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Deborah Dysart-Gale General Studies Unit Conflict and Negotiation.

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Presentation on theme: "Deborah Dysart-Gale General Studies Unit Conflict and Negotiation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Deborah Dysart-Gale General Studies Unit dysart@encs.concordia.ca Conflict and Negotiation

2 Our Agenda (if that’s ok with you) What is negotiation and how do we do it? How do we become negotiators? What are some cultural variances in negotiation? Some practical exercises

3 WHAT ARE WE TALKING ABOUT? Jameson, Bodtker, Porch & Jordan, 2009

4 What does Conflict do? Distributes goods Defines problems/questions Delineates power relationships Establishes entitlements

5 Negotiation Is Defining problems Persuasion Compromise Competition Problem definition Problem solution Social process Emotional investment Maybe is NOT Arbitration Mediation Definitely is NOT Coercion Withdrawal Algorithm Tears, pouting, shouting

6 Assign Your Preference, 1—6

7 Divide the Spoils Split up the candy Assign each candy its point value from 1-6 as listed on your assessment sheet Add up your points

8 Sample Assessment 1. Riesen 2. Tootsie Roll 3. Crystal hard candy 4. Caramel 5. Filled hard candy 6. Icy Square Total Score: 11

9 NEGOTIATE AN EQUAL SCORE

10 Results Outcomes Win-Win Win-Lose No Advantage No Decision Activities Information – Share – Withhold Dissemble Compromise Resolution strategies – Partial – Open field

11 GENERALITIES AND COMMONALITIES Recchia, Vickar & Ross, 2010 Ram & Ross, 2008

12 Strategic Orientations

13 Approaches to Conflict Management DominatingCollaborating AvoidingAccommodating Compromising

14 Approaches to Conflict ApproachPersonal Goals Personal Relations Outcome Collaborationhigh Win-Win DominationhighlowWin-Lose Compromisemoderate Mutual Acceptability Avoidancelow No deal AccommodationlowhighGiving in

15 Kids’ Tactics What works Information sharing – Resources – Personal preferences Asking questions Proposing solutions Alternative actions What doesn’t Position commitments Threats Verbal abuse Self-serving arguments

16 What Kids Learn Fighting vs. constructive conflict management Define stakeholders’ goals Appreciate opponents’ reasoning, strategies and tactics Discern possible mutually agreeable outcomes Assess benefits of third party arbitration

17 Negotiations within Families Young siblings; older-younger sibling pairs – Domination Older children – Collaboration; compromise; stand-offs Children-adults – Domination; compromise Adults – Domination; avoidance

18 CULTURE AND NEGOTIATION Tsai & Chi, 2009 Rose et al. 2007 Kuttner, 2010 Hofstede: www.geert-hofstede.com

19 Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions High vs. Flat Power Distance Uncertainty Avoidance vs. Tolerance Individualism vs. Collectivism Harmony vs. Assertiveness – Femininity vs. Masculinity Long vs. Short-term Orientation

20 Culture and Conflict Management DominationCollaborationAccomodationCompromiseAvoidance High Distance Low Distance Risk Intolerant Intolerant Risk Tolerant Harmony Assertiveness Individualism Collectivism Short-term Long-term

21 DIFFERENTIATING AND FRAMING – A COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH Putnam, 2010 Putnam, 2004

22 Differentiation Explore and develop the issue – Change terms, shift focus Listen to what’s not said – Change negative to positive statements Don’t be too quick to settle – “Marry negotiate in haste, regret at leisure” Don’t lose your rhythm! – Balance harmony and disagreement

23 Explore the Issue How is the issue depicted? – “We need to save for our retirement!” – “We don’t make enough money to save!” What alternative constructions can you find? – “We don’t make enough money to save!” – “Oh, my gosh! We’re paying way too much in taxes! We need to reduce how much we pay. Can we put some in an RRSP?”

24 Listen to the (Silent) Words! Information is rarely shared directly. What sort of alternate arguments are acceptable? Change negatives to positives; ask questions “You never let me do anything!!” “Do you think I treat you as if you’re younger than you are?” “Do you think you have enough time with your friends?” What’s between the lines?

25 Beware of pseudo-agreements Conditions agreed to rapidly may not be satisfactory in the long run – “We have to decide who pays for the roof repairs.” – “But you already agreed to pay for it. You can’t keep going back on our agreement!” What remains on the table can be evolve – “Maybe we should get bids for putting up solar panels.”

26 Harmony Disharmony Symphony Too much of a resonance = premature agreement Too much disonance = no agreement Keep it (relatively) light – Ask questions; provide information; explore possible solutions; “float balloons”

27 Framing What are the agreements and disagreements about: – the facts? – What the facts mean? – What we need to do about the situation?

28 Framing Facts Facts – Google questions Acceptability of source How do we label these facts? Domestic hunger “Distribution”; “Politics”; “Urban Planning”

29 Meaning Determines Action Labels determine the meaning “ Distribution” – Supermarkets, Charitable Agencies, Local Social Service Network “Politics” – Ottawa/Quebec “Urban Planning” – Local Government, Citizen Groups

30 Operationalizing Systematic questioning Origins of problems, alternative solutions, innovative resolutions Leads to collaborative, co- constructed new meanings

31 In Summary Issue vs. Relationship Orientation to Conflict Approaches to Conflict Outcomes of Negotiations Developmental Aspects of Negotiation Cultural Aspects of Negotiation Dealing with Conflict through Differentiating and Reframing


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