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How to motivate less productive people at work for improved Performance Presented By T.M.Jayasekera, B.Sc.Eng.,MBA,FIM C.Eng.,MICE,FIE,FCIWEM(Lond.) Management.

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Presentation on theme: "How to motivate less productive people at work for improved Performance Presented By T.M.Jayasekera, B.Sc.Eng.,MBA,FIM C.Eng.,MICE,FIE,FCIWEM(Lond.) Management."— Presentation transcript:

1 How to motivate less productive people at work for improved Performance Presented By T.M.Jayasekera, B.Sc.Eng.,MBA,FIM C.Eng.,MICE,FIE,FCIWEM(Lond.) Management Specialist

2 WHAT IS SUCCESS SUCCESS OF ORGANIZATIONS DEPENDS ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE PEOPLE, WHICH IS ALSO THE SUCCESS OF PEOPLE. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PEOPLE IS DEPENDENT ON THE WAY THEY ACT AND BEHAVE, IN OTHER WORDS, HOW EVERYONE PERFORM IN THEIR AREAS OF ACTIVITY

3 MOTIVATING YOUR PEOPLE Motivating workers involve inspiring them to contribute to the goals of the organization It is up to the Manager to select a specific approach to motivate the workforce and then decide how best to apply it How a manager goes about this will depend to some extent on what he believes people want from their work The key is then to establish what motivates people THERE IS NO SIMPLE ANSWER TO THIS

4 The common mistakes managers make 1. Selecting the wrong approach 2.Wrong application of the selected approach 3. Incorrect belief in what people really want THIS IS WHY WE FIND IT DIFFICULT TO MOTIVATE PEOPLE

5 Selecting wrong approach is mainly due to wrong assumptions SATISFACTION PERFORMANCE It is about attitudes and feelings and individual may have about his job

6 THREE MAJOR FACTORS THAT PROVIDE MOTIVATION TO WORK –The three orientations This is the truth! Motivation to work is dependent on 1.ECONOMIC REWARDS –Pay, fringe benefits, material goods and security- Instrumental orientation - concerned with other things 2.INTRINSIC SATISFACTION- Nature of work itself, interest in the job, personal growth and development – Personal orientation – concerned with oneself 3.SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS-friendships, group working, desire for affiliation, status and dependency – Relational orientation – concerned with other people

7 MANAGERS RESPONSIBILITY As a Manager you are responsible for getting work done from others efficiently and effectively If you cannot fulfill this responsibility then you will be identified as a failure REMEMBER!YOU CANNOT FULFILL THIS RESPONSIBILITY, UNTIL YOU UNDERSTAND WHAT MOTIVATES BOTH YOU AND THEM

8 MOTIVATION IS EVERYBODYS PROBLEM CONSIDER THESE SITUATIONS 1.Your employee just wont meet the required deadlines 2.Your younger children continually shirk their chores, or your teenager wont do the assigned homework 3.As the leader of a group you need to get the things rolling for a fund raiser 4.Your superiors are always on your tail- and you need to motivate them to get off 5.You are a salesman and you want to motivate your clients to buy 6.You are a teacher and would like to motivate your students to do better

9 THIS IS ONLY THE BEGINNING FROM THE TIME WE GET UP IN THE MORNING TO THE TIME WE GO TO BED IN THE NIGHT WE RUN IN TO DOZENS OF SITUATIONS WHERE WE NEED TO MOTIVATE OTHERS ARE YOU FRUSTRATED IN YOUR EFFORTS?

10 IS THIS THE SET OF IMPLICIT EXPECTATIONS 1 TO WORK DILIGENTLY TO ACHIEVE ORGANIZATIONAL GOALS AND TO ACCEPT THE IDEOLOGY OF THE ORGANIZATION 2 INVOLVEMENT, COMMITMENT AND INITIATIVE 3 TO PERFORM THE TASKS EFFICIENTLY AND EFFECTIVELY 4 TO ACCEPT AUTHORITY AND ASSUME RESPONSIBILITY 5 TO ACHIEVE INTEGRATION AND COORDINATION OF ACTIVITIES

11 IS THIS THE SET OF IMPLICIT EXPECTATIONS 6 REQUIRING ADHERENCE TO POLICIES RULES AND PROCEDURES 7 ATTAINING RESPONSIVENESS TO LEADERSHIP AND INFLUENCE 8 TO SHOW LOYALTY TO THE ORGANIZATION 8.NOT TO BETRAY POSITIONS OF TRUST AND NOT TO ABUSE THE GOODWILL SHOWN BY MANAGEMEN 10 TO UPHOLD THE IMAGE OF THE ORGANIZATION

