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CAUT Librarians Conference Contested Terrain: Shaping the Future of Academic Librarianship Ottawa, ON, 26-27 October 2012.

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Presentation on theme: "CAUT Librarians Conference Contested Terrain: Shaping the Future of Academic Librarianship Ottawa, ON, 26-27 October 2012."— Presentation transcript:

1 CAUT Librarians Conference Contested Terrain: Shaping the Future of Academic Librarianship Ottawa, ON, October 2012

2 CAUT Librarians Conference Shaping the Future of Academic Librarianship October 2012 Terms of employment Workload includes: Universities 2012¹ 2004² Colleges 2012³ Professional Practice 93%42% Scholarly Activities 79% 74%31% Academic Service 89%57% ²D ³ ¹Preliminary data from 2012 CAUT Librarian Salary Survey (61 responses) ²Data from 2004 CAUT Librarian Salary Survey (47 responses) ³Preliminary data from 2012 CAUT Librarian Salary Survey (29 responses) Academic librarian workload responsibilities

3 CAUT Librarians Conference Shaping the Future of Academic Librarianship October 2012

4 My answer is an emphatic “yes” CAUT Librarians Conference Shaping the Future of Academic Librarianship October 2012

5 CAUT Librarians Conference Shaping the Future of Academic Librarianship October 2012 Types of teaching:Universities (62) Colleges (28) Workshops95%100% Integrated instruction in non-library courses 77%54% Library courses (non-credit)42%50% Non-library credit courses34%14% Library credit courses27% (17) 3% Preliminary data from 2012 CAUT Librarian Salary Survey Includes responses from 62 universities, 28 colleges Academic Librarians: Teaching responsibilities

6  Growing consensus is “yes”  Teaching vs. instruction  Historical precedent: professors were the first librarians  Teaching must involve more than complex reference interactions or one-shot information literacy (resource-based) workshops, etc. CAUT Librarians Conference Shaping the Future of Academic Librarianship October 2012

7  Librarians as teachers: we apply the label “teaching” to a variety of activities: reference instruction, one-shot classes, workshops, collaborative courses, integrated content, credit courses  In collective agreements: usually included with “professional practice” and not drawn out at a specific responsibility (as are research and service)  Can be invisible work  Not all librarians participate in teaching CAUT Librarians Conference Shaping the Future of Academic Librarianship October 2012

8  Lack of professional preparation  Inflexibility of schedule  Time requirements of teaching  Colleagues who do not understand value of teaching, or begrudge the time it takes away from the library. Workload implications for all.  Equity issue: librarians already don’t have one term free of “teaching”. Will regularized teaching exacerbate the problem?  Equitable compensation  More PT instructors CAUT Librarians Conference Shaping the Future of Academic Librarianship October 2012

9  Lack of standardization to our teaching  Will those NOT teaching lose credibility or become vulnerable (dispensable?)  Trend in higher education to promote core competencies, which has benefited libraries teaching IL, but we must not be party to diminished curricula  Less time for research  Self confidence – can we do it? CAUT Librarians Conference Shaping the Future of Academic Librarianship October 2012

10  Closer interaction with students over extended time  Deeper understanding of faculty workload  Better understanding of curricular needs  New way of looking a collection development  Enhanced faculty status  Increased intellectual stimulation  Sharper self-assessment of teaching performance CAUT Librarians Conference Shaping the Future of Academic Librarianship October 2012

11  Academic librarianship: service profession or academic discipline? ◦ If academic discipline = teaching, research, service  Revitalized role for librarians and library on campus  More active participation in teaching and scholarly life will allow for greater input in campus strategic planning CAUT Librarians Conference Shaping the Future of Academic Librarianship October 2012

12  Embrace teaching  Recognize teaching as more than just another professional duty  Hire with teaching in mind  Reassign non-professional duties  Consider a library-based full credit course  Staffing levels are a management responsibility; don’t defer teaching due to too few staff CAUT Librarians Conference Shaping the Future of Academic Librarianship October 2012

13  At the national level: ◦ Review CAUT discussion paper on teaching.discussion paper on teaching ◦ Continue to survey librarians on their teaching practices. ◦ Lobby for curricular changes in MLIS programs that support librarian-teaching. ◦ Establish best practices for librarian workload: teaching is an integral part of the profession and needs to be recognized as such. CAUT Librarians Conference Shaping the Future of Academic Librarianship October 2012

