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Feeding for Reproduction OABP—Guelph November 30, 2006 Ewen Ferguson, Campbellford.

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Presentation on theme: "Feeding for Reproduction OABP—Guelph November 30, 2006 Ewen Ferguson, Campbellford."— Presentation transcript:

1 Feeding for Reproduction OABP—Guelph November 30, 2006 Ewen Ferguson, Campbellford

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3 Reproduction programs Often a combination of factors that converge to cause “the perfect storm” in reproduction Let’s look at some of these factors…

4 Reproduction Program Focus has been on:  GnRH  Pg  Semen quality  AI technique  Vet Also need to look at:  Transition Management  Incidence of:  RP’s  Milk Fever  Ketosis  DA’s  Mastitis

5 Disease Pathways

6 Metabolic problems influence fertility  The more deficiencies we have in the transition period, the more infertility we’re going to have in the herd.  Nutrition influences fertility at all stages of the reproduction cycle, but transition is the most critical. Melendez 2005

7 Metabolic problems influence fertility “Nutritional imprint”  Effect of metabolic disorder…  Influences cow health and reproduction for several months Jim Spain 2005

8 NEFA  Mobilized body fatNEFA  Liver accumulates excess NEFA  Need calving date to interpret  Cow should stay in +ve EB until last hrs  Expect NEB after calving .325 mEq/l: prefresh cows >14 days .400 mEq/l: prefresh cows 2-14 days

9 NEFA concentrations and Pregnancy ADSA 2005 National Meetings Burkhart et al. Abstract W164

10 Probability of Pregnancy at 1 st Service Vs. NEFA Concentration at 3 days Postpartum Burkhart et al. Abstract W164

11 Nutrition and reproduction… is there a link?

12 Reproductive parameters— are they tied to nutrition? Delayed time to 1 st ovulation:  Related to negative energy balance  No clear association with milk production

13 Reproductive parameters— are they tied to nutrition?  Anovular/Anestrus cows:  20% prevalence  No parity difference  Ketotic cows in week 1: 1.5 x more A/A  Other risk factors: DA, twins, dystocia  Low milk >>anestrus than high milk  Low BCS >>anestrus than high BCS Walsh 2006

14 Reproductive parameters— are they tied to nutrition? Conception rates:  CR and Milk—relationship controversial  High producing cows have lower CR than heifers  Effect of Milk Production and Fertility:  Amplified during heat stress  Decreased fertilization rate  Decreased percentage of viable embryos

15 Conception Rates in Lactating Dairy Cows vs. Virgin Dairy Heifers Milk

16 Reproductive parameters— are they tied to nutrition? Duration of estrus  Cows >40 kg had shorter estrus  6 hr v. 11 hr  Less circulating estradiol?

17 Duration of estrus

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19 Reproductive parameters— are they tied to nutrition? Double ovulation:  Linked to milk production  Segregate cows above/below mean of 40 kg milk  Above mean: 20% double ovulation  Below mean: 7% Wiltbank

20 Milk production and fertility High producers…  Ovulate larger follicles, but…  Low circulating estradiol  More luteal tissue, but…  Reduced circulating progesterone

21 Milk production and fertility  Disconnect???  More milk—more feed intake—more liver blood flow—more steroid metabolism??? Wiltbank

22 Practical approach to nutrition and reproduction Literature review:  Minerals (Hurley and Doane, 1989)  Vitamin (Seymour, 2001)  Energy (Butler, 2001)  Protein (Butler, 2001)  Lipid Fractions (Staples, 2004) But…

23 Le Blanc’s (approach) solution to improve Repro via Nutrition…  Search for all the cow comfort and management stuff that may limit intake  Then…look at protein  Search for all the cow comfort…  Then…look at energy  Search for all the cow comfort…  Then…lipid; minerals; vitamins (in no particular order)  Then… Search for all the cow comfort…etc

24 Nutritional management  Is not balancing rations…  Overview/understanding of nutrition program  Credibility?  Trust recommendations?  Vet?  Nutritionist? Listen to the cow…

25 Driver or mechanic?

26 Feeding for Reproduction  Assuming DMI is okay…  Overview of:  Protein  Energy  Lipid  Minerals  Vitamins

27 Nutritional Influences on Reproduction Protein…  Close-up rations often okay ~14-15% CP  Lactation rations:  More protein—more milk?!?  Watch high RDP rations  Sources: Balage, wet haylage, supplements  High urea—poor reproduction?  Balance RDP and CHO

28 Nutritional Influences on Reproduction Protein…  Lactation rations:  High Corn Silage based rations  16-17% CP  Use MUN to guide you  OK  8 OK?  >16 watch

29 Nutritional Influences on Reproduction Protein…  Urea Effect??  Impaired uterine environment?  Embryo survival issue  Energy Cost?  Effect on ovarian activity  Cows with health disorders—greater risk with high protein diets

30 Nutritional Influences on Reproduction Energy…  Important for transition Cows  Maintain / gain weight during dry period  Corn silage: benefit…but, limit  Concentrate:.75% of BW

31 Nutritional Influences on Reproduction Energy…  Key is DMI  Consider non nutritional factors  Bunk space  Over Crowding  Pen moves

32 Nutritional Influences on Reproduction Energy…  TCI index—Nordlund  Predictor of fresh cow health  1 0 ry predictor—bunk space prior to calving  2 0 ry predictor—bunk space after calving  30”

33 Nutritional Influences on Reproduction Energy…  Tools to measure…  BCS—cows anestrus Walsh 2006  Early lactation BF>5.5%  NEFA/BHB

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36 Energy and Protein  Major nutrients of any program  Lots of information about requirements  Don’t focus on decimal points and miss…  DMI, DMI, DMI

