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E-Linac Initiative: New Electron Driver for RIB Science Design for ½ MW SC linear accelerator driver for independent photo-fission production of RIBs Shane.

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Presentation on theme: "E-Linac Initiative: New Electron Driver for RIB Science Design for ½ MW SC linear accelerator driver for independent photo-fission production of RIBs Shane."— Presentation transcript:

1 E-Linac Initiative: New Electron Driver for RIB Science Design for ½ MW SC linear accelerator driver for independent photo-fission production of RIBs Shane Koscielniak, TRIUMF Accelerator Physicist International Peer Review, 24 September 2008 CANADA’S NATIONAL LABORATORY FOR PARTICLE AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS Owned and operated as a joint venture by a consortium of Canadian universities via a contribution through the National Research Council Canada LABORATOIRE NATIONAL CANADIEN POUR LA RECHERCHE EN PHYSIQUE NUCLÉAIRE ET EN PHYSIQUE DES PARTICULES Propriété d’un consortium d’universités canadiennes, géré en co-entreprise à partir d’une contribution administrée par le Conseil national de recherches Canada

2 2008 Sep 24NRC International Peer Review2 E-linac Talk Outline Introduction –Motivation/Impacts –Performance milestones –E-linac Specification Superconducting RF Because Relation to TESLA/ILC –ILC: voltage-gradient limited design –E-linac: power-gradient limited design Baseline design –High Power RF building blocks (2 slides) –Layout – functional & flexible –Capitalize on existing equipment designs Activity in support of design effort (3 slides) Summary

3 2008 Sep 24NRC International Peer Review3  New Science: Nuclear physics with neutron-rich RIBs, and 9Be(γ,p)8Li for β-NMR studies in Materials and Molecular Sciences.  Complementary & independent driver for RIB production.  Implements strategy of multiple beams (e, p) to multiple users to accelerate science output.  E-Linac will operate through annual cyclotron shutdowns providing strong year-round RIB experimental program.  Leverages valuable existing infrastructure:  Proton Hall, shielded vault with services  World-class experimental apparatus (detectors)  Builds further SCRF expertise base from (β«1, 100 MHz, 4K) to (β=1, 1 GHz, 2K) - β=v/c relativistic speed  Prepares Canada for SCRF projects world-wide (ILC, CERN-SPL)  Qualifies commercial partner (PAVAC) to build SCRF cavities. E-Linac Motivation/Impact

4 2008 Sep 24NRC International Peer Review4 Performance milestones for RIB targets Material in this e-linac talk covers Section (pp ) of the 5 Year Plan document. Year E-linac capability Target capability April 2010 – start of 5 Year Plan mA, ≥ 25 MeV (100 kW)2 mA, ≥ 25 MeV (50 kW) mA, ≥ 25 MeV (100 kW) April 2015 – start of next 5 Year Plan mA, ≥ 50 MeV (500 kW)4 mA, ≥ 50 MeV (200 kW) mA, ≥ 50 MeV (500 kW)

5 2008 Sep 24NRC International Peer Review5 Beam power (MW)0.5 Duty Factor100% Average current (mA)10 Kinetic energy (MeV)50 E-Linac Specification Photo-fission products distribution using 50 MeV 10 mA electrons on to Hg convertor & UC x target Number of photo-fission /second versus electron energy for 100 kW e-beam on Ta convertor and U target.

6 2008 Sep 24NRC International Peer Review6 Continuous operation is inconceivable with NC cavities – for 50 MeV, need 4-8 MW wall-plug power. With SC cavities need ≤ 1.5 MW wall-plug power - enormous operational cost savings! We chose Superconducting RF because: Enormous world-wide effort in this regime since the 1990s dedicated to TESLA at DESY and now to International Linear Collider (ILC). The Tesla Technology Collaboration (TTC) exists to promote, share and disseminate the remarkable results of the effort. Technology is mature with gradients ≥ 20 MV/m routine. Projects now include: DESY X-ray FEL, Cornell Energy Recovery Linac (ERL), Daresbury ERL Prototype, KEK-Free Electron Laser (FEL). KEK and FNAL efforts for ILC, Jefferson Lab upgrade, TRIUMF e-linac, etc. TRIUMF joined TTC in April We chose 1.3 GHz, 2K technology because:

7 2008 Sep 24NRC International Peer Review7 DESY single-cell and 9-cell cavities form starting point for many SCRF linac designs around the world ILC cavity module Commonality of ILC with Fission Driver stops here and does not extend to the cryomodule or High Power RF