14 Common Priorities: Librarians ◦ Professional practice ◦ Service ◦ Research Where does teaching fit? Common Priorities: Faculty ◦ Research ◦ Teaching ◦ Service CAUT Librarians Conference Shaping the Future of Academic Librarianship October 2012

15  At the local level: ◦ Define our professional identity to include teaching ◦ Establish criteria for the evaluation and review of teaching ◦ Establish criteria for teaching excellence ◦ Better manage this part of our workload through thoughtful contract language CAUT Librarians Conference Shaping the Future of Academic Librarianship October 2012

16  Should CAs recognize teaching as a distinct responsibility?  MSVU: ◦ Workload: The following elements constitute Librarian members' workload: professional practice (the provision of information services to library users and the technical services required to deliver these information services); scholarly and/or professional activity, and internal and external collegial service. Professional practice may include the teaching of one half-unit LIBR course per Agreement year. ◦ RTP/RPP: Evaluation criteria prescribes that when professional practice includes the teaching of LIBR courses a teaching portfolio is required (identical language to faculty) ◦ Other institutions that identify “teaching” in CAs: Guelph, Memorial, Toronto, Saskatchewan CAUT Librarians Conference Shaping the Future of Academic Librarianship October 2012

17 CAUT Librarians Conference Shaping the Future of Academic Librarianship October 2012 References Bewick, L., & Corrall, S. (2010). Developing librarians as teachers: A study of their pedagogical knowledge. Journal of Librarianship and Information Science, 42(2), doi: / Christiansen, L., Stombler, M., & Thaxton, L. (2004). A report on librarian-faculty relations from a sociological perspective. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 30(2), Coker, C., van Duinkerken, W., & Bales, S. (2010). Seeking full citizenship: A defense of tenure faculty status for librarians. College & Research Libraries, 71(5), Cunningham, A. D., & Donovan, C. (2012). Settling uncharted territory: Documenting & rewarding librarians’ teaching role in the academy. In C. W. Wilkinson, & C. Bruch (Eds.), Transforming information literacy programs intersecting frontiers of self, library culture, and campus community (pp ). Chicago: Association of College and Research Libraries. Retrieved from /download/TransformingInformationLiteracyProgramsACRL.pdf Davey, N., & Andrews, T. (1978). Implications of faculty status for university librarians, with special attention to tenure. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 4(2), Retrieved Julien, H., & Pecoskie, J. (. L. ). (2009). Librarians' experiences of the teaching role: Grounded in campus relationships. Library & Information Science Research ( ), 31(3), doi: /j.lisr Kemp, J. (2006). Isn't being a librarian enough? librarians as classroom teachers. College & Undergraduate Libraries, 13(3), doi: /J106v13n03-02 Loesch, M. F. (2010). Librarian as professor: A dynamic new role model. Education Libraries, 33(1), Owusu-Ansah, E. (2007). Beyond collaboration: Seeking greater scope and centrality for library instruction. Portal: Libraries & the Academy, 7(4), /pla Partello, P. (2005). Librarians in the classroom. Reference Librarian, 43(89), doi: /J120v43n8908 Polger, M. A., & Okamoto, K. (2010). "Can't anyone be a teacher anyway?": Student perceptions of academic librarians as teachers. Library Philosophy & Practice, 12(2), Salony, M The history of bibliographic instruction: Changing trends from books to the electronic world. The Reference Librarian, 51/52, Wyss, P. A. (2010). Library school faculty member perceptions regarding faculty status for academic librarians. College & Research Libraries, 71(4),

18 As academics and on the job CAUT Librarians Conference Shaping the Future of Academic Librarianship October 2012

19 CAUT Librarians Conference Shaping the Future of Academic Librarianship October 2012

20 CAUT Librarians Conference Shaping the Future of Academic Librarianship October 2012  The pursuit of research, study, educational and other scholarly activities shall constitute a normal component of a librarian’s workload  A librarian shall have the right to devote up to 40% of normal workload to the pursuit of research, study, educational and other scholarly activities

21 CAUT Librarians Conference Shaping the Future of Academic Librarianship October 2012  The scheduled duties of librarians shall be arranged so that there is regular and sufficient uninterrupted time for the pursuit of research, study, educational and other scholarly activities  Research, study, educational and other scholarly activities performed by a librarian shall be considered in the librarians performance appraisal, promotion or tenure evaluation

