber, etc Fission driver, 10 MV/m 5 cavity ERL 20 MV/m 3 cavity TESLA TDR 23.4 MV/m 12 cavity 2K RF Load (W) 52 125 4.95 2K Sum (W) 56 189 9.05 5K Sum (W) 36.4 29 15.94 80K Coupler load 891 199 80.9 80K Sum (W) 897 451 183.02 CW related The table compare the fission driver and the TESLA TDR, and a possible upgrade path to ERL. The RF load is higher because of c.w. operation. The power provided to the beam must flow through the input couplers, and that leads also to a substantial contribution. As you can see the 2K and 80K heat loads for the 4 cavity fission driver are almost four times the TESLA values for a 12 cavity cryomodule. Beam power related E-Linac 2K & 80K sums are 5×TESLA values, but < ½ # cavities 2008 Sep 24 NRC International Peer Review

26 NRC International Peer Review
Fission driver specification more relaxed than for ERL or ERL injector – many reasons! FEL light source at ERLs need 6D high-brilliance FEL e-beam time structure produces strong HOM loading Fission driver has no such requirements - eliminates beam on target Daresbury ERLP JLab IR-FEL (1.5 GHz) Cornell ERL Injector ILC Fission driver Charge/bunch (pC) 80 135 100 16 Emittance (μm) normalized 1-2 <30 1 3/.03 Bunch length (ps) 0.2-2 2 30 Bunch rep’ rate (MHz) 81.25 75 1300 3 650 Macro-pulse rep’ rate (Hz) 20 c.w. 5 Beam energy (MeV) 40 80-200 10 300/cryo 50 It transpires that… For many reasons, and here is the first of them. In practise, high brilliance means small emittance and high bunch charge – as the table clearly shows. The high space-charge forces imply high-voltage or RF guns. I draw your attention also to the bunch repetition rate, which sets the fine-structure of the beam’s frequency spectrum. 2008 Sep 24 NRC International Peer Review

27 NRC International Peer Review
2008 Sep 24 NRC International Peer Review


Download ppt "CANADA’S NATIONAL LABORATORY FOR PARTICLE AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google