Presentation on theme: "Sexual Orientation & Gender Identity: Individual Rights & Equality"— Presentation transcript:
1 Sexual Orientation & Gender Identity: Individual Rights & Equality By: Robyn Hardern
2 Overview Definitions Rights Training Programs Controversial Issues The Ally CardThe Health CurriculumBill 18ResearchGuidelines for Practice
3 DefinitionsSexual orientation: refers to the sex of those to whom one is sexually and romantically attracted.Gender Identity: one’s sense of the self as male, female, or transgenderTransgender: gender id, expression, behaviour different from assigned sexTranssexual: gender id different from assigned sexOften alter body with surgery/hormonesGender expression: the way one acts to communicate gender within a given culture (clothing, communication patterns)I thought it would be important to clarify some different definitions.Sexual orientation refers to the sex of those to whom one is attracted to. Common examples would be straight, gay, lesbian, or bisexual.Gender identity refers to one’s feelings of being male, female, or transgenderTransgender refers to people whose gender identity, expression or behaviour are not in line with the sex they were assigned at birth, leading to feelings of discomfort, and transsexual individuals do not identify with the sex they were assigned at birth and often, but not always make alterations to make their bodies more in line with their gender identityGender expression refers to how one acts to communicate their gender, which can include their clothing, or the way they communicationIt may or may not be consistent with socially prescribed gender roles or gender identity.American Psychological Association, 2011.
4 The Charter of Rights & Freedoms Fundamental freedomsConscience and religionThought, belief, opinion and expression, including freedom of the press and other media of communicationPeaceful assemblyAssociationEquality Rights(1) Every individual is equal before and under the law and has the right to the equal protection and equal benefit of the law without discrimination and, in particular, without discrimination based on race, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, sex, age or mental or physical disability.Affirmative action programs(2) Subsection (1) does not preclude any law, program or activity that has as its object the amelioration of conditions of disadvantaged individuals or groups including those that are disadvantaged because of race, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, sex, age or mental or physical disability.Enforcement of guaranteed rights and freedoms(1) Anyone whose rights or freedoms, as guaranteed by this Charter, have been infringed or denied may apply to a court of competent jurisdiction to obtain such remedy as the court considers appropriate and just in the circumstances.Since we’ve covered the charter a lot this term already, I won’t focus on it too much here, but it’s important to go over quickly to reference for later discussions and to see how it pertains to recent issuesThe fundamental freedoms in the Canadian Charter of Rights and freedoms include freedom of conscience and religion, freedom of thought, belief, opinion, and expression, freedom of peaceful assembly, and freedom of associationIt also states that every individual is equal before and under the law and has rights without discrimination based on race, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, sx, age or mental or physical disability.One thing I would like to discuss here is a recent article Barry brought to my attention.The Queen just signed a new commonwealth charter that states “We are implacably opposed to all forms of discrimination, whether rooted in gender, race, colour, creed, political belief or other grounds.’The majority of individuals have interpreted ‘other grounds’ as support for lesbian and gay issues, though others are still concerned since it doesn’t actually use concrete terms that refer to sexual orientationIf you’ll notice our charter also does not refer to sexual orientation – do you think this is something that should be changed?Finally, I’ll bring your attention to the last section that states anyone whose rights or freedoms have been denied may apply to a court of competent jurisdiction to obtain remedy.Canadian Charter of Rights and FreedomsThe Voice of Russia, March 11, 2013.