22 CAUT Librarians Conference Shaping the Future of Academic Librarianship October 2012 Terms of employment Workload includes: Universities 2012 (66) 2008 (62) Colleges 2012(28) 2008 (32) Scholarly Activities 79%69%31%0 Contract provisionsUniversities Colleges Sabbatical 71%69%67%28 Research days 63% 29 out 62 answered 43%3 in total Preliminary data from 2012 CAUT LSAS Survey Raw data from the 2010 CAUT LSAS Survey %’s based on total number of replies to questions Workload responsibilities & enabling contract provisions

23  Part of the normal workload?  Required for promotion, tenure?  Pursued for interest? CAUT Librarians Conference Shaping the Future of Academic Librarianship October 2012

24  The same as scholarly activity?  The same for librarians & faculty?  Influenced by the “practitioner-researcher” paradigm? CAUT Librarians Conference Shaping the Future of Academic Librarianship October 2012

25  Faculty ◦ Asymmetrical disconnect in understanding librarians work ◦ Respect librarians as experts ◦ Value collaboration that do include research collaborations  Christiansen, Stombler & Thaxton, 2004 CAUT Librarians Conference Shaping the Future of Academic Librarianship October 2012

26  Library School Faculty believe ◦ librarians are disadvantaged in producing research because of their schedules ◦ Sabbatical and research leaves facilitate research and improve publication rates  Wyss, 2010, p. 383 ◦ The MLS may not be sufficient to prepare librarians for faculty stats  Wyss, 2010, p. 379 CAUT Librarians Conference Shaping the Future of Academic Librarianship October 2012

27  CARL ◦ Librarians as Researchers and Writers ◦ Research Competencies for CARL Librarians ◦ Core Competencies for 21 st Century CARL Librarians ◦ Librarians’ Research Institute CAUT Librarians Conference Shaping the Future of Academic Librarianship October 2012

28  Collective Agreement or work conditions ◦ librarians are expected to develop their professional knowledge, scholarly competence, and effectiveness as librarians. Where research is conducted by librarians in the course of their duties in accordance with the provisions of Article 16C.02, it shall have as its primary objective to increase knowledge and understanding, to improve the professional competence of librarians, and to enhance library services. (UNB) CAUT Librarians Conference Shaping the Future of Academic Librarianship October 2012

29  Collective Agreement or work conditions ◦ Members have the right to engage in the following activities  Priority One  A) Teaching/Professional Librarianship/Archives Management  B) Scholarly Activity  Priority Two  C) University Governance and Administrative Duties…  Laurentian CAUT Librarians Conference Shaping the Future of Academic Librarianship October 2012

30  Matters because ◦ It is important that the perception of the research and its place is understood both by librarian peer reviewers and faculty ◦ It affects the support and approval ◦ It’s place in workload needs to be understood, balanced and valued ◦ It can influence appointment, promotion and tenure CAUT Librarians Conference Shaping the Future of Academic Librarianship October 2012

31  Because if we permit it to become only evidence- based practice rather than research-based practice research by librarians will be reduced to complying with metrics  Our own research is vital to protect and advance our profession otherwise we will be defined by others  Since good librarianship is vital to the academic enterprise, it follows that advancing knowledge of the field of librarianship is vital to maintaining our ability to do so” (Lowry p ) CAUT Librarians Conference Shaping the Future of Academic Librarianship October 2012

32  Lack of professional preparation/confidence  Inflexibility of schedule  Time requirements  Colleagues who do not understand value of research, or begrudge the time it takes away from the library. Workload implications for all.  Equity issue: many librarians struggle to find designated, dedicated research time (eg a research term).  Will research expectations increase pressure? CAUT Librarians Conference Shaping the Future of Academic Librarianship October 2012

33  Will those who do no research lose credibility or become vulnerable (dispensable?)  Might this lead to a two-tiered, streamed division of academic librarianship along the lines of the faculty “research professor” vs “teaching professor”  Funding  How do we keep it all in the mix – practice, research and service? CAUT Librarians Conference Shaping the Future of Academic Librarianship October 2012

