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EE 4BD4 Lecture 15 Strain ( force) Gauges, pressure sensors and Load Cells 1

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The Strain Gauge Measures the effects of very small displacements (lengthening or shortening) of a resistive sensor Is an isometric device with conductor strain gauges having a maximum resistive change of 1 to 3 % Resistive change based on both dimensional changes of conductor and strain placed on the sensor (piezoresistive effect) Sensors are small, but glued (bonded) to larger structures to increase range of forces measured 2

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Basic Theory 3

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Different Conductive Materials 5

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Selection of Type Metal foil gauges have a linear resistance change with strain but are less sensitive Semiconductor gauges based on piezoresistive effect in germanium and silicon and are much more temperature sensitive Resistance change is nonlinear for S-C strain gauges and are not as commonly used as metal foil 6

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Types of Foil Strain Gauges 8

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Principle of Operation 9

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Measurement Circuits Base resistance for bonded gauges between 30 Ω and 3 kΩ (typically 350 Ω) R1 R2 and R3 are balancing resistors (e.g. 350 Ω so bridge balanced at 0 strain and V = 0 Temperature changes cause change in dimensions of structure and gauge and resistivity of gauge resulting in baseline drift 10

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Lead temperauture compensated bridge Effects of lead resistance temperature changes 11

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Using an Extra Gauge for Temperature Compensation Circuit to compensate for temperature effects on structure and gauges Fully temperature compensated circuit 12

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Beam with Two Gauges Beam example 13 Two stressed gauges

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Load Cells Force range based on size of load cell structure and beams Typical 30 mV output for full load If source voltage too high you get excessive heating of resistors 15

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ADDING INTEGERS 1. POS. + POS. = POS. 2. NEG. + NEG. = NEG. 3. POS. + NEG. OR NEG. + POS. SUBTRACT TAKE SIGN OF BIGGER ABSOLUTE VALUE.

ADDING INTEGERS 1. POS. + POS. = POS. 2. NEG. + NEG. = NEG. 3. POS. + NEG. OR NEG. + POS. SUBTRACT TAKE SIGN OF BIGGER ABSOLUTE VALUE.

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