8 2008 Sep 24NRC International Peer Review8 ILC input coupler: ≤16kW average power Fission Driver: 500 kW CW RF power has to propagate through input couplers and cavities to beam E-linac input coupler: ≤60kW average power Cornell/CPI-Eimac E-linac: design driven by challenges of 100% duty factor  high-power CW input coupler & limited choice of klystrons  2 kelvin heat loads in CW operation Linear Collider:  duty factor = 0.5%,  design is limited by accelerating gradient (31.5 MV/m)

9 2008 Sep 24NRC International Peer Review9 130 kW klystron 50 kW coupler Beam current Cavity gradient # cavitiesBeam energyBeam power 5 mA20 MV/m360 MeV300 kW 10 mA10 MV/m550 MeV500 kW 20 mA5 MV/m1050 MeV1 MW HP RF building block for e-linac E-linac RF unit = 100 kW/cavity

10 2008 Sep 24NRC International Peer Review10 e-GUN BUNCHER CAVITY BEAM TRANSPORT LINE 50 kW MAIN LINAC CRYOMODULE #1 25 kW INJECTOR LINAC e-GUN BUNCHER CAVITY BEAM TRANSPORT LINE 50 kW MAIN LINAC CRYOMODULE #2 MAIN LINAC CRYOMODULE #1 50 kW INJECTOR LINAC E-linac in plan 100 kW, 25 MeV E-linac in plan 500 kW, 50 MeV E-linac power distribution One 130 kW klystron/cavity

11 2008 Sep 24NRC International Peer Review11 E-Linac Baseline Layout Thermionic gun: triode; 100 keV; 650 MHz NC buncher Injector linac 10 MV/m, Q= mA, 5-10 MeV gain ≤ 100 kW beam pwr Two cryomodules Two 9-cell cavities/module, 10 MV/m, Q= mA, 40 MeV gain ≤ 400 kW beam pwr SRF Injector Main linac Focusing & diagnostic packages Division into injector & main linacs allows:  Possible expansion path to test-bed for  Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) – e.g. 10 mA, 80 MeV  Recirculating Linear Accelerator (RLA) – e.g. 2 mA, 160 MeV (acceleration & additional bunching) Module #1 Module #2

12 2008 Sep 24NRC International Peer Review12 Capitalize on existing equipment designs TESLA 9-cell cavities  Cornell/CPI 50 kW couplers  e2V/CPI klystrons Previous slides Tuner: Costing based on INFN blade/coaxial tuner. XFEL industrialisation makes Saclay/lateral tuner a strong candidate. RF-modulated Thermionic gun concept: NIKHEF-FELIX, Mistubishi XFEL-type ceramic HOM loads, or Cornell-type ferrite loads Normal conducting buncher cavity

13 2008 Sep 24NRC International Peer Review13 International Comparison Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility, Oakridge: 100 kW 25 MeV electrons provided by cascaded dual rhodotron accelerators. Presently, this proposal is active but unfunded. ALTO at Orsay performs target yield studies with 5 kW capable LEPP Injector Linac – but limited by shielding to 10 uA 50 MeV. E-linac is very competitive with respect to existing and other planned photo-fission based RIB facilities.

14 2008 Sep 24NRC International Peer Review14 International Comparison E-linac is a competitive and ambitious driver for γ-fission, yet in other arenas there are successful existing models for technical feasibility. Light sources Jefferson Lab IR-FEL: Accelerated (& energy recovered) up to 9.1 mA at 150 MeV. Cornell ERL Injector prototype (100 mA, 5 MeV) is ready for beam tests. Electron cooler ring for RHIC: proposed 22 MeV 0.5 Amp prototype Energy Recovery Linac Hi-energy Physics

15 2008 Sep 24NRC International Peer Review15 Activity in support of design effort E-linac development started May 2007  Local task force drawn from Accelerator Division  Deliverable: conceptual design and bottom-up resource estimation (manpower and M&S $) for all E-linac subsystems.  Presentations, spread sheets, etc, at elinac.triumf.ca Continuing seminar/visitor program:  Cornell: Charles Sinclair - electron gun;  Cornell: Sergei Belomestnykh - SRF linacs & High Power RF  NSF: John Weisend – cryomodule design & plant  TJNAF/JLab: Ed Daly – crymodule design & costing  LLNL: Brian Rusnak – high power input coupler design Informal Review, 23 Jan 2008: Joe Preble (JLab), Paolo Pierini (INFN/Milan) – suggestions for cryomodule.

