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Forces that Shape Earth and Geological Time!

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Presentation on theme: "Forces that Shape Earth and Geological Time!"— Presentation transcript:

1 Forces that Shape Earth and Geological Time!
CGC1D- Canadian Geography

2 Planet Earth Geologic History Landforms Rock Cycle
Cenozoic (66 mya – present) Mesozoic ( mya) Dinosaurs Paleozoic ( mya) Ancient Life Precambrian ( mya) Earliest Life Landforms Rock Cycle

3 Earth’s Interior HYDROSPHERE ATMOSPHERE Crust/Asthenosphere
Air ATMOSPHERE Water Crust/Asthenosphere km thick - cold & fragile Granite and Basalt Land LITHOSPHERE Mantle km thick - hot & molten - Magnesium and Silicon Outer Core km thick °C - liquid Nickel and Iron Inner Core km thick °C - solid Nickel and Iron

4 Geologic History Precambrian Era (Canadian Shield) Vulcanism Fault
Ancient Sea Igneous Rock

5 #1 - The Canadian (also called the Precambrian) Shield
1. Precambrian Canada #1 - The Canadian (also called the Precambrian) Shield the geologic core of the country ancient (4 billion years in some places), hard igneous rock from which all the other areas were created used to be a huge mountain range


7 Precambriam Extensive volcanic activity folding/faulting and erosion
Intrusive / extrusive igneous rock Cooling, creates Canadian Shield Foundation of Canada’s landmass Heat/Pressure (metamorphism) creates storehouse of Canada’s metallic mineral wealth Surrounded by ancient sea

8 Geologic History Paleozoic Era (Shallow seas) Erosion Erosion
Sediments Sediments Igneous Rock

9 #2 - The surrounding series of plains or lowlands
made of sedimentary rock most of the sediments were eroded from the ancient Precambrian Shield includes the Great Lakes - St. Lawrence Lowlands, the Interior Plains, the Hudson Bay Lowlands, and the Arctic Lowlands Erosion Deposition Transportation


11 Paleozoic con’t Extensive erosion, transportation (rivers), deposition of sediments from the Shield into adjacent seas Compression of sediments in ancient seas create sedimentary rock Today these sedimentary rocks form the bedrock for parts of every province Organisms in seas form basis of oil/gas deposits in west Swamps (tropical climate) create coal beds in east

12 Geologic History Late Paleozoic/ Early Mesozoic Era (Appalachians formed!) Erosion Sediments Sediments Igneous Rock Mountains Forming

13 Late Paleozoic, early Mesozoic!
Creation of super-continent Pangaea folds/faults/uplifts Appalachian mountains in the east NA is very tropical! Sediments keep on building up Breakup of Pangaea as NA Plate moves West colliding with the Pacific Plate

14 Finally, Cenozoic era creates today’s mountain ranges…
#3 - The mountainous rim also made up of, in part sediments from the ancient Shield, also with metamorphic rock unlike the flat lowland areas, the mountainous rim rocks have been uplifted by tectonic forces there are three main mountain areas that make up the mountainous rim

15 the Appalachian Mountains (the oldest and hence the lowest due to longer erosion)
the Innuitian Mountains of the very far north the Western Cordillera (the youngest, and highest, is actually a series of several different ranges dominated by the famous Rocky Mountains, the most easterly of the Cordilleran ranges)


17 Geologic History Cenozoic Era (last 65 million years!)

18 Glaciers!!! – ended about 20 000 years ago
Plate Collision 3. Mesozoic Canada Glaciers!!! – ended about years ago Western Cordillera Interior Plains Canadian Shield Great Lakes - St. Lawrence Lowlands Appalachians 4. Cenozoic Canada Landforms not seen (in the back) - Hudson Bay Lowlands, - Arctic Lowlands, - Innuitian Mountains

19 Intrusive Volcanic / tectonic activity begin to uplift the Coastal Range
Tectonic forces uplift the Rockies/and as the plate rotates NW the Innuitian Mountains. (Arctic) Dinosaurs roamed inland sea west of the Rockies (Red Deer Alberta) until end of Mesosoic Cenozoic: Rockies/Coastal Mntns. continue to form Volcanic Activity create plateaus between Rockies and Coastal Ranges

20 Rock Cycle Videos

21 Rock Cycle MAGMA Heats and melts Cools and hardens IGNEOUS METAMORPHIC
Weathers, erodes, and deposits Stresses or heats SEDIMENTARY

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