34 CAUT Librarians Conference Shaping the Future of Academic Librarianship October 2012 References CARL. (2012). Librarians’ Research Institute. Canadian Association of Research Libraries. Retrieved from abrc.ca/en/research-libraries/librarians-research-institute.html; https://sites.google.com/site/2012lriwindsor/home. CARL Library Education Working Group. (200?). Librarians as Researchers and Writers: Research Priorities for Canada’s Research Libraries. Canadian Association of Research Libraries. Retrieved from 1.pdf. CARL Library Education Working Group. (2007). Research Competencies for CARL Librarians. Canadian Association of Research Libraries. Retrieved from CARL Library Education Working Group and Building Capacity Subcommittee. (2010). Core Competencies for 21 st Century CARL. Canadian Association of Research Libraries. Retrieved from e.pdf. CAUT. (2003). Model Clause on the Scholarly Activity of Academic Librarians. Canadian Association of University Teachers. Retrieved from Croft, J.B. (2012). Library Faculty and the Research Agenda: A Building Block for the Successful Academic Career. Presented at SWTXPCA February Academia.edu. Fox, D. (2007). A Demographic and Career Profile of Canadian Research University Librarians. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 33(5), doi: 10:1016/j.acalib Fox, D. (2007). Finding Time for Scholarship: A Survey of Canadian Research University Librarians. portal: Libraries and the Academy, 7(4), doi: /pla Fox, D. (2007). The Scholarship of Canadian Research University Librarians. Partnership: the Canadian Journal of Library and Information Practice and Research, 2(2), 22p. Retrieved from: Jacobs, H.L.M., Berg, S. & Cornwall, D. (2010) Something to Talk About: Re-thinking Conversations on Research Culture in Canadian Academic Libraries. Partnership: the Canadian Journal of Library and Information Practice and Research, 5(2), 11p. Retrieved from: Koufogiannakis, D. & Crumley, E. (2006). Research in Librarianship: Issues to Consider. Library Hi Tech, 24(3), doi: / Lowry, C.B. (2004). Research and Scholarship Defined for portal: Libraries and the Academy. portal: Libraries and the Academy, 4(4), doi: /pla Watson-Bourne, R. (2000). Academic Librarians as Practitioner-Researchers. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 26(2), doi: /S (99)

35 What does “service” mean to academic librarians? What role does “service” play in protecting and advancing our profession? CAUT Librarians Conference Shaping the Future of Academic Librarianship October 2012

36  Same as faculty service?  Relationship with tenure process and academic librarian professional status  How to compare across institutions?   tatus/p-t-information/peers tatus/p-t-information/peers CAUT Librarians Conference Shaping the Future of Academic Librarianship October 2012

37  California State University Retention, tenure and promotion guidelines  Example policies and procedures  Sample definition of “excellence” CAUT Librarians Conference Shaping the Future of Academic Librarianship October 2012

38  Example: University of Saskatchewan Library Standards  Example: Concordia University Duties and Responsibilities of Librarian Members  Example: Stanford Medical Center Criteria  “Administrative activities detract from the time available for the primary areas of clinical care, teaching and scholarship” CAUT Librarians Conference Shaping the Future of Academic Librarianship October 2012

39 (a) Public Service Public service is normally defined as extending the librarian’s expertise to the community outside of the University Library. It includes service to the campus community, as well as service beyond the campus community that is not sponsored by the University Library. It will be accorded recognition insofar as the activities entail application of expertise associated with the candidate’s position in the University Library. For tenure as or promotion to Librarian III or IV, candidates must demonstrate a willingness to participate. Examples may include, but are not limited to, giving public lectures or presentations, serving as a resource person for a campus group or unit, and participating in campus events. (b) Service to Academic, Professional or Scientific Organizations To be recognized within this category, service to academic and/or professional organizations must go beyond membership in an organization to focus on active participation. Such activities might include: service on the committees or executives of academic or professional organizations; service on selection committees for provincial, national or international granting organizations; or service on the editorial board for academic, professional or scientific journals. CAUT Librarians Conference Shaping the Future of Academic Librarianship October 2012

40 Service to the University and the community, which in general includes: i) participation on University-wide bodies; ii) administrative work not included under Article a); iii) committee membership at all levels of the University, including those mandated by this Agreement; iv) the taking of an active part in scientific, cultural, educational, professional, governmental and social bodies, together with activities involving expertise or popularization which are relevant to and compatible with the librarian member’s professional role; v) service to the Association; vi) outside professional activities.  Service to the Association?  How is “outside” professional service defined? CAUT Librarians Conference Shaping the Future of Academic Librarianship October 2012

41  “Since a major commitment to administrative activities detracts from the time available for the primary areas of clinical care, teaching and scholarship, Assistant Professors are discouraged from significant administrative commitment and departments are discouraged from requiring such.” CAUT Librarians Conference Shaping the Future of Academic Librarianship October 2012

42  Practice at Concordia University  Is the outside work paid?  Time required CAUT Librarians Conference Shaping the Future of Academic Librarianship October 2012

