Presentation on theme: "Is There Multiple Intelligence? EQ vs. IQ. Definition of Intelligence The ability to learn or understand or to deal with new or trying situations : the."— Presentation transcript:
Is There Multiple Intelligence? EQ vs. IQ
Definition of Intelligence The ability to learn or understand or to deal with new or trying situations : the skilled use of reason The cognitive abilities of an individual to learn from experience, to reason well, and to cope effectively with the demands of daily living.
"Intelligence, as a hypothetical construct, is the aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with his environment” - Wechsler What is Intelligence?
Although experts differ on an exact definition of intelligence most agree that intelligent behavior has at least two components: 1. The ability to learn from experience. 2. The ability to adapt to the surrounding environment.
Factors of General Intelligence Tests 1. Verbal Comprehension - vocabulary, verbal analogies 2. Number -- mathematical operations 3. Space - visual-spatial and mental transformation 4. Associative Memory -- rote memory 5. Perceptual Speed -- quickness in noticing similarities and differences, and math problems 6. Reasoning - skill in inductive, deductive, and math problems
What Do We Know About IQ? Predicts school grades relatively well Does not predict success in life Predicts 6% of job success Peaks in late teens Culture-bound, Gender Bias, SES Racial controversies Gets you in the door –Professional schools (medicine, dentistry, law) –Can help you get hired (Harvard MBA) Static
Non-Ability Factors’ Role: "…individuals with identical IQ's may differ very markedly in regard to their effective ability to cope with their environment…It is not possible to account for more than 50% to 70% of the intertest correlational variance after all recognizable intellectual factors are eliminated. This leaves any where from 30% to 50% of the total factorial variance unaccounted for. It is suggested that this residual variance is largely contributed by such factors as drive, energy, impulsiveness, etc." - Wechsler What is Emotionally Intelligent Behaviour?
Where Did the Concept of Emotional Intelligence Come From? In 1983, Gardner first published his theory, derived from extensive brain research, on Multiple Intelligence including intrapersonal (self awareness/self management) and interpersonal (relationship awareness/management) Reuven Bar-On (1988) has placed EI in the context of personality theory, specifically a model of well-being Peter Salovey and John Mayer first proposed their theory of emotional intelligence (EI) in 1990 and defined it Goleman ( ) has popularized the concept of emotional intelligence and formulated EI in terms of a theory of job and work performance
Gardner’s Seven Intelligences
Is There Multiple Intelligence? Social Intelligence the know-how involved in comprehending social situations and managing oneself successfully Emotional Intelligence ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions
What is Emotionally Intelligent Behaviour? Intelligence Does Not = Behaviour “I look upon intelligence as an effect rather than a cause, that is, as a resultant of interacting abilities - nonintellective included. The problem confronting psychologists today is how these abilities interact to give the resultant effect we call intelligence." - Wechsler
Mayer-Salovey Model MSCEIT Performance or ability measure Bar-On Model EQ-I Self-report measure Goleman Model ECI - Self Report Measure 360 measure What Is Emotional Intelligence?
Emotional intelligence involves the “abilities to perceive, appraise, and express emotion; to access and/or generate feelings when they facilitate thought; to understand emotion and emotional knowledge; and to regulate emotions to promote emotional and intellectual growth” - Mayer & Salovey (1997) What Is Emotional Intelligence?
Social communications requires accurate perception of content, as well as tone and non- verbal signals such as posture and facial expression Emotions are complex, and people can experience a combination of different emotions Many theorists agree that basic emotions have universal meaning - universal across cultures and even across certain species. Mayer - Salovey Model
Testing Emotional Intelligence How should you measure an intelligence? With an ability test –Ask person to solve problems –Gauge their ability to do so accurately and/or quickly
Recommendation for Ability Testing Components [of emotional intelligence]…are best tested by sampling a person’s actual ability at the task – for example, by having them read a person’s feelings from a video of their facial expressions.” (Goleman, 1995).
Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Model (MSCEIT) MSCEIT is an ability based measure designed to assess Emotional Intelligence. It is a performance based scale, meaning it measures how well an individual performs tasks and solves emotional problems - instead of simply just asking individuals for their subjective assessment of their emotional skills. It was developed from an intelligence testing perspective. What Is Emotional Intelligence?
Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Model (MSCEIT) Scales Identifying Emotions: identify emotions in faces Using Emotions to Facilitate Thought: use emotions to solve problems Understanding Emotions: figure out what makes people “tick” Managing Emotions: make optimal decisions What Is Emotional Intelligence?