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40 Supplemental fat feeding  Post partum rations  Shown to improve reproductive performance

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42 Supplemental fat feeding How does it work? 1.Fat feeding=more progesterone?  Tallow  Calcium Salts/Prilled fatty acids  Whole cottonseeds Effect:  Larger CL  Larger dominant follicle  Improved embryo survival

43 Supplemental fat feeding 2.Inhibits production / release of prostaglandin?  Omega-3 long chain PUFA  Esp. Linolenic (C18:3)  Flaxseed, linseed, fishmeal, pasture

44 Supplemental fat feeding 3.Meeting an essential fatty acid deficiency?  May be limiting in high producers  Linoleic  Roasted beans, Enertia, Megalac R  Roasting increases delivery of EFA to SI

45 Minerals  Most commercial mineral premixes will provide adequate level of micronutrients But…  Must be formulated for dry cows  Can’t be delivered free choice  Some need to be fortified

46 Minerals Close up dry cow  Calcium >.85%  Phosphorus <.4%  Magnesium >.4%  Sulfur ~.3%  Potassium <1.4%

47 Minerals Lactation ration  Calcium >1%  Phosphorus ~.4%  Magnesium >.3%  Sulfur ~.2%  Potassium >1.4%

48 Minerals Phosphorus  Someone in extension did a great job 50 years ago…  No reproductive improvement over.37%

49 Minerals Cobalt  Important for ruminant synthesis of B 12  NRC.11 ppm  Easy to meet

50 Heat Stress—My K strategy  Add lbs  Add KCl to bring Cl to.5% (at least.4%)  Add bicarb oz, don’t go over 2%  Add K carbonate to get to 1.5% K ~.33 lbs DCAD ~35 to 40  Add Mag Ox—up to.4%  Keep K:Mag ratio ~4:1  Calcium >1%  Phosphorus ~.4%  Add 2-3 oz yeast  Start early—before heat stress

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52 Minerals Selenium  Lots of research in past 30 years  Improved immune function  Reduced mastitis  Reduced SCC  Reduced RP’s

53 Minerals Selenium  Sources:  Inorganic (Na Selenite)  Se Yeast  Maximum rate is.3 ppm

54 Minerals Selenium Yeast:  Identical to AA methionine except S replaced by Selenium molecule  Se is part of molecule, not associated as a chelate

55 Minerals Selenium Yeast:  Which is better?  Se Yeast has 20% higher whole blood Se, but…  Differences in blood may/may not relate to different clinical responses  Clinical trials on disease response is lacking  Calves from cows fed Se Yeast—higher Se  Se Yeast colostrum has higher Se

56 Minerals Selenium absorption:  Selenite and Se Yeast absorbed by different mechanisms  S (.2-.4%) reduced absorption of Na Selenite by 20%--(Se Yeast unaffected)  Se absorption 40% higher at.9% Ca (than at.5% or 1.3%)

57 Minerals Selenium Yeast—does it pay?:  Consider if antagonists are present  Consider for transition group  Can go half and half .3 ppm x 12 kg DMI=3.6 mg/day  Bigger issue may be cows are limiting

58 Vitamins An abundance of pasture and other green feeds and plenty of well cured legume hay are believed to be sufficient safeguards against any possible shortage of Vitamins D and E. No prepared vitamin mixtures need ever be purchased! Feeding Dairy Cattle Mo AES Bulletin 281, Ragsdale, 1930

59 Vitamins  Vitamin A  NRC 650 kg lactating cow needs 71,500 IU  Vitamin A improves embryo quality  My rations  KIU daily (lactation)  KIU (close up)

60 Vitamins  Vitamin E  NRC 650 kg lactating cow needs 500 IU  1000 IU pre partum  3000 IU Vitamin E, 7 days prepartum reduced risk of RFM by 44% in primiparous (not multiparous) LeBlanc 2002  Vitamin E helps reduce SCC and clinical mastitis  Lack of studies showing improved reproduction  My rations: 1000 IU lactating; close

61 Fatty Liver Accumulation of triglyceride (fat) in liver Most common around calving Most common around calving “Fat Cow Syndrome” “Fat Cow Syndrome”

62 50 to 60% of cows develop fatty livers around calving Bertics et al., 1992 UW Madison  Up to 60% of transition cows have fat build up in the liver “In the first month after calving, 5 to 10% of dairy cows have severe fatty liver and 30 to 40% have moderate fatty liver G. Bobe, J. W. Young, and D. C. Beitz, 2004 Iowa State U.

63 What happens during transition? During transition… DMI drops  NEFA’s increase  Increased fat accumulation in liver

64 NEFA  NEFA’s become elevated if DMI falls below 11 kg/day in the last week of gestation  Cows with high NEFA’s have:  More ketosis  More DA’s  More RP’s

65 Rumensin CRC  Reduces SCK by 50%  Reduces DA’s by 40%  Reduces Clinical Ketosis by 40%  Reduces RP’s by 24%

66 Reashure choline  Prevents or corrects deposition of fat in the liver  Choline prevents fatty liver Reashure ®

67 Other Goodies Lots of choices—do your homework—seek advice.

68 Snake Oil Salespersons One who weaves a tale of truths, half truths, lies and innuendo for the purpose of gaining trust, faith or monetary gain from normally very intelligent people.

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70 Vitamins  Feeding trace minerals and vitamins in excess is unlikely to improve reproduction. Santos 2005

71 Mycotoxin Inhibitors  Corn ear mold prevalent this year  Mold does not mean mycotoxins, but…  DON or vomitoxin—marker  Decreased milk  Decreased reproduction  Depressed immune system  Consider testing/inhibitors  ppm

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