16 2008 Sep 24NRC International Peer Review16 Activity in support of design effort Proposal from Lawrence Livermore Lab to Dept Of Energy ONS for collaboration with TRIUMF on high-power CW coupler design for FRIB. Competition results announced ≈ November Working with partners VECC Kolkata collaboration: MoU covers equipment (2 horizontal test cryostats and 9-cell cavities) and personnel (2 FTEs, first arrives 1st November). U. Toronto collaboration: 2 kelvin SCRF vertical test cryostat (see Laxdal/Grassellino talks) Formal Review (Accelerator Advisory Cttee), 3-4 April 2008: Hasan Padamsee (Cornell), Sergei Nagaitsev (FNAL), M. de Jong (CLS), M. Schippers (PSI), M. Lindroos (CERN), Y. Yano (RIKEN), C. Sinclair (Cornell).

17 2008 Sep 24NRC International Peer Review17 June 23 – Canada Foundation for Innovation announces e-linac proposal designated as a National Project application (not subject to institutional caps) June 30 - Official submission of Notice Of Intent to CFI signed by 14 Universities – lead institute = U.Victoria, Dean Karlen October 3 - Official deadline for full CFI application Recent Successes NIST/JLab electron gun donated to TRIUMF e-gun development station. Vacuum pumps and HV power supplies on order. Anticipate start beam characterization in 6 months.

18 2008 Sep 24NRC International Peer Review18 Summary E-Linac is central component of the TRIUMF 10-year vision.  The fission driver represents a major new RIB source – provides complementarity to proton-driven RIB production.  Suite of potential RIB applications  Nuclear/astro physics  Materials & molecular sciences  Life/medical sciences  Light source technology test bed  SCRF technology provides cost effective approach to MW- class fission driver and capitalizes on world-wide R&D  Participate in ILC and other SCRF projects world wide  E-Linac is well-matched to the scale of the TRIUMF facility and its accelerator expertise.  We can build this machine.

19 2008 Sep 24NRC International Peer Review19 For the back pocket?

20 2008 Sep 24NRC International Peer Review20 Total M$15.7

21 2008 Sep 24NRC International Peer Review21 Total =108 years

22 2008 Sep 24NRC International Peer Review22 Science Reviews Policy and Planning Advisory Cttee (PPAC), March University input/priorization of 5YP components Special Experimental Evaluation Cttee (SEEC), March International review panel Strong message from both: “get the science out early”. Staging Realization that greatest technical difficulty lies in the target station, not in the electron linear accelerator. Target power handling will be staged: 100 kW in 5YP, ½ MW by end of plan. Consequences: E-linac beam power will be staged, and 1 st beam delivery is advanced from 2014 to 2013.

23 2008 Sep 24NRC International Peer Review23 Technical Summary  L-band SCRF technology provides cost effective approach to MW-class fission driver.  There are cell, cavity, input coupler, HOM damper, tuner, klystron, IOT, cryostat and BPM designs all pre-existing – eliminates substantial R&D & cost.  C.W. operation poses some challenges c.f. TESLA/ILC – but these are being met by ERL light source designs.  Minor changes since 5YP document reflect refinement of the e- linac design consistent with “earliest science” and restoring full flexibility of original 1+4 layout via configuration.  Detailed costing and manpower estimation of the conceptual design gives confidence for 5YP and CFI requests

24 2008 Sep 24NRC International Peer Review24 Minor change since 5YP document reflects refinement of the e-linac design consistent with “earliest science” and restoring full flexibility of original 1+4 layout via configuration rather than 2+3 layout reported in 5YP YP Original Concept Refined Concept

25 2008 Sep 24NRC International Peer Review25 CW operation has other challenges:  Limited choice of c.w. klystrons, c.w. couplers  Higher heat load in all RF components: cavity, input coupler, HOM coupler/absorber, etc Fission driver, 10 MV/m 5 cavity ERL 20 MV/m 3 cavity TESLA TDR 23.4 MV/m 12 cavity 2K RF Load (W) K Sum (W) K Sum (W) K Coupler load K Sum (W) Beam power related CW related E-Linac 2K & 80K sums are 5×TESLA values, but < ½ # cavities

26 2008 Sep 24NRC International Peer Review26 Fission driver specification more relaxed than for ERL or ERL injector – many reasons!  FEL light source at ERLs need 6D high-brilliance  FEL e-beam time structure produces strong HOM loading  Fission driver has no such requirements - eliminates beam on target Daresbury ERLP JLab IR- FEL (1.5 GHz) Cornell ERL Injector ILCFission driver Charge/bunch (pC) Emittance (μm) normalized 1-2<3013/ Bunch length (ps) Bunch rep’ rate (MHz) Macro-pulse rep’ rate (Hz) 20c.w. 5 Beam energy (MeV) /cryo 50

27 2008 Sep 24NRC International Peer Review27


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