5 Canadian Human Rights Act 2. All individuals should have an opportunity equal with other individuals to make for themselves the lives that they are able and wish to have and to have their needs accommodated, without being hindered in or prevented from doing so by discriminatory practicesProscribed Discrimination3. (1) Prohibited grounds of discrimination are race, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, age, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, family status, disability and conviction for an offence for which a pardon has been granted or in respect of which a record suspension has been ordered.The purpose of the Canadian Human Rights act is to extend the laws in Canada to give effect, within the purview of matters coming within the legislative authority of Parliament, to the principle that all individuals should have an opportunity equal with other individuals to make for themselves the lives that they are able and wish to have and to have their needs accommodated, consistent with their duties and obligations as members of society, without being hindered in or prevented from doing so by discriminatory practices based on race, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, age, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, family status, disability or conviction for an offence for which a pardon has been granted or in respect of which a record suspension has been ordered.The act also mentions prohibited grounds of discrimination which includes sexual orientationFor all purposes of this Act, the prohibited grounds of discrimination are race, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, age, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, family status, disability and conviction for an offence for which a pardon has been granted or in respect of which a record suspension has been ordered.Canadian Human Rights Act
6 School District No. 44 (North Vancouver) v. Jubran, 2005 BCCA 201 Jubran was the victim of homophobic harassmentCalled names & physically assaultedB.C. Human Rights TribunalConduct was harassment on basis of sexual orientationSchool district responsible for discrimination in learning environmentB.C. Supreme CourtTribunal erred – Jubran is not homosexual & harassers did not believe he wasCourt of AppealAgreed with B.C. Human Rights TribunalEmphasis should be on effects of taunts, not intentions and beliefs of harassersThe school was found liableI would like to talk about a case that is relevant to the Canadian Human Rights Act I just discussed.A student in Vancouver was found to be the victim of harassment in his school. Students called him names such as homo and queer, and punched, kicked, spat on him, and burned his shirt. It is important to note that this student is not actually a homosexualThe B.C. Human Rights Tribunal found that the conduct was harassment on the basis of sexual orientation, regardless of his actual sexual orientation and whether the others believed he was homosexual or notThey also stated that it was the school district’s responsibility to provide a non-discriminatory learning environment.The B.C. supreme court stated that the tribunal erred since this student was not homosexual and the harassers didn’t necessarily believe he wasThe case was brought to the court of appeal and they agreed with the initial decisions of the tribunalCanadian Human Rights Reporter, 2013; CanLii.org, 2005
7 The Rainbow Resource Centre Awareness & Training ProgramsLGBTTQ Awareness TrainingLGBTTQ Ally TrainingSchool & Classroom PresentationsYouth Educating Against Homophobia (YEAH)Creating a Gay-Straight Alliance (GSA)Trans Awareness & Competence TrainingGender Identity & Awareness TrainingGender Identity & Awareness Training for Social Service ProvidersTransgender & Gender Non-conforming Students in School SettingsAs clinicians and teachers, it is important to know what kind of training is available for us to build upon our competencies and awarenessThe Rainbow Resource Centre, located in Winnipeg, is an organization that represents and supports Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans, Two-Spirit, Intersex, Queer, Questioning and Ally Individuals, Communities and Families by offering education and outreach services, counselling and other programsTheir goal is to build a society where diverse sexual and gender identities, orientations, and expressions are included, valued, and celebrated.They offer a number of education programs and workshopsLGBTTQ Awareness Training provides general knowledge to individuals who wish to broaden their understanding of sexual orientation, and gender identity and expression. This workshop teachers individuals how to identify homophobia, biphobia, transphobia and heterosexism from a personal, social, cultural, and systemic frameworkThey recommend that all members of education, social services and healthcare organizations attend this session prior to taking Ally Training.Ally training helps individuals to identify, speak out, and stand up for a person or group that is targeted or discriminated against based on sexual orientation, gender identity, and gender expressionallies work to end oppression by supporting and advocating for people who are stigmatized, discriminated, or treated unfairly because of who they are.Anyone can be an ally, meaning you do not have to identify as LGBTTQ, but they support the LGBTTQ* community by standing up against homophobia, biphobia, transphobia and heterosexism to promote an affirming and safer environment, community, and societyAfter completing this training session, you are given an ally cardThe Rainbow Resource Centre states that this program is ideal for teachers, school administrators, counselors, therapists and business peopleThey also offer some presentations for students in schoolsThe YEAH program involves Trained youth educators who speak to students either by workshop or facilitating discussions on celebrating diversity as well as the impacts of homophobia on all people.It has been delivered to students from elementary to high school Using age appropriate teaching and learning modules.students learn how to identify and combat school based bullying and discrimination, and how to be stronger role models for their peers and school community.There is also a presentation on how to create a Gay Straight Alliance.Usually, GSAs are teacher supervised, however, the students themselves initiate and deliver the programmingThe Rainbow Resource Centre also provides cultural competence training on gender, gender identity, and gender expression. Issues relevant to transgender, transsexual, gender non-conforming individuals and families are discussed including how assumptions and stereotypes impact and affect all people. These workshops include building capacity and embracing inclusivity through a gender lens perspective. Sessions also include the impact of homophobia, biphobia, transphobia and heterosexism on gender and gender identityAll of these are appropriate for healthcare providers, social service providers, teachers/education assistants/ and school administrators, though the transgender and gender nonconforming students in school settings is especially recommended for teachers, guidance counsellors, education assistants, school trustees, educational consultants, and support staff
