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Is There Multiple Intelligence?

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Presentation on theme: "Is There Multiple Intelligence?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Is There Multiple Intelligence?
EQ vs. IQ

2 Definition of Intelligence
The ability to learn or understand or to deal with new or trying situations : the skilled use of reason The cognitive abilities of an individual to learn from experience, to reason well, and to cope effectively with the demands of daily living.

3 What is Intelligence? "Intelligence, as a hypothetical construct, is the aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with his environment” - Wechsler

4 1. The ability to learn from experience.
What is Intelligence? Although experts differ on an exact definition of intelligence most agree that intelligent behavior has at least two components: 1. The ability to learn from experience. 2. The ability to adapt to the surrounding environment.

5 Factors of General Intelligence Tests
1. Verbal Comprehension - vocabulary, verbal analogies 2. Number -- mathematical operations 3. Space - visual-spatial and mental transformation 4. Associative Memory -- rote memory 5. Perceptual Speed -- quickness in noticing similarities and differences 6. Reasoning - skill in inductive, deductive, and math problems

6 What Do We Know About IQ? Predicts school grades relatively well
Does not predict success in life Predicts 6% of job success Peaks in late teens Culture-bound, Gender Bias, SES Racial controversies Gets you in the door Professional schools (medicine, dentistry, law) Can help you get hired (Harvard MBA) Static

7 What is Emotionally Intelligent Behaviour?
Non-Ability Factors’ Role: "…individuals with identical IQ's may differ very markedly in regard to their effective ability to cope with their environment…It is not possible to account for more than 50% to 70% of the intertest correlational variance after all recognizable intellectual factors are eliminated. This leaves any where from 30% to 50% of the total factorial variance unaccounted for. It is suggested that this residual variance is largely contributed by such factors as drive, energy, impulsiveness, etc." - Wechsler

8 Where Did the Concept of Emotional Intelligence Come From?
In 1983, Gardner first published his theory, derived from extensive brain research, on Multiple Intelligence including intrapersonal (self awareness/self management) and interpersonal (relationship awareness/management) Reuven Bar-On (1988) has placed EI in the context of personality theory, specifically a model of well-being Peter Salovey and John Mayer first proposed their theory of emotional intelligence (EI) in 1990 and defined it Goleman ( ) has popularized the concept of emotional intelligence and formulated EI in terms of a theory of job and work performance

9 Gardner’s Seven Intelligences

10 Gardner’s Seven Intelligences

11 Is There Multiple Intelligence?
Social Intelligence the know-how involved in comprehending social situations and managing oneself successfully Emotional Intelligence ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions

12 What is Emotionally Intelligent Behaviour?
Intelligence Does Not = Behaviour “I look upon intelligence as an effect rather than a cause, that is, as a resultant of interacting abilities - nonintellective included. The problem confronting psychologists today is how these abilities interact to give the resultant effect we call intelligence." - Wechsler

13 What Is Emotional Intelligence?
Mayer-Salovey Model MSCEIT Performance or ability measure Bar-On Model EQ-I Self-report measure Goleman Model ECI - Self Report Measure 360 measure

14 What Is Emotional Intelligence?
Emotional intelligence involves the “abilities to perceive, appraise, and express emotion; to access and/or generate feelings when they facilitate thought; to understand emotion and emotional knowledge; and to regulate emotions to promote emotional and intellectual growth” - Mayer & Salovey (1997)

15 Mayer - Salovey Model Social communications requires accurate perception of content, as well as tone and non-verbal signals such as posture and facial expression Emotions are complex, and people can experience a combination of different emotions Many theorists agree that basic emotions have universal meaning - universal across cultures and even across certain species.

16 Testing Emotional Intelligence
How should you measure an intelligence? With an ability test Ask person to solve problems Gauge their ability to do so accurately and/or quickly

17 Recommendation for Ability Testing
Components [of emotional intelligence]…are best tested by sampling a person’s actual ability at the task – for example, by having them read a person’s feelings from a video of their facial expressions.” (Goleman, 1995).

