Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Water, Sanitation & Hygiene Technology Technical Issues 1.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Water, Sanitation & Hygiene Technology Technical Issues 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Water, Sanitation & Hygiene Technology Technical Issues 1

2 Wells Shafts that penetrate the ground to access groundwater Two types of wells –Large diameter –Small diameter 2

3 Large Diameter Wells 1 to 3 meters (3 to 10 feet) in diameter Usually hand dug Up to 60 meters (200 feet) in depth Lined with stones, brick or concrete rings in soft soils to prevent collapsing, no lining needed in strong soils/rock Should be covered to prevent surface contamination from entering the well Should be fitted with a pump to extract the water –Powered by hand, wind, solar –Buckets or other such containers lowered by rope are typically used increase chance of contamination if not properly stored 3

4 Hand Dug Wells

5 Small Diameter Wells “Tube wells" or "boreholes“ 150 to 300 millimeters (6 to 12 inches) in diameter Usually machine drilled or hand augered Practical maximum depth for water is 150 meters (500 feet) –pumping by hand is very difficult at this depth Borehole is cased with usually PVC pipe to prevent collapsing –slotted to allow groundwater to enter the borehole Typically fitted with a pump –Powered by hand, diesel/gas/electric motor, wind, solar Apron and spillway constructed around the borehole to carry wastewater away from borehole 5

6 Boreholes

7 Springs Where water flows naturally out of the ground An improved spring is one that is enclosed, usually by reinforced concrete, to prevent surface contamination from entering the water The "extention" refers to the piping that extends from the spring enclosure ("spring box") to a water storage tank and/or the point of collection ("tap stand") 7

8 Protected Spring

9 Rain Catchment Systems Collection area – impermeable surface –Rooftop – corrugated iron –Ground – paved Storage tank –Sizing – Supply vs. Demand Supply – Rainfall and Catchment area size Demand – Water usage –Above or below ground “First Flush” mechanism –Divert first 20 liters of rainwater Prevent leaves, dust, bird droppings from entering tank Need most recent 20-year average monthly rainfall data –Smooths out abnormal rainfall events 9

10 Rain Catchment System

11 Hand/Foot Pumps Human-Powered Groundwater extraction –India Mark II Surface water extraction –Rivers, Lakes, Ponds –Treadle pump 11

12 Hand Pump

13 Treadle/Suction Pump

14 Other Pumping Systems Non-Human Powered Motorized –Diesel, Gas Windmills Electric Solar –Electric –Expensive Solar collector panels 14

15 Non-Human Powered Pumps

16 Latrines Pit latrines –Pit, slab w/ drop hole and cover, superstructure –Simple –Ventilated Improved Pit (VIP) Same as Simple but with pipe installed to vent noxious gasses Drop hole needs to be covered Schools –One latrine per 30 male students One “block” of 3 latrines for 90 male students –One latrine per 25 female students One “block” of 3 latrines for 75 female students 16

17 VIP Latrine

18 Ecological Sanitation Arbor Loo –Land available to construct annually Fossa Alterna –Best in congested areas 18

19 Arbor Loo

20 Handwashing Stations Position in critical areas –Near latrines –Near kitchens –Near eating areas Provide soap and hand drying towel Be careful of tipping! Can be constructed of local materials –Terracotta pots (water storage vessels) 20

21 Handwashing Stations

22 Water, Sanitation & Hygiene Key Issues for CRS Programs 22

23 Key Issues 1.Water and sanitation is gaining increasing attention within the donor community, including USAID, UN agencies, foundations, corporations and private individuals. 2.CRS is expanding its water and sanitation activities with particular emphasis given to increasing the number of people served with basic drinking water supplies and household sanitation facilities. To date, over 100 million people have been served by CRS water projects. 3.Current CRS water sector programming occurs in more than 40 countries with annual expenditures exceeding $35 million. 4.Regions with growing CRS water and sanitation programs include EARO (Ethiopia, Kenya, Sudan), LACRO (El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua), WARO (Ghana, Burkina Faso, Niger, Mali) and South Asia (Afghanistan, Pakistan). 23

24 Key Issues (cont) 5.The CRS vision is to become a leading NGO in international water development by ●Expanding water and sanitation services in countries, ●Participating in innovative partnerships and coalitions, ●Promoting integrated water resources management, and ●Providing advice on policies and programs to Congress and USAID. 6.CRS water sector programs include greater emphasis on intersectoral activities, by incorporating ●Water, sanitation and hygiene in home-based care of HIV/AIDS clients ●Peacebuilding and conflict prevention in water projects ●Watershed and natural resource management in water basin development ●Integrated water and agriculture into food security programs 24

25 Key Issues (cont) 7.Donor resources from U.S. dioceses, religious orders, universities and private foundations can be channeled by CRS to needy communities, local partners and country programs. 8.Donor support for water and sanitation may include ●Unrestricted funding (to be used within CRS water sector programs) ●Dedicated funding for  Equipment (pumps, water well drilling rigs, water treatment kits)  Field programs (improved water and sanitation services in designated areas)  Staff development (staff exchanges, training courses, interns)  Innovations (application of new technologies, strengthening of local partners, promotion and advocacy campaigns) 25

Download ppt "Water, Sanitation & Hygiene Technology Technical Issues 1."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google