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CHAPTER 4 (U PDATED N OV. 26, 2013) Social, Ethical, & Legal Issues in ISs.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 4 (U PDATED N OV. 26, 2013) Social, Ethical, & Legal Issues in ISs."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHAPTER 4 (U PDATED N OV. 26, 2013) Social, Ethical, & Legal Issues in ISs

2 Ethics Principles of right & wrong that individuals, acting as free moral agents, use to make choices to guide their behaviours* Not the same as legal, but frequently, actions that are unethical are also illegal – and not everything that is illegal is unethical*  Digital Law – new, expanding** MIS 2000 Chapter 4 2

3 A Metaphor for Thinking about Ethical, Social, & Political Issues Society as a calm pond IT as a rock dropped in pond, creating ripples of new situations not covered by old rules Social & political institutions cannot respond overnight to these ripples — it may take years to develop etiquette, expectations, laws Requires understanding of ethics to make choices in legally grey areas MIS 2000 Chapter 4 3

4 Five Moral Dimensions of the Information Age Information rights & obligations Property rights & obligations Accountability & control System quality Quality of life MIS 2000 Chapter 4 4

5 The Relationship among Ethical, Social, & Political Issues in an Information Society MIS 2000 Chapter 4 5

6 Technology Trends that Raise Ethical Issues MIS 2000 Chapter 4 6

7 Nonobvious Relationship Awareness MIS 2000 Chapter 4 7

8 Basic Concepts: Responsibility, Accountability, Liability Responsibility: Accepting the potential costs, duties, & obligations for decisions Accountability: Methodology for identifying responsible parties Liability: Permits individuals to recover damages done to them Due process: Laws are well known & understood, with an ability to appeal to higher authorities MIS 2000 Chapter 4 8

9 Ethical Analysis 1.Identify & clearly describe the facts 2.Define the conflict or dilemma, & identify the higher-order values involved 3.Identify the stakeholders 4.Identify the options that you can reasonably take 5.Identify the consequences of your options MIS 2000 Chapter 4 9

10 Candidate Ethical Principles 1. Golden Rule: Do unto others as you would have them do unto you. 2. Immanuel Kant’s Categorical Imperative: If an action is not right for everyone to take, then it is not right for anyone 3. Descartes’ rule of change: If an action cannot be taken repeatedly, then it is not right to be taken at any time MIS 2000 Chapter 4 10

11 Candidate Ethical Principles #2 4. Utilitarian Principle: Take the action that achieves the greatest value for all concerned 5. Risk Aversion Principle: Take the action that produces the least harm or incurs the least cost to all concerned 6. Ethical “no free lunch” rule: Assume that all tangible & intangible objects are owned by someone else, unless there is a specific declaration otherwise MIS 2000 Chapter 4 11

12 Privacy in the Internet Age Privacy: Claim of individuals to be left alone, free from surveillance or interference from other individuals, organizations, or the state. Ethical (cultural) norms with legal backing. Personal Information Protection & Electronic Documents Act (PIPEDA) establishes principles for collection, use, & disclosure of personal data* Provinces have parallel legislation MIS 2000 Chapter 4 12

13 Internet Challenges to Privacy Internet facilitates tracking of online activities (e.g., cookies are used to trace Web site visits)* Web bugs & spyware can install automatically Opt-in versus opt-out models of informed consent (e.g., filling in online profiles in order to get access to some documents or software) MIS 2000 Chapter 4 13

14 Cookies MIS 2000 Figure 4-3 Chapter 4 14

15 Privacy Policies MIS 2000 Figure 4-4 Chapter 4 15

16 How Google Uses the Data It Collects MIS 2000 Chapter 4 16

17 Technical Solutions Platform for Privacy Preferences (P3P)  Enables automatic communication of privacy policies between an e- commerce site & its visitors  Privacy policy can become part of the page’s software MIS 2000 Figure 4-4 Chapter 4 17

18 Intellectual Property Rights Intellectual property is intangible property created by individuals or corporations Protected by: Trade secrets Copyright Patents MIS 2000 Chapter 4 18

19 Trade Secrets Intellectual work or product belonging to a business and not found in the public domain Supreme Court test for breach of trade secrets: 1. Communications must be labelled “confidential” 2. Communicated content must have been misused by the receiver 3. Effects must have been harmful to the complainant MIS 2000 Chapter 4 19

20 Copyright Statutory grant protecting intellectual property from being copied for at least 50 years Canadian copyright law protects original literary, musical, artistic, & dramatic works. It also includes software & prohibits copying of entire programs or their parts. NOTE: This week, the US Congress began entertaining a bill to reduce copyright to 50 years from 70. MIS 2000 Chapter 4 20

21 Patent A grant to the creator of an invention giving the owner an exclusive monopoly on the ideas behind an invention for between 17 & 20 years Patent law grants a monopoly on underlying concepts & ideas of software Originality, novelty, & invention are key concepts MIS 2000 Chapter 4 21

22 Challenges to Intellectual Property Rights MIS 2000 Perfect digital copies cost almost nothing Sharing of digital content over the Internet costs almost nothing Sites, software, & services for file trading are not easily regulated A Web page may present data from many sources & may incorporate framing Chapter 4 22

23 Accountability, Liability, & Control MIS 2000 Computer-related liability problems System quality Data quality & system errors No software is perfect, errors will be made, even if the errors have a low probability of occurring Software developers knowingly ship “buggy” products At what point should software be shipped? Chapter 4 23

24 Accountability, Liability, & Control MIS 2000 Quality of life: Equity, access, & boundaries (continued) Computer crime & abuse (stealing data vs. using work computer for private purposes) Employment: Trickle-down technology & reengineering job loss impact Equity & access: Increasing racial & social class divisions AKA The Digital Divide Health risks: RSI, CVS, & technostress Chapter 4 24

25 Mason’s PAPA Model MIS 2000 Property: Whose property is it anyway? Do NOT pirate anything! Accuracy: How accurate does it need to be? Think of the Hubble Space Telescope. Privacy: Do you want everything about you to be public knowledge? How can you protect your privacy? (The Globe & Mail test, the Mama test) Access: Who should have access? Equity of access within a business. Do not omit staff from access if they need access. Chapter 4 25

26 Brabston’s Extension to Mason’s PAPA Equity Layoffs: These are people’s lives, not statistics! Access to IT: For an equitable society & one that trains everyone in certain fundamental skills, everyone must have access to appropriate hardware, software, & networks Access to computer literacy: Everyone must understand how to use a computer & the Internet Access to informing literacy: Everyone should understand what information is valid, reliable, consistent, accurate, appropriate, etc. --? MIS 2000 Chapter 4 26

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