18 What Is Emotional Intelligence? Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Model (MSCEIT)
MSCEIT is an ability based measure designed to assess Emotional Intelligence. It is a performance based scale, meaning it measures how well an individual performs tasks and solves emotional problems - instead of simply just asking individuals for their subjective assessment of their emotional skills. It was developed from an intelligence testing perspective.

19 What Is Emotional Intelligence? Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Model (MSCEIT)
Scales Identifying Emotions: identify emotions in faces Using Emotions to Facilitate Thought: use emotions to solve problems Understanding Emotions: figure out what makes people “tick” Managing Emotions: make optimal decisions

20 Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test

21 MSCEIT Structure Identify Emotions - Faces: 3 faces (4 5-part Q’s)
- Pictures: 6 designs (6 5-part Q’s) Facilitating Thought (Use Emotions) - Sensations: 5 situations (5 3-part Q’s) - Facilitation: 5 problems (5 3-part Q’s) Understand Emotions - Changes: 20 item (20 Q’s) - Blends: 12 items (12 Q’s) Manage Emotions - Emotion Management: 5 situations (5 4-part) - Emotional Relationships: 3 situations (3 3-part)

22 Identify Emotions Ability Accurately identify emotions in people and objects Question Types Identify emotions in faces, landscapes, and designs. How the Ability May Be Used "Read" people's moods for feedback.

23 What Is Emotional Intelligence?
MSCEIT How much is each feeling below expressed by this face? Extreme Happiness 1. No Happiness Extreme Fear 2. No Fear

24 INSTRUCTIONS: How much is each feeling expressed by this picture?
1. Happiness 2. Sadness Ability Accurately identify emotions in people and objects How the Ability May Be Used "Read" people's moods for feedback.

25 Facilitate Thought Ability Generate an emotion and solve problems with that emotion Question Types How moods impact thinking; relating feelings to thoughts How the Ability May Be Used Creating the right feeling to assist in problem solving, communicating a vision, leading people.

26 1. What mood(s) might be helpful to feel when meeting in-laws for the very first time?
Not Useful Useful a. tension b. surprise c. joy Ability Generate an emotion and solve problems with that emotion How the Ability May Be Used Creating the right feeling to assist in problem solving, communicating a vision, leading people.

27 Understand Emotions Ability Understand the causes of emotions Question Types Multiple choice emotion vocabulary questions. How the Ability May Be Used Being able to predict how people will emotionally react.

28 Tom felt anxious, and became a bit stressed when he thought about all the work he needed to do. When his supervisor brought him an additional project, he felt_______________. 1. a. overwhelmed b. depressed c. ashamed d. self-conscious e. jittery Ability Understand the causes of emotions How the Ability May Be Used Being able to predict how people will emotionally react.

29 Manage Emotions Ability Stay open to emotions and blend with thinking. Question Types Indicate effectiveness of various solutions to problems. How the Ability May Be Used Integrate emotion and thought to make effective decisions.

30 ) Debbie just came back from vacation. She was feeling peaceful and content. How well would each action preserve her mood? 1. Action 1: She started to make a list of things at home that she needed to do. Action 2: She began thinking about where and when she go on her next vacation. Action 3: She decided it was best ignore the feeling since it wouldn’t last anyway. a) Very ineffective b) Somewhat Ineffective c) Neutral d) Somewhat Ineffective e) Very Ineffective

31 Scoring an Ability Test of Emotional Intelligence
An intelligence implies that there are better and worse answers or responses. Problem with the ability approach: Is there a right way to feel? Indeed, there are emotional issues that cannot be measured this way! What’s the “right” response to someone shouting? The ability approach has many advantages in the assessment of emotional intelligence. However, how do we score an emotional ability test? Are there actually right and wrong answers? Indeed, there are! However, there are some abilities, and some questions, which do not have correct answers.

