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Energy Use and Pollution The Central Challenge of Our Time Eng Phys EP 3ES3.

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Presentation on theme: "Energy Use and Pollution The Central Challenge of Our Time Eng Phys EP 3ES3."— Presentation transcript:

1 Energy Use and Pollution The Central Challenge of Our Time Eng Phys EP 3ES3

2 Energy Modes Electricity Generation Transportation Direct Heating Industrial Use

3 Energy Production and Use - Impacts by Environmental Medium Air –Thermal/Meteorological, Chemical, Radioactive Water – Chemical, Thermal/Aquatic, Radioactive Land – Radioactive, Chemical, Bulk Wastes

4 Air Impacts “Air Pollution” Direct chemical impacts - short and long term “Climate Change” Indirect impacts – long term, global warming/meteorological instability

5 Air Pollution SO x NO x O 3 CO Particulate matter, total, inhalable, respirable Organics Metals Toxics

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7 How Does Poor Air Quality Affect Us? Human Health Impacts Odors and Eye Irritation Poor Visibility and Haze Property Damage Community Perception Issues Direct and Indirect Economic Costs Damage to Natural Ecosystems

8 The Problem Sahsuvaroglu & Jerrett 2003 Health Impacts of Air Pollutants in Hamilton

9 Health Impacts in Hamilton – by Air Pollutant Sahsuvaroglu & Jerrett 2003

10 (Higher Impacts on Women and Over 60s) Exposure to Traffic and the Onset of Myocardial Infarction, A. Peters et al, NEJM, Oct 21, 2004 Traffic Exposure and Myocardial Infarction

11 Level of Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter and the Risk of Death from Cardiovascular Causes in Women Miller KA et al. N Engl J Med 2007;356:

12 Electricity Generation Long Range Transport of Air Pollutants

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14 Air Emissions by Electricity Generation Method Lbs/ MWh CoalOilGas Municipal Waste Nuclear/ Renewables CO SO NO x

15 Fossil Fuel Power Plants % of U.S. Total Emissions 67 % of sulfur dioxide emissions 23 % of nitrogen oxide emissions 40 % of man-made carbon dioxide emissions

16 Ontario Coal Fired Generating Stations – Health Impacts in Ontario 668 premature deaths, 928 hospital admissions 1,100 emergency room visits per year

17 Why don’t we just add a few more nuclear stations?

18 Risk Management Hazard Risk = Hazard x probability Outrage = Risk perception x hazard Risk Analysis, including ranking Risk Management, education/marketing, prioritized actions, review

19 Ontario's Electricity Generation Mix Fuel Type - Ontario % of Total Nuclear48 Hydro25 Coal17 Gas8 Other1

20 Ontario Clean Air Plan for Electricity Generation Close coal-fired generating stations Reduces greenhouse gas emissions in Canada by up to 30 megatonnes a year Equivalent to taking seven million cars off the road or removing every car and small truck in Ontario Meets half of the province’s greenhouse-gas- reduction contributions under the Kyoto Protocol.

21 Ontario Clean Air Plan for Electricity Generation Nuclear - Bruce Power refurbish two laid- up nuclear reactors, 1,500 megawatts. OPG to refurbish existing nuclear facilities at Pickering B. Limiting the future use of nuclear power to today's installed capacity level of 14,000 megawatts. Cleaner (Gas Fired) - 7,500 megawatts of cleaner, more diversified power. Doubling the amount of electricity drawn from renewable sources, bringing the total to 15,700 megawatts by Adding $400 M to double the conservation efforts for a total of $550 M, targeting to reduce electricity demand by 6,300 megawatts by Expanding the transmission capacity from Bruce County and surrounding area to facilitate the transmission of electricity from several new wind farms and the Bruce facility to Ontario homes and businesses.

22 Smart Electricity Meters 800,000 smart meters by December 31, 2007, all Ontario customers by December 31, Cost $1Bn Cost per customer $3-4 per month

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24 Air Pollution Exposures in Hamilton Long Range Transport + Local Sources Mobile Monitoring Study to Identify and Rank Local Sources

25 Mobile Command Centre

26 Wind NO ppb

27 Stoplight Idling – Concentrations Downwind

28 Burlington St. Upwind Downwind

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30 High Pollution Triangle, Samples of Modeled Impacts of Traffic Pollutants, (Julie Wallace, Ph.D. Centre for Spatial Analysis, McMaster University)

31 NO March 9 th 2007 Traffic Industry

32 McMaster Model – Rotek Mobile Data Monitoring/Modeling Interaction

33 Health Impacts in Hamilton – by Air Pollutant Sahsuvaroglu & Jerrett 2003

34 (Higher Impacts on Women and Over 60s) Exposure to Traffic and the Onset of Myocardial Infarction, A. Peters et al, NEJM, Oct 21, 2004 Traffic Exposure and Myocardial Infarction

35 Vehicle Idling outside Schools “Natural Experiment”

36 Morning – Idling Vehicles

37 Natural Experiment ppb

38 Monitoring Vehicle at School

39 Afternoon – Vehicle Engines Off

40 Transportation

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43 An Evaluation of Hybrid Vehicle Use in a Canadian Fleet Environment Honda Insight Toyota Prius Denis Corr, Michael Cho Engineering Physics, McMaster U. Ontario Ministry of Environment

44 Fuel consumption statistics

45 City of Hamilton Analysis Lifetime Cost Comparison 5 yr total costs, including lease and fuel

46 Fuel Economy, Actual, vs. Manufacturer’s Projections Honda projected Insight to have 50% better fuel economy than Prius, however over 1 year normal fleet operation, fuel economies were comparable.

47 Drive Clean Emission Testing MOE Fleet average Drive Clean Test results. Honda Insight and Toyota Prius Drive Clean Test results.

48 NuVehicle Program Trend 2002 Vehicle purchases by organizations, MOE, City of Hamilton, Hamilton Hydro

49 NuVehicle Program Trend 2006 Vehicle purchases by organizations, MOE, City of Hamilton, Hamilton Hydro

50 Climate Change Doesn’t matter where CO2 is released NOAA index has increased 20% since 1990 U.S. refuses to sign on to Kyoto agreement Coal is most abundant/cheapest fossil fuel available

51 Global Warming - Solutions Conservation Aggressive introduction of new renewable generation worldwide, including wind, solar and local geothermal Enhanced interest in nuclear Investment in LPG facilities Research investment in Clean Coal Technology, including CO2 recovery and sequestration (Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Clean Power Coalition Hybrid/fuel cell vehicles Alternative fuels

52 Good Intentions + Good Science + Good Process = Real Progress


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