8 Teachers as Child Advocates Tendency to take on advocacy rolesNatural advocates due to day-to-day contactCan act as advocate in school system or via external resourcesAdvocacy role becoming increasingly complexImportance of co-opting and coordinating servicesFor those of us who are or will be working in schools, we often feel the tendency to take on roles as advocates for students.This is natural given our frequent contact with students, especially those with special needsWe can act as advocates within schools to gain better services or as we’ve seen in the previous slide, by making use of external resources, such as the Rainbow Resource CentreThe role as an advocate is becoming increasingly complex with so many services and resources available.It is important for teachers to coordinate since groups of teachers can help promote child advocacy positively in school systems and often more effectively than one teacher standing aloneTeachers and the Law
9 Ally CardsAs an Ally, I envision a society that embraces, values and celebrates diverse sexual orientations, gender identities and gender expressions. As an Ally, I support lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, Two-Spirit, intersex, queer, and questioning individuals, families, and communities. As an Ally, I work towards a more aware, affirming, safe and open work environment in both policy and practice. As an Ally, I acknowledge that creating a safe space is an unwavering process that requires productive commitment, re-assessment, and dedication. As an Ally, I am committed to the elimination of homophobia, biphobia, transphobia, and heterosexism as well as other forms of oppression.As discussed earlier, an Ally is someone who accepts, appreciates and celebrates lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth.They are an important part in ending homophobia and are great resources and supports for LGBT youthThey play an important role in ending the isolation felt by LGBT youth and help to provide them with opportunities to meet and interact with other youth, and to seek support from adult alliesSince these Youth often report that they are unable to identify supportive adults, they are often prevented from seeking supportThe Ally card program helps students identify safe and supportive people by providing Allies with a card to display in their spaceThe cards feature a rainbow flag with the word “Ally” on the front, and have this pledge written on it
10 Training Programs - WSD All permanent and term staff attended mandatory one-half day human rights/anti-homophobia workshopsAs new permanent or term employees are hired, they must attend a one-half day human rights/anti- homophobia workshopThe Winnipeg School Division passed a motion in 1999 that all Division staff attend a series of workshops to ensure board expectations regardingenforcement of existing anti-racist, anti-harassment policies are known and to ensure strategies are in place to address these matters•in the fall of 1999, all school administrators, senior administrative staff and school trustees participated in mandatory workshops on obligations and liabilities under the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, Manitoba Human Rights Legislation and Division policies.•All permanent and term staff attended mandatory half day human rights/anti-homophobia workshops and all new permanent or term employees hired must attend these half day human rights/anti-homophobia workshops as well•currently over 6,000 employees have attended these mandatory inservices to combat intolerance and discrimination and they have been well-received with more than 90 per cent positive feedback
11 Training Programs Should students in schools attend workshops? Should these be optional?What grades should be involved?Should these workshops be optional or mandatory for staff members?In addressing the variety of training programs that are available for students and staff, and seeing that Winnipeg School Division made it mandatory for their staff to attend anti-homophobia workshops, I would like to ask you all the following questions:First, in your opinion, should workshops be provided for students in their schools. If so, should the workshops be optional and what grades should be involved.Next, should these workshops be mandatory for staff members? And should this apply to religious schools as well?
12 The Health Curriculum K-12 General Learning Outcome: “The student will demonstrate the ability to make informed decisions for healthy living related to personal health practices, active living, healthy nutritional practices, substance use and abuse, and human sexuality”Parental Option:“Parents may choose a school-based or alternative delivery of potentially sensitive content (human sexuality). Parents have the right to opt for alternative delivery (e.g., home, professional counselling) for their child where the content is in conflict with family, religious, and/or cultural values.”The General learning outcome for k-12 students includes the ability to make informed decisions for healthy living related to personal health practices, active living, healthy nutritional practices, substance use and abuse, and human sexualityParents are given the option to have their children opt out of any sensitive topics(in grade 5 they discuss the ability to make informed decisions for healthy living related to personal health practices, active living, healthy nutritional practices, substance use and abuse, and human sexuality)
13 What grades should include this information? The Health CurriculumShould students be able to opt out of parts of the health curriculum that pertain to gender diversity?Should the health curriculum contain information specific to homosexuality?I have a few more questions for youWhat grades should include this information?
