Presentation on theme: "Energy Use and Pollution The Central Challenge of Our Time Eng Phys EP 3ES3."— Presentation transcript:
Energy Use and Pollution The Central Challenge of Our Time Eng Phys EP 3ES3
Energy Modes Electricity Generation Transportation Direct Heating Industrial Use
Energy Production and Use - Impacts by Environmental Medium Air –Thermal/Meteorological, Chemical, Radioactive Water – Chemical, Thermal/Aquatic, Radioactive Land – Radioactive, Chemical, Bulk Wastes
Air Impacts “Air Pollution” Direct chemical impacts - short and long term “Climate Change” Indirect impacts – long term, global warming/meteorological instability
Air Pollution SO x NO x O 3 CO Particulate matter, total, inhalable, respirable Organics Metals Toxics
How Does Poor Air Quality Affect Us? Human Health Impacts Odors and Eye Irritation Poor Visibility and Haze Property Damage Community Perception Issues Direct and Indirect Economic Costs Damage to Natural Ecosystems
The Problem Sahsuvaroglu & Jerrett 2003 Health Impacts of Air Pollutants in Hamilton
Health Impacts in Hamilton – by Air Pollutant Sahsuvaroglu & Jerrett 2003
(Higher Impacts on Women and Over 60s) Exposure to Traffic and the Onset of Myocardial Infarction, A. Peters et al, NEJM, Oct 21, 2004 Traffic Exposure and Myocardial Infarction
Level of Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter and the Risk of Death from Cardiovascular Causes in Women Miller KA et al. N Engl J Med 2007;356:447-458
Electricity Generation Long Range Transport of Air Pollutants
Air Emissions by Electricity Generation Method Lbs/ MWh CoalOilGas Municipal Waste Nuclear/ Renewables CO 2 22491672113529880 SO 2 13120.10.80 NO x 641.75.40
Fossil Fuel Power Plants % of U.S. Total Emissions 67 % of sulfur dioxide emissions 23 % of nitrogen oxide emissions 40 % of man-made carbon dioxide emissions
Ontario Coal Fired Generating Stations – Health Impacts in Ontario 668 premature deaths, 928 hospital admissions 1,100 emergency room visits per year
Why don’t we just add a few more nuclear stations?
Risk Management Hazard Risk = Hazard x probability Outrage = Risk perception x hazard Risk Analysis, including ranking Risk Management, education/marketing, prioritized actions, review
Ontario's Electricity Generation Mix Fuel Type - Ontario % of Total Nuclear48 Hydro25 Coal17 Gas8 Other1
Ontario Clean Air Plan for Electricity Generation Close coal-fired generating stations Reduces greenhouse gas emissions in Canada by up to 30 megatonnes a year Equivalent to taking seven million cars off the road or removing every car and small truck in Ontario Meets half of the province’s greenhouse-gas- reduction contributions under the Kyoto Protocol.
Ontario Clean Air Plan for Electricity Generation Nuclear - Bruce Power refurbish two laid- up nuclear reactors, 1,500 megawatts. OPG to refurbish existing nuclear facilities at Pickering B. Limiting the future use of nuclear power to today's installed capacity level of 14,000 megawatts. Cleaner (Gas Fired) - 7,500 megawatts of cleaner, more diversified power. Doubling the amount of electricity drawn from renewable sources, bringing the total to 15,700 megawatts by 2025. Adding $400 M to double the conservation efforts for a total of $550 M, targeting to reduce electricity demand by 6,300 megawatts by 2025. Expanding the transmission capacity from Bruce County and surrounding area to facilitate the transmission of electricity from several new wind farms and the Bruce facility to Ontario homes and businesses.
Smart Electricity Meters 800,000 smart meters by December 31, 2007, all Ontario customers by December 31, 2010. Cost $1Bn Cost per customer $3-4 per month
City of Hamilton Analysis Lifetime Cost Comparison 5 yr total costs, including lease and fuel
Fuel Economy, Actual, vs. Manufacturer’s Projections Honda projected Insight to have 50% better fuel economy than Prius, however over 1 year normal fleet operation, fuel economies were comparable.
Drive Clean Emission Testing MOE Fleet average Drive Clean Test results. Honda Insight and Toyota Prius Drive Clean Test results.
NuVehicle Program Trend 2002 Vehicle purchases by organizations, MOE, City of Hamilton, Hamilton Hydro
NuVehicle Program Trend 2006 Vehicle purchases by organizations, MOE, City of Hamilton, Hamilton Hydro
Climate Change Doesn’t matter where CO2 is released NOAA index has increased 20% since 1990 U.S. refuses to sign on to Kyoto agreement Coal is most abundant/cheapest fossil fuel available
Global Warming - Solutions Conservation Aggressive introduction of new renewable generation worldwide, including wind, solar and local geothermal Enhanced interest in nuclear Investment in LPG facilities Research investment in Clean Coal Technology, including CO2 recovery and sequestration (Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Clean Power Coalition Hybrid/fuel cell vehicles Alternative fuels
Good Intentions + Good Science + Good Process = Real Progress