32 Scoring an Ability Test of Emotional Intelligence

33 Scoring The MSCEIT Consensus scoring is used based on the full standardization sample Expert scoring is used based on a sample of 21 members of the International Society for Research in Emotions

34 Consensus Scoring Consensus scoring has been used with great success. It is based upon the agreement of a large number of people. For example, if 70 percent of people felt that a photo was of a very happy person, then the best answer for the photo would be “happiness”.

35 Expert Scoring Based on Wechsler intelligence tests
Responses to intelligence test questions are categorized Experts (psychologists) rate quality of responses Compare test-taker’s response to experts’ ratings

36 Consensus and Expert Scoring Converge
Good news! Consensus and expert choices for the right answers are in general agreement! The MSCEIT r for agreement ranges from .90 upward So, there are better and worse answers in general. When there are enough experts, both general and expert participants now mostly agree. When we score the MEIS using all 3 criteria, we generally find that the scoring methods agree with each other. That means that there are better and worse answers for these test items. However, we also only use those test items that do have clear answers. Lastly, we have found that a combination of consensus and expert scores yield the best results. This is how the MEIS is scored.

37 How Was the MSCEIT Standardized?
Standardized on 5000 Participants Across over 50 English-speaking data sites in: Australia Canada India South Africa United Kingdom United States Ages 17 to 79 Reports matched to United States Census Data on age, gender, ethnicity and education

IDENTIFY .91 FACIL/USE .79 UNDERSTAND .80 MANAGE .83 Faces .80 Synesthesia .64 Blends .66 Emtn Mangmt .69 Pictures .88 Facilitation .65 Changes .70 Emtn Rltns .67

39 Split-Half Reliabilities of the MSCEIT (Odd-even split; N = 1,985)
Source: Mayer, Salovey, Caruso, & Sitarenios (2003), Emotion

40 In Two Large-Sample Studies (N > 1700), Confirmatory Factor Analyses Show Good Fits for the 1, 2, and 4 Factor Models

41 T MSCEIT is Essentially Independent of the Following Tests (N’s > 100):
r = .00 to .35 Self-report Scales of EQ, optimism, empathy Sources: Bracket & Mayer, in press; Caruso, Mayer, & Salovey, 2002; Ciarrochi, Chan & Caputo, 2000; Mayer, Caruso, & Salovey, 1999; Roberts, Zeidner, & Mathews, forthcoming; Salovey, Mayer, Caruso,& Lopez, in press. Big Five Personality Scales r = .00 to .40 Intelligence Tests

42 Low Scores on the MSCEIT Predicted these Negative Aspects of Relationships:
r = .20 to .46, p < .001 Higher ratings of aggression by peers at school Sources: Brackett & Mayer, in press; Brackett, Mayer, & Warner, under review; Formica, 1999; Trinidad & Johnson, 2001; Rubin, 2000; N = 48. r = .15 to 24, p < .05 More alcohol and tobacco use r = .21 to .40, p < .05 More fights, drug use

43 MSCEIT’S Criterion Validity
Behavior Self-Improvement ** Rational Control ** Life Enthusiasm ** Relatedness ** Destructive Behavior -.33**

44 What Is Emotional Intelligence?
Emotional intelligence is “an array of noncognitive capabilities, competencies, and skills that influence one’s ability to succeed in coping with environmental demands and pressures” - Bar-On (1997)

45 Why Was the BarOn EQ-i Developed?
To help answer a basic question: Why do some people with high IQ fail in life, while others with moderate IQ succeed?