14 BILL 18: THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS AMENDMENT ACT (SAFE AND INCLUSIVE SCHOOLS) Respect for Human Diversity PolicyPromote and enhance:Safe & inclusive learning environmentAcceptance of and respect for othersCreation of a positive school environmentAddress training for teachers and other staffStudent Activities and OrganizationsPromote awareness and understanding of, and respect for, people of all sexual orientations and gender identitiesUse the name "gay-straight alliance" or any other name that is consistent with the promotion of a positive school environment that is inclusive and accepting of all pupils1.2(1) In this Act, "bullying" is behaviour that(a) is intended to cause, or should be known to cause, fear, intimidation, humiliation, distress or other forms of harm to another person's body, feelings, self-esteem, reputation or property; or(b) is intended to create, or should be known to create, a negative school environment for another person.1.2(2) Bullying(b) may be direct or indirect; and(a) characteristically takes place in a context of a real or perceived power imbalance between the people involved and is typically, but need not be, repeated behaviour;(c) may take place(i) by any form of expression, including written, verbal or physical, or(ii) by means of any form of electronic communication — also referred to as cyberbullying in section — including social media, text messaging, instant messaging, websites or .1.2(3) A person participates in bullying if he or she directly carries out the bullying behaviour or intentionally assists or encourages the bullying behaviour in any way.4(1) Subsection 41(1) is amended(a) by replacing clause (b.2) with the following:(b.2) ensure that a written policy is established respecting the appropriate use of(ii) digital cameras, cell phones — including cell phones equipped with digital cameras — and any other electronic or personal communication devices identified by the board;(i) the Internet, including social media, text messaging, instant messaging, websites and , and(b) by adding the following after clause (b.3):(b.4) establish a written policy concerning respect for human diversity, and ensure that the policy is implemented in each school in the school division or school district;4(2) The following is added as subsections 41(1.5) to (1.8):41(1.5) An appropriate use policy established under clause (1)(b.2) may include provisions that prohibit the accessing, uploading, downloading, sharing or distribution of information or material that the school board has determined to be objectionable or not in keeping with the maintenance of a positive school environment.Appropriate use policy for Internet, etc.Respect for human diversity policy41(1.6) A respect for human diversity policy is to(i) a safe and inclusive learning environment,(a) promote and enhance(ii) the acceptance of and respect for others, and(iii) the creation of a positive school environment; and(b) address training for teachers and other staff about(ii) strategies for promoting respect for human diversity and a positive school environment.(i) bullying prevention, andRegard for principles of human rights41(1.7) In preparing its respect for human diversity policy, a school board must have due regard for the principles of The Human Rights Code.Student activities and organizations(a) promote41(1.8) A respect from human diversity policy must accommodate pupils who want to establish and lead activities and organizations that(i) gender equity,(ii) antiracism,(iii) the awareness and understanding of, and respect for, people who are disabled by barriers, or(b) use the name "gay-straight alliance" or any other name that is consistent with the promotion of a positive school environment that is inclusive and accepting of all pupils.(iv) the awareness and understanding of, and respect for, people of all sexual orientations and gender identities; and5(1) Subsection 47.1(2) is amended(a) in subclause (b)(i.1), by striking out ", including cyber-bullying"; and(b) by replacing clause (d) with the following:(d) a statement that pupils and staff must adhere to school board policies and the provisions of the code of conduct respecting the appropriate use of(ii) digital cameras, cell phones and other electronic or personal communication devices identified in the code of conduct or the policies of the school board; and5(2) Subsection 47.1(2.1) is repealed.6 Clause (6)(b) is replaced with the following:7 The following is added after section and before the centred heading that follows it:(b) bullying another pupil.Expanded duty to report cyberbullying47.1.2(1) A person who is subject to a duty under subsection (1) must, if they become aware that a pupil of a school may have(a) engaged in cyberbullying; orreport the matter to the principal of the school as soon as reasonably possible.(b) been negatively affected by cyberbulling;
