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Forces that Shape Earth and Geological Time! CGC1D- Canadian Geography.

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Presentation on theme: "Forces that Shape Earth and Geological Time! CGC1D- Canadian Geography."— Presentation transcript:

1 Forces that Shape Earth and Geological Time! CGC1D- Canadian Geography

2 Planet Earth 1.Geologic History 1.Cenozoic (66 mya – present) 2.Mesozoic ( mya) Dinosaurs 3.Paleozoic ( mya) Ancient Life 4.Precambrian ( mya) Earliest Life 2.Landforms 3.Rock Cycle

3 Earth’s Interior Crust/Asthenosph ere km thick - cold & fragile -Granite and - Basalt Mantle km thick - hot & molten - Magnesium and Silicon Outer Core km thick °C - liquid Nickel and Iron Inner Core km thick °C - solid Nickel and Iron Air Land Water LITHOSPHERE HYDROSPHEREATMOSPHERE

4 Geologic History Precambrian Era (Canadian Shield) Vulcanism Fault Ancient Sea Igneous Rock

5 #1 - The Canadian (also called the Precambrian) Shield the geologic core of the country ancient (4 billion years in some places), hard igneous rock from which all the other areas were created used to be a huge mountain range 1. Precambrian Canada

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7 Precambriam Extensive volcanic activity folding/faulting and erosion –Intrusive / extrusive igneous rock –Cooling, creates Canadian Shield –Foundation of Canada’s landmass –Heat/Pressure (metamorphism) creates storehouse of Canada’s metallic mineral wealth –Surrounded by ancient sea

8 Geologic History Paleozoic Era (Shallow seas) Igneous Rock Erosion Sediment s

9 #2 - The surrounding series of plains or lowlands made of sedimentary rock most of the sediments were eroded from the ancient Precambrian Shield includes the Great Lakes - St. Lawrence Lowlands, the Interior Plains, the Hudson Bay Lowlands, and the Arctic Lowlands Erosion Deposition Transportation

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11 Paleozoic con’t Extensive erosion, transportation (rivers), deposition of sediments from the Shield into adjacent seas Compression of sediments in ancient seas create sedimentary rock Today these sedimentary rocks form the bedrock for parts of every province Organisms in seas form basis of oil/gas deposits in west Swamps (tropical climate) create coal beds in east

12 Geologic History Late Paleozoic/ Early Mesozoic Era (Appalachians formed!) Erosion Sediments Mountains Forming Igneous Rock

13 Late Paleozoic, early Mesozoic! Creation of super-continent Pangaea folds/faults/uplifts Appalachian mountains in the east NA is very tropical! Sediments keep on building up Breakup of Pangaea as NA Plate moves West colliding with the Pacific Plate

14 #3 - The mountainous rim also made up of, in part sediments from the ancient Shield, also with metamorphic rock unlike the flat lowland areas, the mountainous rim rocks have been uplifted by tectonic forces there are three main mountain areas that make up the mountainous rim Finally, Cenozoic era creates today’s mountain ranges…

15 the Appalachian Mountains (the oldest and hence the lowest due to longer erosion) the Innuitian Mountains of the very far north the Western Cordillera (the youngest, and highest, is actually a series of several different ranges dominated by the famous Rocky Mountains, the most easterly of the Cordilleran ranges)

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17 Geologic History Cenozoic Era (last 65 million years!) Mountains Forming Igneous Rock Sedimentary Mountains Eroding Sedimentary Plains PACIFIC OCEAN ROCKY MOUNTAINS INTERIOR PLAINS CANADIAN SHIELD APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS ATLANTIC OCEAN

18 Landforms not seen (in the back) - Hudson Bay Lowlands, - Arctic Lowlands, - Innuitian Mountains Western Cordillera Interior Plains Canadian Shield Great Lakes - St. Lawrence Lowlands Appalachians 4. Cenozoic Canada Plate Collision 3. Mesozoic Canada Glaciers !!! – ended about years ago

19 Intrusive Volcanic / tectonic activity begin to uplift the Coastal Range Tectonic forces uplift the Rockies/and as the plate rotates NW the Innuitian Mountains. (Arctic) Dinosaurs roamed inland sea west of the Rockies (Red Deer Alberta) until end of Mesosoic Cenozoic: Rockies/Coastal Mntns. continue to form Volcanic Activity create plateaus between Rockies and Coastal Ranges

20 Rock Cycle Videos el_tQ&feature=relatedhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K8dDq3 el_tQ&feature=related yrzUhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EcfstbQ yrzU

21 Rock Cycle MAGMA IGNEOUS SEDIMENTARY METAMORPHIC Cools and hardens Weathers, erodes, and deposits Stresses or heats Heats and melts


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