12 THIS IS WHAT THE WORKERS HAVE BEEN LOOKING FOR FROM MANAGEMENT, 1 TO PROVIDE SAFE AND HYGENIC WORK CONDITIONS 2 TOMAKE EVERY REASONABLE EFFORT TO PROVIDE JOB SECURITY 3 ATTEMPT TO PROVIDE CHALLENGING AND SATISFYING JOBS AND REDUCE ALIENATING ASPECTS OF WORK 4 ADOPT EQUITABLE PERSONAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES 5 ALLOW STAFF TO GENUINELY PARTICIPATE IN DECISIONS WHICH AFFECT THEM

13 THIS IS WHAT THE WORKERS HAVE BEEN LOOKING FOR 6 TO PROVIDE REASONABLE OPPORTUNITIES FOR PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT AND CAREER PROGRESSION 7 TO TREAT MEMBERS OF STAFF WITH RESPECT 8 DEMONSTRATE AN UNDERSTANDING AND CONSIDERATE ATTITUDE TOWARDS PERSONAL PROBLEMS OF STAFF

14 THERE APPEARS TO BE A MISMATCH BETWEEN THE EXPECTATIONS OF THE PEOPLE AND THAT OF THE ORGANIZATION

15 HAVE YOU BEEN ABLE TO GIVE THIS TO THEM THAT IS WHY THE SITUATION IS LIKE THIS IT IS VERY UNLIKELY THAT EXPECTATIONS OF INDIVIDUALS OR ORGANIZATIONS ARE MET FULLY THERE IS APPEARS TO HAVE NO BALANCE HAVE YOU REALLY (EVER!)LISTENED TO THEM?

16 PEOPLE AND ORGANIZATIONS NEED EACH OTHER The psychological contract involves a series of expectations between people and organizations Even though they are not defined formally and they may not be consciously aware of them; still they affect the relationship between them Therefore attention should be focused on improving the people- organization relationship

17 A WAY OUT INDIVIDUAL NEEDS Physical well being Job satisfaction Personal development Achievement Respect from work group and the org. ORGANIZATIONAL NEEDS High productivity Low absenteeism Cooperation Industrial Harmony Constructive disagreements Low labour turnover If these needs are met Contended productive workforce

18 EARLY DEVELOPMENTS IN THE AREA OF MOTIVATION?

19 Development of thinking on motivation 1. Early days- Doing a Job is a matter of life and death – survival instinct as a powerful motivator 2. Industrial Revolution- Healthy and contented work force –positively inclined towards the organization and happy to work for it – organization as a family and paternalistic approaches- 3.Cruder view of Compulsion as a motivator- People are rational creatures whose sole motivation is economic and the desire to avoid pain and find pleasure through financial gain was the only way of motivation Therefore people will only work if the reward is big enough or the punishment for failure is sufficiently unpleasant

20 Development of thinking on motivation 4. Scientific Management – through combination of fear and reward 5. Human Relations approach – through social interaction 6. Modern approaches – cause and effect approaches

21 WHAT IS MEANT BY MOTIVATION IT IS ANY INFLUENCE THAT BRINGS OUT DIRECTS OR MAINTAIN PEOPLES GOAL DIRECTED BEHAVIOUR

22 PROCESS OF MOTIVATION Motivation is a management process of influencing peoples behaviour based on the knowledge of what makes people tick Motivation deals with a range of conscious human behaviour between the two extremes reflex actions Such as sneeze or flutter of eyelids and learned habits such as your handwriting style or brushing of your teeth

23 WHAT IS MEANT BY MOTIVATION It is a human psychological characteristic that contributes to a persons degree of commitment It includes factors that cause, channel and sustain human behaviour in a particular committed direction

24 Basic assumptions in MOTIVATION 1. Motivation is commonly assumed to be a good thing 2.Motivation is one of the several factors that goes in to a persons performance 3.Motivation is in short supply and in need of periodic replenishment 4.It is a tool with which managers can arrange job relationships

25 Everybody is engaged in motivation In this world,every one needs to motivate others and we all do it whether we realize it or not Babies motivate parents - How? Parents motivate children -To work hard & learn - How? Managers motivate their subordinates - To get goals achieved - How? So- motivation is natural !

26 Motivation is natural In this world,every one needs to motivate others and we all do it whether we realize it or not Babies motivate parents - By crying Parents motivate children -To work hard & learn - Carrot and stick We motivate our subordinates - To get goals achieved - by threats and Punishments So- motivation is natural

27 Rewards of motivation is natural too Babies love their mothers. They their mothers Children love their parents. They like their parents Workers! Do they love their Managers ? Do they like their Managers ? THIS IS THE MILLION DOLLAR QUESTION?