46 Dr. BarOn and Emotional Intelligence
Dr. Reuven Bar-On began in 1980 factors that were related to success in life why some people with moderate IQ do well in life while others with high IQ fail Distinct from IQ (cognitive intelligence) components resemble personality factors, but can change and can be altered

47 Steps in the Development of BarOn EQ-i
Identified key determinants of success Clustered determinants of success into factors Operationally defined the factors Constructed the EQ-i Examined the factor structure, reliability, & validity Validated the EQ-i across cultures Extensively normed (>10,000) Continued validation

48 How Does the EQ-i Work? 133 brief items answered on a 5-point scale from “Not True of Me” to “True of Me” 30 minutes to complete Standard scores based on “100” as the average, Standard Deviation of 15 Includes the following scales: Total EQ 5 EQ Composite Scales 15 EQ Content Scales 4 Validity Scales


50 BarOn/EQ-i Factors Intra-Personal Emotional Self-Awareness
Assertiveness Self-Regard Self-Actualization Independence Inter-Personal Interpersonal Relationship Empathy Social Responsibility Adaptability Problem Solving Flexibility Reality Testing Stress Management Stress Tolerance Impulse Control General Mood Optimism Happiness

51 BarOn/EQ-i Sample Test Items: I have good relations with others
I’m fun to be with I like helping people Rating Scale: 1 = Very Seldom or Not True of me 5 = Very Often True of Me or True of Me

52 Emotional Self-Awareness Subscale

53 EQ-I Scoring

54 Sample Sizes - Over 10,000 used during R&D - 3,831 used for the norms

55 Subgroup Representation

56 Reliability and Validity
Good reliability test-retest 4mths) Cronbach’s alpha (.75 to .89) Good validity construct (with other psych. tests) varying relationships (weak to strong) correlation with coping, IQ, and occupational success

57 EQi and Gender n = 4500 M n = 3200 F

58 EQ-I and Age Differences
EQ and Age (n=3831) Could you please add some text highlighting the differences in EQ-I in regards to age. This also can be done on another slide.

59 Some of the Applications of the EQ-i®
Recruiting high performers Retaining high performers Teambuilding Managing diversity Leadership development Coaching Performance management Risk management Self development Change management Merger integration & re-shaping culture Restructuring & realignment Stress management Career planning

60 EQ-i Seems Similar to Existing Models
EQ-i - Bar-On’s test Intrapersonal Emotional self-awareness, assertiveness, self-regard, self-actualization, independence Interpersonal Empathy, interpersonal relationship, social responsibility Stress Management Problem solving, reality testing, flexibility Adaptability Stress tolerance, impulse control General Mood happiness, optimism NEO PI-R - Costa & McCrae Extraversion Warmth, gregariousness, optimism, assertiveness, high-energy Neuroticism Stress tolerance, impulse control, anger, depression, anxiety

61 EQ-i Seems Similar to Existing Personality Models
EQ-i and some personality test correlations very high Self-Regard x Borderline features r = -.74 Happiness x Depression Scale r = -.77

62 What Is Emotional Intelligence?
If these are measuring the same thing, there should be a significant, positive correlation amongst the measures. Predicted r = or more EQ-i MSCEIT

63 What Is Emotional Intelligence?
However, the measures are not highly related. Actual r = .00 to .15 EQ-i MSCEIT

64 What Is Emotional Intelligence?
What Does This Mean? EQ-I and the MSCEIT measure relatively different things. How can they both be predicting emotional intelligence? How do we use the EQ-I and the MSCEIT?

65 What Is Emotional Intelligence?
The answers lie in the intelligence / IQ models of Wechsler: - Bar-On influenced by Wechsler’s search for non-intellective factors. - Mayer & Salovey working in an intelligence ability framework.

66 What Is Emotional Intelligence?
MSCEIT measures fundamental abilities of emotional intelligence as measured in an objective manner. EQ-I measures the non-intellective factors that impact emotionally-intelligent behavior as reported by the person.

67 Research on the Effects of Intelligence (EI) on Career Success

68 EQ & Work Success (n = 100) Source: A scientific study of 100 university-educated bank employees using the Bar-On EQ-i® conducted by Joseph Hee-Woo Jae, Ateneo Manila University, Philippines.

69 What Emotional Intelligence Is Not
Cognitive Intelligence (IQ) IQ is necessary but EQ allows the stars to rise to the top EQ and IQ are not highly correlated (about r = .1) estimated that 1% of the variance accounting for occupational success can be attributed to IQ EQ is estimated to account for 3 to 27% of occupational success

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