15 Safe & Caring Schools The broad anti-bullying strategy includes: Teacher training supports, workshops and other professional learning opportunities, and ongoing support for the Respect in School initiativeOnline information and resources on how to recognize, deal with and report bullying for parentsHelp for studentsGoals:Support students, broaden reporting, respect diversityAddress role of social media in bullyingAllow student-supported initiatives at schools aimed at promoting an inclusive environmentProtecting students from bullying is an important priority for the provincial government,Education Minister Nancy introduced this comprehensive anti-bullying action plan to further protect students and create safe and inclusive environments.She states We all share a responsibility to work together to provide safe schools where all students feel respected and can reach their full potentialThe strategy includes:help for teachers including expanded training supports, workshops and other professional learning opportunities, and ongoing support for the Respect in School initiative;help for parents including new online information and resources online on how to recognize, deal with and report bullying; andhelp for students including strengthened anti-bullying legislation and the Tell Them From Me Survey to allow schools to hear directly from students about bullying.The ultimate goal is to provide students with the tools and language needed when faced with conflict in a constructive and positive way.The administration, guidance and teaching staff should work together to provide an advocacy program to addresses an anti-bullying action planthe New legislation will also address issues of social media in bullyingIt will also allow student-supported initiatives at schools aimed at promoting an inclusive environment such as clubs and activities that promote gender equality and respect for people of all sexual orientations and gender identities, anti‑racism and respect for people who are disabled by barriersManitoba Education, 2012
16 Bill 18 & Gay-Straight Alliances Student-run clubs that provide a safe place for students to:Meet, support, & talk about sexual orientation, gender identity, & expressionStrive to end homophobia & transphobiaGay-Straight Alliances, a component of Bill 18, are student-run clubs that provide a safe place for students to meet, support each other, and discuss sexual orientation, gender identity, and expression, and work to combat homophobia and transphobia
17 Discrimination and Harassment C.C.S.M. c. H175 Differential treatment of an individual on the basis of:The individual's actual or presumed membership in or association with some class or group of persons, rather than on the basis of personal merit;Any characteristic referred to in subsection (2)The individual's or group's actual or presumed association with another individual or group whose identity or membership is determined by any characteristic referred to in subsection (2)Failure to make reasonable accommodation for the special needs of any individual or group, if those special needs are based upon any characteristic referred to in subsection (2).According to the Manitoba Human Rights code, "Discrimination" means(a) differential treatment of an individual on the basis of the individual's actual or presumed membership in or association with some class or group of persons, rather than on the basis of personal merit; or(b) differential treatment of an individual or group on the basis of any characteristic referred to in subsection (2); or(c) differential treatment of an individual or group on the basis of the individual's or group's actual or presumed association with another individual or group whose identity or membership is determined by any characteristic referred to in subsection (2); or(d) failure to make reasonable accommodation for the special needs of any individual or group, if those special needs are based upon any characteristic referred to in subsection (2).9(1.1) discrimination" includes any act or omission that results in discrimination within the meaning of subsection (1), regardless of(a) the form of the act or omission; and(b) whether the person responsible for the act or omission intended to discriminate.9(2) The applicable characteristics among many others include religion, religious beliefs, religious association or activity, gender identity and sexual orientationThe Human Rights Code
18 Creating Safe & Affirming Schools 2009 National Climate Survey:Hearing biased or homophobic remarksFeeling unsafeMissing classesExperiences of harassment/assaultA study was done to address the experiences of LGBT youth in U.S. Schools.The researchers examined the experiences of these students with regard to indicators of negative school climate, which included:Hearing biased or homophobic remarks in schools, feeling unsafe due to sexual orientation, gender expression or race and ethnicity, missing school due to safety reasons, and experiences of harassment or assault in schoolKosciw, J. G., Greytak, E. A., Diaz, E. M., Bartkiewicz, M. J. (2009)
19 Creating Safe & Affirming Schools Hostile School Environments:72.4% heard homophobic remarks61.1% felt unsafe84.6% verbally & 40.1% physically harassed18.8% physically assaulted52.9% experienced cyber-bullyingAbsenteesLowered education aspiration/academic achievementPoorer psychological well-beingThe results of this study showed that:72.4% heard other homophobic remarks frequently or often at school.61.1% felt unsafe at school because of their sexual orientation84.6% were verbally harassed and 40.1% were physically harassed at school in the past year because of their sexual orientation18.8% were physically assaulted because of their sexual orientation52.9% of LGBT students were harassed or threatened by peers with electronic mediums62.4% of students who were harassed or assaulted in school did not report the incident to school staff, because they thought nothing would be done about it or the situation would become worse, and 33.8% of those who did report an incident said that school staff did nothing in response.Problem: AbsenteeismMany LGBT