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Dr. Anthony Anyia Senior Scientist & Acting Manager, Bioresource Technologies, Alberta Innovates – Tech Futures June 23, 2010 Water use efficiency and.

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Presentation on theme: "Dr. Anthony Anyia Senior Scientist & Acting Manager, Bioresource Technologies, Alberta Innovates – Tech Futures June 23, 2010 Water use efficiency and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dr. Anthony Anyia Senior Scientist & Acting Manager, Bioresource Technologies, Alberta Innovates – Tech Futures June 23, 2010 Water use efficiency and barley production on the Canadian Prairies 21st BMBRI Triennial Barley Improvement Meeting held in Guelph

2 Challenges of Crop Production on the Prairies – demonstrated through News Releases by CWB 1.June 11, 2010: Wet weather severely impairs crop prospects across the Prairies 2.June 11, 2009: Cold spring, dry fields lower 2009 crop prospects in Western Canada 3.June 12, 2008: Rains help boost 2008 crop estimates, cold spring a concern 4.June 14, 2007: Wet spring lowers Prairie wheat acres, increases barley 5.June 10, 2004: Moisture conditions improve across Western Canada but dry pockets remain 6.June 12, 2003: Improved moisture conditions good news for prairie farmers 7.August 6, 2003: Hot, dry July plays havoc with crops across the prairies

3 Vegreville AB, 2002, courtesy AAFC  Short and dry growing season  Insufficient growing season rainfall  Drought and heat stress in summer  Long and cold winter  Spring and fall frost common Characteristics of Canadian Prairies Vegreville AB, April 2007  Occasional flooding and water logging in spring  Seeding delayed due to water logged field  Fields may be abandoned due to water logged soils or drought

4 Canadian yields are lower than most other leading producers Canada is a major producer of barley Despite the challenges, Canada is a major world producer of barley

5  Breeding progress is masked by genotype by location variation in yield  Low yields can be attributed to poor growing conditions prevalent on the prairies Canadian barley and wheat yields in comparison to yields in China China: W = 50%; B = 60% Canada: W = 5%; B = 0% Severe drought year in Alberta Source: FAOStat

6  Low moisture + high temp = very low yield  Good moisture + high temp = below average yield Yield (data label = tonnes/ha) Weather conditions, Vegreville Barley yield depend on both moisture and temperature  Good moisture + moderate temp = above average yield

7  Improved management of the cropping systems ( Agronomic research still essential )  Genetic improvement ( direct vs. indirect selection )  Experience show that targeting of underlying physiological traits that limit yield can contribute to substantial yield improvements ( there are only few successful examples )  To be useful, physiological traits should be easy to score and have no yield penalty under favorable conditions  Many breeders are already taking advantage of advances in genomics and genetic mapping in breeding programs ( more still need to be done ) Can we further improve yield and yield stability? Bridging the gap between breeders, physiologists & ‘omics

8 Life-cycle of a typical cereal crop Stages: Establishment & Growth Foundation for future yield Post-Anthesis determinant of actual yield Phase:ReproductiveVegetative Pre-Anthesis Formation of yield potential Adapted from Anyia et al., 2008 Usually good moisture Moisture is limiting Drought and heat stress Growth Conditions Adapted from Anyia et al., 2008

9 Genetic improvement of crops Use more of the water supply - Increase water use - Decrease soil evaporation Better exchange of water for CO2 -Increase water use efficiency Early seedling vigour (Leaf area, SLA, LAI) Increase TE (carbon isotope discrimination) Increase stem reserves (non structural CH 2 O) Convert more biomass into grain - Increase harvest index Can we design new smart varieties that:

10 Wheat lines selected for low CID (Rebetzke et al. 2002)

11 Relationship between WUE and CID (Adapted from Anyia et el., 2007) Six-row barley Two-row barley Well watered Well stressed Well watered Well stressed

12 Six-row barley Two-row barley Rank stability of leaf-CID across locations & years Two locations Two years Data from Chen et al. 2010, in-press

13 CID & protein distribution of F 5 RIL population

14 Discriminant Analyses on Merit x H RIL population Variables; DM and Seed Weight Variables: Protein, DM, and Seed weight Variables; DM and Seed Weight and HI *** Protein had a significant –ve corr with HI

15 Merit x H RIL population Parent 1Parent 2# markers ?? ?? Wheat DH population Parent 1Parent 2# markers Summary DArT diversity in a population of 188 RILs and the two parental lines

16 Relationship between water/nitrogen use efficiencies & protein We tested the following hypotheses  For the same nitrogen supply, higher levels of soil moisture will lower protein content, whereas drier conditions lead to higher protein content.  When moisture is limiting, water use efficient varieties will improve yield and hence decrease nitrogen concentration leading to lower protein content ( implies a negative correlation )

17 The Results of greenhouse studies Two N levels under WW and WD conditions

18 Correlations amongst WUE, NUE and protein under drought in GH Two N levels under WD conditions

19 Results of field studies with 7 varieties

20 Conclusions  To maintain/improve on the yield progress already made by our breeders, new tools are needed to target specific traits and growth conditions that limit yield  The new tools must be complementary to existing tools and easy to deploy in existing breeding programs  Although several physiological traits have been proposed, only a few have been successfully used to improve yield  Improvement in one trait can have the unintended consequence of leading to a decline in another

21  Pyramiding of several traits such as WUE and NUE related traits may lead to progress in achieving yield stability  Narrow genetic base of modern varieties may impede progress ( new sources of variations are necessary to overcome this )  Advances in genomics and genetic mapping are making it faster and cheaper to combine several polygenetic traits in new varieties  Identifying QTLs and their linked markers will potentially reduce time and cost to make the use of physiological traits more attractive in barley breeding

22 Acknowledgements Funding: Brewing & Malting Barley Res. Institute Alberta Agricultural Research Institute Alberta Crop Industry Development Fund Alberta Barley Commission FCDC Lacombe Dr. Pat Juskiw Dr. Joseph Nyachiro Jennifer Zantinge Collaborators/Institutions: University of Alberta Dr. Scott Chang Project Staff: Jing Chen Ludovic Capo-Chichi Sharla Eldridge

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