43  Meaning of the word service in library work  Should we treat students, professors, general public as clients?  Trends in customer service training  Limiting the kinds of service that librarians deliver  Affect on tenure dossiers CAUT Librarians Conference Shaping the Future of Academic Librarianship October 2012

44  CAUT Policy Statement on Academic Status and Governance for Librarians at Canadian Universities and Colleges (http://www.caut.ca/pages.asp?page=249&lang=1)http://www.caut.ca/pages.asp?page=249&lang=1 CAUT Librarians Conference Shaping the Future of Academic Librarianship October 2012

45 3.1 As academic staff, librarians have both a right and a duty to participate in collegial governance of the academic institution. They must therefore be eligible to serve as elected or appointed members on all governing councils and committees. Though the chief librarian may serve in an ex-officio capacity, all librarians should be eligible to serve as elected members of the senate, or equivalent body, and its committees. All governance bodies, including but not limited to Councils and departmental and divisional committees, must provide for the effective participation of librarians. 3.2 Librarians should be represented on any committee whose mandate includes any aspect of the operation of the academic library system or whose decisions affect access to information resources used in teaching, scholarship and research. CAUT Librarians Conference Shaping the Future of Academic Librarianship October 2012

46 Association of College and Research Libraries Standards for Faculty Status for Academic Librarians College and university governance Librarians should be eligible for membership in the faculty senate or equivalent governing body. They should have the same degree of representation as other academic units on all college or university governing bodies. CAUT Librarians Conference Shaping the Future of Academic Librarianship October 2012

47  Understood to include participation in the development of policies and procedures for the library including the hiring, review, retention, and continuing appointment of peers. CAUT Librarians Conference Shaping the Future of Academic Librarianship October 2012

48  Faculty Service in The California State University (CSU): An Integral Component in the Retention, Tenure, and Promotion of Faculty  March 21, 2012 proposed revisions to McGill University Regulations Relating to the Employment of Academic Staff  “Finally, while the book shies away from issuing an explicit call for change due to the apparent complexity of the issues involved, its existence brings into focus the need to engage more closely and systematically with the definitions and evaluation of service across different institutions and thus move toward more equitable ways of incorporating it into the academic profile.” CAUT Librarians Conference Shaping the Future of Academic Librarianship October 2012

49  Service efforts may lead to scholarly activity or unusual opportunities for the advancement of librarianship  Collegial governance is critical  Keep up-to-date on service issue concerns of other academic staff  Resist efforts to limit service opportunities  Limitations diminish librarians’ claim to academic, and even professional, status CAUT Librarians Conference Shaping the Future of Academic Librarianship October 2012

50 CAUT Librarians Conference Shaping the Future of Academic Librarianship October 2012 References ACRL. (2011). Guidelines for Academic Librarians Without Faculty Status. Association of College and Research Libraries. Retrieved from ACRL. (2011). Standards for Faculty Status for Academic Librarians. Association of College and Research Libraries. Retrieved from Association of Librarians of the University of Washington. Status Committee. (2000?). Promotion & tenure requirements for peer institutions. Retrieved from California State University. Academic Senate. Faculty Affairs Committee. (2002). Faculty Service in The California State University (CSU): An Integral Component in the Retention, Tenure, and Promotion of Faculty. Retrieved from California State University. Chancellor’s Doctoral Incentive Program. Retention, tenure, and promotion guidelines. Retrieved from Collective Agreement between Concordia University and the Concordia University Faculty Association in effect until May 31, Retrieved from A Guide to the Professional Status of Academic Librarians in the United States (and Other Places). Retrieved from McGill University. Senate. (March 21, 2012). Document #: D11-51 Revisions to Regulations Relating to the Employment of Academic Staff. Retrieved from McGill University. Senate. (March 21, 2012). Minutes. Retrieved from Nelson, C. (2010). No University is an Island: Saving Academic Freedom. New York: New York University Press, Stanford University. School of Medicine. (2009). Faculty Handbook. Retrieved from Swan Hill, J. (2005). Constant Vigilance, Babelfish, and Foot Surgery: Perspectives on Faculty Status and Tenure for Academic Librarians. portal: Libraries and the Academy, 5(1), doi: /pla Takševa, Tatjana. (2012). Review of Over Ten Million Served: Gendered Service in Language and Literature Workplaces, Michelle A. Massé and Katie J. Hogan, eds. Albany, NY: SUNY Press, Retrieved from University of Saskatchewan. (2011). University Library Standards for Promotion and Tenure. Retrieved from


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