Ability Accurately identify emotions in people and objects Question Types Identify emotions in faces, landscapes, and designs. How the Ability May Be Used "Read" people's moods for feedback. Identify Emotions
MSCEIT What Is Emotional Intelligence? No Happiness No Fear Extreme Happiness Extreme Fear How much is each feeling below expressed by this face?
INSTRUCTIONS: How much is each feeling expressed by this picture? 1. Happiness Sadness Ability Accurately identify emotions in people and objects How the Ability May Be Used "Read" people's moods for feedback.
Ability Generate an emotion and solve problems with that emotion Question Types How moods impact thinking; relating feelings to thoughts How the Ability May Be Used Creating the right feeling to assist in problem solving, communicating a vision, leading people. Facilitate Thought
1. What mood(s) might be helpful to feel when meeting in-laws for the very first time? a. tension b. surprise12345 c. joy12345 Not UsefulUseful Ability Generate an emotion and solve problems with that emotion How the Ability May Be Used Creating the right feeling to assist in problem solving, communicating a vision, leading people.
Ability Understand the causes of emotions Question Types Multiple choice emotion vocabulary questions. How the Ability May Be Used Being able to predict how people will emotionally react. Understand Emotions
Tom felt anxious, and became a bit stressed when he thought about all the work he needed to do. When his supervisor brought him an additional project, he felt_______________. 1. a. overwhelmed b. depressed c. ashamed d. self-conscious e. jittery Ability Understand the causes of emotions How the Ability May Be Used Being able to predict how people will emotionally react.
Ability Stay open to emotions and blend with thinking. Question Types Indicate effectiveness of various solutions to problems. How the Ability May Be Used Integrate emotion and thought to make effective decisions. Manage Emotions
Debbie just came back from vacation. She was feeling peaceful and content. How well would each action preserve her mood? 1. Action 1: She started to make a list of things at home that she needed to do. Action 2: She began thinking about where and when she go on her next vacation. Action 3: She decided it was best ignore the feeling since it wouldn’t last anyway. a) Very ineffective b) Somewhat Ineffective c) Neutral d) Somewhat Ineffective e) Very Ineffective )
Scoring an Ability Test of Emotional Intelligence An intelligence implies that there are better and worse answers or responses. Problem with the ability approach: –Is there a right way to feel? Indeed, there are emotional issues that cannot be measured this way! –What’s the “right” response to someone shouting?
Scoring an Ability Test of Emotional Intelligence
Scoring The MSCEIT Consensus scoring is used based on the full standardization sample Expert scoring is used based on a sample of 21 members of the International Society for Research in Emotions
Consensus scoring has been used with great success. It is based upon the agreement of a large number of people. For example, if 70 percent of people felt that a photo was of a very happy person, then the best answer for the photo would be “happiness”. Consensus Scoring
Based on Wechsler intelligence tests Responses to intelligence test questions are categorized Experts (psychologists) rate quality of responses Compare test-taker’s response to experts’ ratings Expert Scoring
Consensus and Expert Scoring Converge Consensus and expert choices for the right answers are in general agreement! The MSCEIT r for agreement ranges from.90 upward So, there are better and worse answers in general. When there are enough experts, both general and expert participants now mostly agree.
How Was the MSCEIT Standardized How Was the MSCEIT Standardized ? Standardized on 5000 Participants Across over 50 English- speaking data sites in: –Australia –Canada –India –South Africa –United Kingdom –United States Ages 17 to 79 Reports matched to United States Census Data on age, gender, ethnicity and education
Split-Half Reliabilities of the MSCEIT (Odd-even split; N = 1,985) Split-Half Reliabilities of the MSCEIT (Odd-even split; N = 1,985) Source: Mayer, Salovey, Caruso, & Sitarenios (2003), Emotion
In Two Large-Sample Studies (N > 1700), Confirmatory Factor Analyses Show Good Fits for the 1, 2, and 4 Factor Models
MSCEIT is Essentially Independent of the Following Tests (N’s > 100): T MSCEIT is Essentially Independent of the Following Tests (N’s > 100): r =.00 to.35 Self-report Scales of EQ, optimism, empathy Sources: Bracket & Mayer, in press; Caruso, Mayer, & Salovey, 2002; Ciarrochi, Chan & Caputo, 2000; Mayer, Caruso, & Salovey, 1999; Roberts, Zeidner, & Mathews, forthcoming; Salovey, Mayer, Caruso,& Lopez, in press. r =.00 to.35 Big Five Personality Scales r =.00 to.40 Intelligence Tests
Low Scores on the MSCEIT Predicted these Negative Aspects of Relationships: r =.20 to.46, p <.001 Higher ratings of aggression by peers at school Sources: Brackett & Mayer, in press; Brackett, Mayer, & Warner, under review; Formica, 1999; Trinidad & Johnson, 2001; Rubin, 2000; N = 48. r =.15 to 24, p <.05 More alcohol and tobacco use r =.21 to.40, p <.05 More fights, drug use
Emotional intelligence is “an array of noncognitive capabilities, competencies, and skills that influence one’s ability to succeed in coping with environmental demands and pressures” - Bar-On (1997) What Is Emotional Intelligence?
Why Was the BarOn EQ-i Developed? To help answer a basic question: Why do some people with high IQ fail in life, while others with moderate IQ succeed?
Dr. BarOn and Emotional Intelligence Dr. Reuven Bar-On began in 1980 factors that were related to success in life why some people with moderate IQ do well in life while others with high IQ fail Distinct from IQ (cognitive intelligence) components resemble personality factors, but can change and can be altered
Steps in the Development of BarOn EQ-i Steps in the Development of BarOn EQ-i Identified key determinants of success Clustered determinants of success into factors Operationally defined the factors Constructed the EQ-i Examined the factor structure, reliability, & validity Validated the EQ-i across cultures Extensively normed (>10,000) Continued validation
How Does the EQ-i Work? 133 brief items answered on a 5-point scale from “Not True of Me” to “True of Me” 30 minutes to complete Standard scores based on “100” as the average, Standard Deviation of 15 Includes the following scales: –Total EQ –5 EQ Composite Scales –15 EQ Content Scales –4 Validity Scales
Sample Test Items: I have good relations with others I’m fun to be with I like helping people Rating Scale: 1 = Very Seldom or Not True of me 5 = Very Often True of Me or True of Me BarOn/EQ-i
Emotional Self-Awareness Subscale
Sample Sizes - Over 10,000 used during R&D - 3,831 used for the norms
Reliability and Validity Good reliability –test-retest 4mths) –Cronbach’s alpha (.75 to.89) Good validity –construct (with other psych. tests) »varying relationships (weak to strong) »correlation with coping, IQ, and occupational success
EQi and Gender n = 4500 M n = 3200 F
EQ and Age (n=3831) EQ-I and Age Differences
Some of the Applications of the EQ-i ® Recruiting high performers Retaining high performers Teambuilding Managing diversity Leadership development Coaching Performance management Risk management Self development Change management Merger integration & re-shaping culture Restructuring & realignment Stress management Career planning
EQ-i Seems Similar to Existing Models EQ-i - Bar-On’s test Intrapersonal Emotional self-awareness, assertiveness, self-regard, self- actualization, independence Interpersonal Empathy, interpersonal relationship, social responsibility Stress Management Problem solving, reality testing, flexibility Adaptability Stress tolerance, impulse control General Mood happiness, optimism NEO PI-R - Costa & McCrae Extraversion Warmth, gregariousness, optimism, assertiveness, high-energy Neuroticism Stress tolerance, impulse control, anger, depression, anxiety
EQ-i Seems Similar to Existing Personality Models EQ-i and some personality test correlations very high –Self-Regard x Borderline features r = -.74 –Happiness x Depression Scale r = -.77
What Is Emotional Intelligence? MSCEIT EQ-i Predicted r = +.50 or more If these are measuring the same thing, there should be a significant, positive correlation amongst the measures.
What Is Emotional Intelligence? MSCEIT EQ-i Actual r =.00 to.15 However, the measures are not highly related.
What Does This Mean? EQ-I and the MSCEIT measure relatively different things. How can they both be predicting emotional intelligence? How do we use the EQ-I and the MSCEIT? What Is Emotional Intelligence?
The answers lie in the intelligence / IQ models of Wechsler: - Bar-On influenced by Wechsler’s search for non-intellective factors. - Mayer & Salovey working in an intelligence ability framework. What Is Emotional Intelligence?
MSCEIT measures fundamental abilities of emotional intelligence as measured in an objective manner. EQ-I measures the non-intellective factors that impact emotionally- intelligent behavior as reported by the person. What Is Emotional Intelligence?
Research on the Effects of Intelligence (EI) on Career Success “IQ” “EI” CAREER ADVANCEMENT LOW “EI” CAREER DERAILMENT
EQ & Work Success (n = 100) Source: A scientific study of 100 university-educated bank employees using the Bar-On EQ-i ® conducted by Joseph Hee-Woo Jae, Ateneo Manila University, Philippines.
What Emotional Intelligence Is Not Cognitive Intelligence (IQ) –IQ is necessary but EQ allows the stars to rise to the top –EQ and IQ are not highly correlated (about r =.1) –estimated that 1% of the variance accounting for occupational success can be attributed to IQ –EQ is estimated to account for 3 to 27% of occupational success