28 What successful Managers do Take a minute to think of the most successful manager that you know of Does he or she motivate their staff I would be most surprised if they didnt How do they motivate their staff

29 This is how they perform 1. Enthusiastic 7. Encourage others 2.Communicate effectively 8. Ask for suggestions 3.Listen to others 9. Cooperative 4. Willing to help 10.Dead on target 5. Committed 6. Positive These are the secrets of successful motivation

30 What unsuccessful Managers do Take a minute to think of an unsuccessful manager you know of How do they behave Does he or she get things done from people What can we learn from his behaviours

31 This is how they perform 1.No cooperation 6. Miss deadlines 2. Do not delegate 7. Complain 3.Tardiness,absence 8. Not measuring up to std. 4. Not committed 9. Blame others 5. Fault finders 10. Negligence These are the reasons for failure

32 The people who Motivate can be of different types Great motivators can have quite different personalities.They had special skills -learned or acquired e.g. Mahatma Gandhi-led the movement for independence in a non violent manner Field Marshall Montgomery -was a great military leader who motivated his troops to fight Both have learned the secrets of successful motivation

33 How to be a successful Manager As a manager you will have to achieve results A manager is judged by results or accomplishments Results are normally achieved through people It has been proved that motivated people achieve better results more quickly So motivation of staff is in the managers own interests and is also in the managers hands A successful manager always motivates staff

34 THE PROCESS OF MOTIVATION NEEDS OR EXPECT ATIONS DRIVES DESIRED GOALS PROBLEM SOLVING RESTRUCTURING (Alternative Goal ) Constr uctive Behavi our FRUSTRATION WITHDRAWALAGGRESSION REGRESSIONFIXATION BARRIER Destructive Behaviour

35 FACTORS INFLUENCING FRUSTRATION THE FACTORS THAT DETERMINE AN INDIVIDUALS REACTION TO FRUSTRATION ARE The level of need The degree of attachment to the desired goal Strength of motivation Perceived nature of the barrier or blocking agent Personality characteristics of the individual

36 HOW TO REDUCE POTENTIAL FRUSTRATION THE MANAGERS CAN REDUCE FRUSTRATION THROUGH RECOGNITION AND REWARDS EQUITABLE PERSONNEL POLICIES EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION PARTICIPATIVE STYLES OF MANAGEMENT JOB DESIGN AND WORK ORGANIZATION EFFECTIVE RECRUITMENT SELECTION AND TRAINING

37 The role of needs in Motivation Deficie ncy in needs satisfact ion creates tension Individ ual will Search for ways to relieve tension Cho ose and enga ge goal direc ted beha viour Success with goal directed behaviour Lack of success with Goal directed behaviour Tension Relieved Deficie ncy in needs satisfact ion still exists

38 Need hierarchy SELF ACTUALIZATION NEEDS ESTEEM NEEDS SOCIAL NEEDS SAFETY/SECURITY NEEDS PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS FULFILLMENT ON THE JOB FULFILLMENT OFF THE JOB Base salary, air, Food water sex Freedom from war,pollution, violence Safe work fringe benefits, job security Family Friends. Community, Groups Work groups clients coworkers supervisors Approval of family Friends, community Recognition, High Status, increased job responsibilities Education, religion Hobbies, Personal Growth Opportunities for training Advancement, Growth and Creativity

39 SOME TIPS FOR MOTIVATORS 1 When people feel good about themselves it is easier for them to be motivated because they have high self esteem & they are not worried about how they relate to the world & they are not worried about what others are thinking about them

40 SOME TIPS FOR MOTIVATORS 2 In conversation give your undivided attention 3 When you give out responsibility let them do it their way 4 Involve workers in resolving conflicts with co workers 5 Learn to express your feelings honestly

41 SOME TIPS FOR MOTIVATORS 6 Admit when you make a mistake 7 Let every worker express himself creatively within the parameters allowed by his job 8 Look at the good in what the person is doing,not just the bad 9 Avoid put-downs 10 Show your workers that you trust them 11 Be fair

42 SOME TIPS FOR MOTIVATORS 12 Separate the worker from his acts - 13When there is a problem let the worker know that you displeased with the act & not with him as a person 14Share the power of decision making

43 SOME TIPS FOR MOTIVATORS 15Dont require more of the worker than he is able to do 16Avoid favoritism 17Be kind & considerate

44 TEN COMMANDMENTS OF MOTIVATIONAL FAILURE 1 Reward the boss & his cronies for successes brought about by their subordinates in the company 2 Try to be all things to all people at all times 3 Stress activity over results 4 Discourage creative thinking 5 Trying something else when every thing is going well

45 TEN COMMANDMENTS OF MOTIVATIONAL FAILURE 6 Keeping very tight control over mundane acts 7 Creating a complex organizational structure 8 Having little or no contact with the customers 9 Emphasizing productivity through programmes & systems & things rather than through people 10 Making the workforce bigger & bigger

46 THE END THANK YOU VERY MUCH ! T.M.Jayasekera


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