students feel as though they have to miss classes or whole days of school rather where they face constant harassment.Problem: Lowered Educational Aspirations and Academic Achievementexperiencing in-school victimization hinders academic success and educational aspirations.these students had grade point averages almost half a grade lower than those who did not experience harrassmentthey were more likely to report that they did not plan on any post-secondary educationProblem: Poorer Psychological Well-BeingExperiencing harassment and assault in school was related to lower psychological well-being. LGBT students who experienced high levels of victimization had higher levels of depression and anxiety and lower levels of self-esteem than those who reported lower levels of those types of victimization.Kosciw, J. G., Greytak, E. A., Diaz, E. M., Bartkiewicz, M. J. (2009)
20 Creating Safe & Affirming Schools Comprehensive bullying/harassment legislationBullying/harassment policiesSupport student clubsAddress LGBT issues in educationTraining for staffIncrease student access to appropriate & accurate informationTo address these issues, the authors recommend the following:Advocate for bullying and harassment legislation at the state and federal levels that specifically address sexual orientation, gender identity, and gender expression as protected categoriesCreate comprehensive bullying and harassment policies that specifically address sexual orientation, gender identity, and gender expression in individual schools and districts, with clear guidelines for reporting and addressing incidentsSupport student clubs and address LGBT issues in educationProvide workshops for school staff to improve intervention and increase the number of supportive teachers;and Increase accessibility to appropriate and accurate information regarding LGBT topics through inclusive curriculum, library, and Internet resources.Kosciw, J. G., Greytak, E. A., Diaz, E. M., Bartkiewicz, M. J. (2009)
21 Research in Canada “Tell Them From Me” (Manitoba) National Study Grade 4-12How often bullying happensWhen/whereWhat would make students feel safeNational StudyTeachers’ perceptions of homophobia in schoolsCompare to student perceptionsWhat resources do teachers need?There are a few studies being conducted in Canada to address bullying and homophobia.First, the Tell them from me survey that was just launched will ask students in grades 4 – 12 different questions about bullying.A national Study is also being done to find out more about teachers’ perceptions of homophobia and compare that to what students think. The goal of this study is to find out what resources teachers would find beneficial and what they have tried that has or has not worked in combating homophobiaGovernment of Manitoba, March 7, 2013; Martin, N., October 12, 2012.
22 Guidelines for Psychological Practice with Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Clients Attitudes Toward Homosexuality & BisexualityUnderstand the effects of stigma & contextual manifestationsLesbian, gay, and bisexual orientations are not mental illnessesSame-sex attractions, feelings, and behavior are normal variants of human sexualityRecognize own attitudes/beliefsRecognize unique experiences of bisexual individualsDistinguish sexual orientation from gender identityRelationships & FamiliesGain knowledge & respect the importance of relationshipsUnderstand experiences & challengesUnderstand ways orientation may impact family of origin & relationshipIssues of DiversityChallenges related to multiple or conflicting norms, values, & beliefsInfluences of religion & spiritualityUnique problems/risks that exist for youthRecognize challengesEducation & TrainingIncrease knowledge/understanding through continuing education/trainingAmerican Psychological Association, 2011
23 ReferencesAmerican Psychological Association. (2011). Practice Guidelines for LGB Clients: Guidelines for Psychological Practice with Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Clients. Retrieved from:American Psychological Association. (2011). The Guidelines for Psychological Practice with Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Clients, adopted by the APA Council of Representatives, February 18-20, Retrieved from: definitions.pdfCanadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Retrieved from:Canadian Human Rights Act. Retrieved from:Canadian Human Rights Reporter. Homophobic harassment by student breaches code. Retrieved from: reporter.ca/hr_topics/sexual-orientation/homophobic-harassment-student-breaches-codeCanLii. (2005). School District No. 44 (North Vancouver) v. Jubran, 2005 BCCA 201. Retrieved from:Government of Manitoba. (2013). The Human Rights Code. Retrieved from:Government of Manitoba. (2013, March 7). Province supports interactive online student survey tool to prevent bullying, make schools safer: Minister announces safe and inclusive schools forum. Retrieved from:Kosciw, J. G., Greytak, E. A., Diaz, E. M., and Bartkiewicz, M. J. (2010). The 2009 National School Climate Survey: The experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth in our nation’s schools. New York: GLSEN.Manitoba Education. (2012). Safe and Caring Schools. Retrieved from: 01&item=15793Martin, N. (2012, October 12). National study to quiz teachers on homophobia. Retrieved from:Teachers as social welfare agents. Teachers and the law (pp ).The Voice of Russia. (2013, March 11). The queen to sign historic charter promoting gay rights across the Commonwealth. Retrieved from: