2 Definition of Intelligence The ability to learn or understand or to deal with new or trying situations : the skilled use of reasonThe cognitive abilities of an individual to learn from experience, to reason well, and to cope effectively with the demands of daily living.
3 What is Intelligence?"Intelligence, as a hypothetical construct, is the aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with his environment”- Wechsler
4 1. The ability to learn from experience. What is Intelligence?Although experts differ on an exact definition of intelligence most agree that intelligent behavior has at least two components:1. The ability to learn from experience.2. The ability to adapt to the surrounding environment.
5 Factors of General Intelligence Tests 1. Verbal Comprehension - vocabulary, verbal analogies2. Number -- mathematical operations3. Space - visual-spatial and mental transformation4. Associative Memory -- rote memory5. Perceptual Speed -- quickness in noticing similarities and differences6. Reasoning - skill in inductive, deductive, and math problems
6 What Do We Know About IQ? Predicts school grades relatively well Does not predict success in lifePredicts 6% of job successPeaks in late teensCulture-bound, Gender Bias, SESRacial controversiesGets you in the doorProfessional schools (medicine, dentistry, law)Can help you get hired (Harvard MBA)Static
7 What is Emotionally Intelligent Behaviour? Non-Ability Factors’ Role:"…individuals with identical IQ's may differ very markedly in regard to their effective ability to cope with their environment…It is not possible to account for more than 50% to 70% of the intertest correlational variance after all recognizable intellectual factors are eliminated. This leaves any where from 30% to 50% of the total factorial variance unaccounted for. It is suggested that this residual variance is largely contributed by such factors as drive, energy, impulsiveness, etc."- Wechsler
8 Where Did the Concept of Emotional Intelligence Come From? In 1983, Gardner first published his theory, derived from extensive brain research, on Multiple Intelligence including intrapersonal (self awareness/self management) and interpersonal (relationship awareness/management)Reuven Bar-On (1988) has placed EI in the context of personality theory, specifically a model of well-beingPeter Salovey and John Mayer first proposed their theory of emotional intelligence (EI) in 1990 and defined itGoleman ( ) has popularized the concept of emotional intelligence and formulated EI in terms of a theory of job and work performance
11 Is There Multiple Intelligence? Social Intelligencethe know-how involved in comprehending social situations and managing oneself successfullyEmotional Intelligenceability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions
12 What is Emotionally Intelligent Behaviour? Intelligence Does Not = Behaviour“I look upon intelligence as an effect rather than a cause, that is, as a resultant of interacting abilities - nonintellective included. The problem confronting psychologists today is how these abilities interact to give the resultant effect we call intelligence."- Wechsler
13 What Is Emotional Intelligence? Mayer-Salovey ModelMSCEITPerformance or ability measureBar-On ModelEQ-ISelf-report measureGoleman ModelECI - Self Report Measure360 measure
14 What Is Emotional Intelligence? Emotional intelligence involves the “abilities to perceive, appraise, and express emotion; to access and/or generate feelings when they facilitate thought; to understand emotion and emotional knowledge; and to regulate emotions to promote emotional and intellectual growth”- Mayer & Salovey (1997)
15 Mayer - Salovey ModelSocial communications requires accurate perception of content, as well as tone and non-verbal signals such as posture and facial expressionEmotions are complex, and people can experience a combination of different emotionsMany theorists agree that basic emotions have universal meaning - universal across cultures and even across certain species.
16 Testing Emotional Intelligence How should you measure an intelligence?With an ability testAsk person to solve problemsGauge their ability to do so accurately and/or quickly
17 Recommendation for Ability Testing Components [of emotional intelligence]…are best tested by sampling a person’s actual ability at the task – for example, by having them read a person’s feelings from a video of their facial expressions.” (Goleman, 1995).
18 What Is Emotional Intelligence? Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Model (MSCEIT) MSCEIT is an ability based measure designed to assess Emotional Intelligence.It is a performance based scale, meaning it measures how well an individual performs tasks and solves emotional problems - instead of simply just asking individuals for their subjective assessment of their emotional skills.It was developed from an intelligence testing perspective.
19 What Is Emotional Intelligence? Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Model (MSCEIT) ScalesIdentifying Emotions: identify emotions in facesUsing Emotions to Facilitate Thought: use emotions to solve problemsUnderstanding Emotions: figure out what makes people “tick”Managing Emotions: make optimal decisions
20 Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test EXPERIENTIALSTRATEGICIDENTIFYFACILITATEUNDERSTANDMANAGEFACESSENSATIONSCHANGESEMOT. MAN.PICTURESFACILITATEBLENDSEMOT. RELAT.
22 Identify EmotionsAbilityAccurately identify emotions in people and objectsQuestion TypesIdentify emotions in faces, landscapes, and designs.How the Ability May Be Used"Read" people's moods for feedback.
23 What Is Emotional Intelligence? MSCEITHow much is each feeling below expressed by this face?ExtremeHappiness1. No HappinessExtremeFear2. No Fear
24 INSTRUCTIONS: How much is each feeling expressed by this picture? 1. Happiness2. SadnessAbilityAccurately identify emotions in people and objectsHow the Ability May Be Used"Read" people's moods for feedback.
25 Facilitate ThoughtAbilityGenerate an emotion and solve problems with that emotionQuestion TypesHow moods impact thinking; relating feelings to thoughtsHow the Ability May Be UsedCreating the right feeling to assist in problem solving, communicating a vision, leading people.
26 1. What mood(s) might be helpful to feel when meeting in-laws for the very first time? Not UsefulUsefula. tensionb. surprisec. joyAbilityGenerate an emotion and solve problems with that emotionHow the Ability May Be UsedCreating the right feeling to assist in problem solving, communicating a vision, leading people.
27 Understand EmotionsAbilityUnderstand the causes of emotionsQuestion TypesMultiple choice emotion vocabulary questions.How the Ability May Be UsedBeing able to predict how people will emotionally react.
28 Tom felt anxious, and became a bit stressed when he thought about all the work he needed to do. When his supervisor brought him an additional project, he felt_______________.1.a. overwhelmedb. depressedc. ashamedd. self-consciouse. jitteryAbilityUnderstand the causes of emotionsHow the Ability May Be UsedBeing able to predict how people will emotionally react.
29 Manage EmotionsAbilityStay open to emotions and blend with thinking.Question TypesIndicate effectiveness of various solutions to problems.How the Ability May Be UsedIntegrate emotion and thought to make effective decisions.
30 )Debbie just came back from vacation. She was feeling peaceful and content. How well would each action preserve her mood?1.Action 1: She started to make a list of things at home that she needed to do.Action 2: She began thinking about where and when she go on her next vacation.Action 3: She decided it was best ignore the feeling since it wouldn’t last anyway.a) Very ineffective b) Somewhat Ineffectivec) Neutral d) Somewhat Ineffective e) Very Ineffective
31 Scoring an Ability Test of Emotional Intelligence An intelligence implies that there are better and worse answers or responses.Problem with the ability approach:Is there a right way to feel?Indeed, there are emotional issues that cannot be measured this way!What’s the “right” response to someone shouting?The ability approach has many advantages in the assessment of emotional intelligence. However, how do we score an emotional ability test? Are there actually right and wrong answers?Indeed, there are! However, there are some abilities, and some questions, which do not have correct answers.
32 Scoring an Ability Test of Emotional Intelligence
33 Scoring The MSCEITConsensus scoring is used based on the full standardization sampleExpert scoring is used based on a sample of 21 members of the International Society for Research in Emotions
34 Consensus ScoringConsensus scoring has been used with great success.It is based upon the agreement of a large number of people.For example, if 70 percent of people felt that a photo was of a very happy person, then the best answer for the photo would be “happiness”.
35 Expert Scoring Based on Wechsler intelligence tests Responses to intelligence test questions are categorizedExperts (psychologists) rate quality of responsesCompare test-taker’s response to experts’ ratings
36 Consensus and Expert Scoring Converge Good news!Consensus and expert choices for the right answers are in general agreement! The MSCEIT r for agreement ranges from .90 upwardSo, there are better and worse answers in general. When there are enough experts, both general and expert participants now mostly agree.When we score the MEIS using all 3 criteria, we generally find that the scoring methods agree with each other. That means that there are better and worse answers for these test items. However, we also only use those test items that do have clear answers.Lastly, we have found that a combination of consensus and expert scores yield the best results. This is how the MEIS is scored.
37 How Was the MSCEIT Standardized? Standardized on 5000 Participants Across over 50 English-speaking data sites in:AustraliaCanadaIndiaSouth AfricaUnited KingdomUnited StatesAges 17 to 79Reports matched to United States Census Data on age, gender, ethnicity and education
39 Split-Half Reliabilities of the MSCEIT (Odd-even split; N = 1,985) Source: Mayer, Salovey, Caruso, & Sitarenios (2003), Emotion
40 In Two Large-Sample Studies (N > 1700), Confirmatory Factor Analyses Show Good Fits for the 1, 2, and 4 Factor Models
41 T MSCEIT is Essentially Independent of the Following Tests (N’s > 100): r = .00 to .35Self-report Scales of EQ, optimism, empathySources: Bracket & Mayer, in press; Caruso, Mayer, & Salovey, 2002; Ciarrochi, Chan & Caputo, 2000; Mayer, Caruso, & Salovey, 1999; Roberts, Zeidner, & Mathews, forthcoming; Salovey, Mayer, Caruso,& Lopez, in press.Big Five Personality Scalesr = .00 to .40Intelligence Tests
42 Low Scores on the MSCEIT Predicted these Negative Aspects of Relationships: r = .20 to .46, p < .001Higher ratings of aggression by peers at schoolSources: Brackett & Mayer, in press; Brackett, Mayer, & Warner, under review; Formica, 1999; Trinidad & Johnson, 2001; Rubin, 2000; N = 48.r = .15 to 24, p < .05More alcohol and tobacco user = .21 to .40, p < .05More fights, drug use
44 What Is Emotional Intelligence? Emotional intelligence is “an array of noncognitive capabilities, competencies, and skills that influence one’s ability to succeed in coping with environmental demands and pressures”- Bar-On (1997)
45 Why Was the BarOn EQ-i Developed? To help answer a basic question:Why do some people with high IQ fail in life, while others with moderate IQ succeed?
46 Dr. BarOn and Emotional Intelligence Dr. Reuven Bar-On began in 1980factors that were related to success in lifewhy some people with moderate IQ do well in life while others with high IQ failDistinct from IQ (cognitive intelligence)components resemble personality factors, but can change and can be altered
47 Steps in the Development of BarOn EQ-i Identified key determinants of successClustered determinants of success into factorsOperationally defined the factorsConstructed the EQ-iExamined the factor structure, reliability, & validityValidated the EQ-i across culturesExtensively normed (>10,000)Continued validation
48 How Does the EQ-i Work?133 brief items answered on a 5-point scale from “Not True of Me” to “True of Me”30 minutes to completeStandard scores based on “100” as the average, Standard Deviation of 15Includes the following scales:Total EQ5 EQ Composite Scales15 EQ Content Scales4 Validity Scales
56 Reliability and Validity Good reliabilitytest-retest 4mths)Cronbach’s alpha (.75 to .89)Good validityconstruct (with other psych. tests)varying relationships (weak to strong)correlation with coping, IQ, and occupational success
58 EQ-I and Age Differences EQ and Age (n=3831)Could you please add some text highlighting the differences in EQ-I in regards to age. This also can be done on another slide.
59 Some of the Applications of the EQ-i® Recruiting high performersRetaining high performersTeambuildingManaging diversityLeadership developmentCoachingPerformance managementRisk managementSelf developmentChange managementMerger integration & re-shaping cultureRestructuring & realignmentStress managementCareer planning
61 EQ-i Seems Similar to Existing Personality Models EQ-i and some personality test correlations very highSelf-Regard x Borderline features r = -.74Happiness x Depression Scale r = -.77
62 What Is Emotional Intelligence? If these are measuring the same thing, there should be a significant, positive correlation amongst the measures.Predicted r = or moreEQ-iMSCEIT
63 What Is Emotional Intelligence? However, the measures are not highly related.Actual r = .00 to .15EQ-iMSCEIT
64 What Is Emotional Intelligence? What Does This Mean?EQ-I and the MSCEIT measure relatively different things.How can they both be predicting emotional intelligence?How do we use the EQ-I and the MSCEIT?
65 What Is Emotional Intelligence? The answers lie in the intelligence / IQ models of Wechsler:- Bar-On influenced by Wechsler’s search for non-intellective factors.- Mayer & Salovey working in an intelligence ability framework.
66 What Is Emotional Intelligence? MSCEIT measures fundamental abilities of emotional intelligence as measured in an objective manner.EQ-I measures the non-intellective factors that impact emotionally-intelligent behavior as reported by the person.
67 Research on the Effects of Intelligence (EI) on Career Success “IQ” “EI”CAREERADVANCEMENTLOW “EI”CAREERDERAILMENT
68 EQ & Work Success (n = 100)Source: A scientific study of 100 university-educated bank employees using the Bar-On EQ-i® conducted by Joseph Hee-Woo Jae, Ateneo Manila University, Philippines.
69 What Emotional Intelligence Is Not Cognitive Intelligence (IQ)IQ is necessary but EQ allows the stars to rise to the topEQ and IQ are not highly correlated (about r = .1)estimated that 1% of the variance accounting for occupational success can be attributed to IQEQ is estimated to account for 3 to 27% of occupational success