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1.Morphological Process Is Defined As a Process by Which on Morpheme Is Combined With Other in Order to Make Morphological Construction.

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Presentation on theme: "1.Morphological Process Is Defined As a Process by Which on Morpheme Is Combined With Other in Order to Make Morphological Construction."— Presentation transcript:

1 1.Morphological Process Is Defined As a Process by Which on Morpheme Is Combined With Other in Order to Make Morphological Construction.

2 The Morphological Process of English Words Are: a. Affixation, is morphological process that takes place by adding affix (es) to the stem, e.g. Disagreement, books. a. Affixation, is morphological process that takes place by adding affix (es) to the stem, e.g. Disagreement, books. b. Reduplication, is morphological process that take place by the repetation of the base, e.g. sayur-mayur, tetangga, zig-zag. b. Reduplication, is morphological process that take place by the repetation of the base, e.g. sayur-mayur, tetangga, zig-zag. c. Internal change or vowel change, is morphological process that take place by change of the sound inside stem, e.g. winwon run ran c. Internal change or vowel change, is morphological process that take place by change of the sound inside stem, e.g. winwon run ran d. Supletion, is morphological process that take place by the total change of the stem, d. Supletion, is morphological process that take place by the total change of the stem, e.g. Go went e.g. Go went good better, etc e. Zero allomorph, is morphological process that take place by seemingly no change of the form, e.g. cost, let, shut, etc. e. Zero allomorph, is morphological process that take place by seemingly no change of the form, e.g. cost, let, shut, etc.

3 2. Morphophonemic is defined as a study of phoneme representation of morphemes in different environment.

4 The Morphophonemics classified, are: a. Verb stem is ended with alveolar stop /t/, or /d/, past tense morpheme is pronounced as /Id/, thus: Visitedpronounced as/vIsItId/ Intendedpronounced as/IntEndId/ Wantedpronounced as/wOntId/ b. Ends in voiceless other than /t/ as i.e./f, k, s, ts/, it is pronounced as /t/, thus: Stoppedpronounced as/stOpt/ Stoppedpronounced as/stOpt/ Switchedpronounced as/swItst/ Switchedpronounced as/swItst/ Leakedpronounced as/li:kt/ Leakedpronounced as/li:kt/ c. Ends in voiced sound other than /d/ or environment, plural morpheme is pronounced as /d/, thus: c. Ends in voiced sound other than /d/ or environment, plural morpheme is pronounced as /d/, thus: Diedpronounced as/daId/ Roamedpronounced as/roUmd/ Sinnedpronounced as/sInd/ Followed pronounced as/fOloUd/

5 3. Language change, is part of old English and modern English.

6 Language change, divide into : Sound change, one of the most obvious differences between modern English and English spoken in earlier periods is in the quality of the vowel sound. Old English modern English wi:fwayf(wife) spo:nspu:n(spoon) - The change known as metathesis involves a reversal in position of two adjoining sound. For examples : frist first, hros horse, etc. The addition of sound to the middle of a word is known as epenthesis. Examples are: aemtig empty, s[inel spindle, etc. The addition of a sound to the beginning of word is called prothesis. It is very common in the change of pronunciation of some form Latin to Spanish, examples: schola escuela (school), spiritus aspiritu (spirit).

7 e.g. the subject can follow the verb: fērde he (he traveled) the object can follow the verb: hē hine geseah (he saw him) the beginning of the sentence: him man ne sealde (no man gave [any] to him) c. Lexical change, the most obvious way which modern English differs lexically from old English is in the number of borrowed words, particularly words of Latin and Greek. b. Syntactic change, some noticeable differences between the structure of sentences in old and modern English involve word order. In old English texts find subject-verb- object ordering most common in modern English, but also find a number of different orders which are no longer possible

8 - Broadening of meaning is the change from holi day as a religious feast to the very general break from work holiday. The modern use of the word dog, use it very generally, to refer to all breeds, but its older form (old English docga), it was only used for one particular breed. Broadening is the change process of meaning word into general meaning. - Narrowing, has overtaken the old English word hund, once used for any kind of dog, but now, as hound, used only for some specific breeds. The old English version of the word wife could be used of any women, but narrowed in its application to only married woman. A different kind of narrowing can lead to a negative meaning for words that previously were simply ordinary (= vulgar) or worth noting (= naughty). Narrowing is the words meaning that has change into specific terms.


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