Presentation on theme: "SPAIN (EUROPEANIZED?). Spain was the most powerful country in Europe in the 16th century and the first part of the 17th century, but its power declined."— Presentation transcript:
Spain was the most powerful country in Europe in the 16th century and the first part of the 17th century, but its power declined quickly, and by the 19th century Spain had become marginal to international politics. This marginality reached its peak in the 1940s and '50s, when the European democracies shunned Spain and its military dictatorship headed by Francisco Franco. In other spheres, however, Spain has shared fully in broader European patterns of development in the 19th and 20th centuries, such as industrialization, population growth, urbanization, migration and emigration, and the introduction of constitutional, representative political systems.
From 1833 until 1939 Spain almost continually had a parliamentary system with a written constitution. Except during the First Republic (1873-74) and the Second Republic (1931-39), Spain was also always a monarchy. From the end of the Spanish Civil War in April 1939 until November 1975, Spain was ruled by General Francisco Franco. The principles on which his regime was based were embodied in a series of Fundamental Laws passed between 1942 and 1967. These laws declared Spain a monarchy and established a legislature known as the Cortes. Yet Franco's system of government differed radically from Spain's modern constitutional traditions.
Francisco Franco y Bahamonde (1892- 1975) Generalísimo (el caudillo)
Caudillo from Latin capitellum, diminutive of caput "head") describes a political-military leader at the head of an authoritarian power. leader or chief, warlord, dictator or strongman. the term used to refer to the charismatic populist leaders among the people. Caudillos have influenced the history of Latin America.
Under Franco, the members of the Cortes, the procuradores, were not elected on the democratic principle of one person, one vote but on the basis of what was called "organic democracy." Rather than representing individual citizens, the procuradores represented what were considered the basic institutions of Spanish society: families, the municipalities, the universities, and professional organizations. Moreover, the Cortes did not have the power to control government spending, and the government was not responsible to it. The government was appointed and dismissed by the head of state alone.
Franco military background highly decorated soldier rose to prominence during the 1920s as a commander in the Spanish Legion became the youngest general in Europe in charge of Academia General Militar, Spain's main military academy at Zaragoza After the fall of the Spanish monarchy and the establishment of the Second Republic in 1931, marginalized from power by the Republican government managed to return to prominence with the electoral victory of the conservatives in 1933 he was appointed Chief of Staff of the military and suppressed the 1934 upraising In 1936 overthrew the Popular Front (Republican government) emerged as the leader of the Nationalists (Movimiento Nacional)Movimiento Nacional Supported by Mussolini and Hitler Dissolved the Spanish Parliament, established a dictatorship and was de facto regent of the formally restored Kingdom of Spain. official posts: Head of State and Head of Government as the Caudillo and Prime MinisterCaudilloPrime Minister
Juan Carlos In 1969 Franco selected Juan Carlos de Borbón, the grandson of King Alfonso XIII, to succeed him as head of state. When Franco died in 1975, Juan Carlos came to the throne as King Juan Carlos I. Almost immediately the king initiated a process of transition to democracy that within three years replaced the Francoist system with a democratic constitution.
Juan Carlos Selected by Franco in 1969 Became king on November 22, 1975 (2 days after Franco’s death) First reigning monarch since 1931 Head of state Commander-in-chief President of the Ibero-American States Organization (Organización de Estados Iberoamericanos) Represents 700,000,000 people Intergovernmental organization for cooperation in education, science, technology and culture
Organización de Estados Iberoamericanos Goals: development, democracy and regional integration Members: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Chile, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Equatorial Guinea, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Spain, Uruguay and Venezuela Headquarters: Madrid Regional offices: Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, El Salvador, Spain, Mexico and Peru field offices: Chile, Honduras, Nicaragua and Paraguay
SPANISH TRANSITION TO DEMOCRACY 1.Transition through transaction 2.Transition from above 3.Negotiated transition 4.Pact(ed) transition 1-4 based on EUROPEANIZATION and, hence, the EU. This is how stability of Spain was achieved: - ethnic divisions - republic vs. monarchy - church and state - centre and periphery - economic cleavages The 1978 Constitution passed in a referendum in Nov. 1978 with 87.7% voting Yes In 2005 the Spanish voted in a referendum on the EU Constitution, 77% voted Yes
Spain Today Spain is probably not a nation state, as it composed of several national groups that do not necessarily are determined to stay in one unified unit The ethnic division: Castilia (“proper” Spanish) Catalonia (French-tilting) Galicia (Portugal-tiling) Basque Land And others
Head of State = Monarch (Juan Carlos) sacked last Franco’s PM – Arias Navarro appointed Adolfo Suárez, a career Francoist and a former head of the Falange thwarted several attempted coups, for instance, in Feb 1981 CRITICAL!!! media people don’t touch him usually Parliament (Cortes Generales) Congress of Deputies: 350 MPs Senate: 257 Senators 208 winner-takes-all 49 indirectly elected through Autonomous Communities (Autonomías) Senate can initiate legislation (but rarely does) Can delay legislation up to 2 months ordinary bills up to 20 days urgent bills
Spanish Government Courts Constitutional Court can declare any law or governmental decree unconstitutional (important role) Supreme Court (Tribunal Supremo) deals with non-constitutional matters in existence since 1834 completely overhauled in 1978 Defensor del Pueblo (Ombudsperson) appointed by the Cortes for 5 years yearly report to the Parliament each of 17 autonomías has its own High Court of Justice (Tribunales Superiores de Justicia)
Spanish Government Autonomías (Autonomous Communities) centralized and de-centralized not states, not nations (the Constitution avoids using both terms) the Constitution is very general about the details of their status—to be negotiated between Madrid and autonomías faster route to autonomy for “historic” regions: Catalonia, Basque Land “asymmetric federalism” a kind of devolution
Spanish Parties Major Parties: All-Spanish (federal?) PSOE the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (Partido Socialista Obrera Español) FELIPE GONZALES- PM 1982-1996 Partido Popular, now in power, PM MARIANO RAJOY Regional Catalonian Parties CDC – Democratic Convergence of Catalonia UDC – Democratic Union of Catalonia Basque Basque National Party Batasuna (now illegal) Terrorism – ETA
Example of Influence of EU on Spain’s Democratization (Europeanization) During the negotiations between Spain the European Community, the European Parliament stated: EP to the Commission and Council “The Commission and the Council of Ministers can use membership as a stimulus to encourage the political parties of Spain to achieve democracy. There is no need to interfere.... without interfering we can properly encourage and stimulate the development of democracy in Spain, of great importance for the future of our continents”
Influence of EU on Spain unity of the State – EU Europeanization regional autonomy – EU importance interregional solidarity, just like Germany, art. 20
Felipe Gonzalez's `Decalogue' on Spain's peace and security role, presented to the Congress of Deputies, 23 October 1984 1. Continued Spanish membership of NATO 2. Non-incorporation into NATO's military structure 3. A change in the bilateral relations with the United States of America towards a gradual reduction in the presence of American forces and installations on Spanish soil 4. The non-nuclearisation of Spain 5. Possible signing of the treaty of nuclear non-proliferation 6. The desirability of joining the Western European Union as the only European organisation with defence capabilities 7. Moves towards a definitive resolution of the Gibraltar issue 8. The strengthening of Spain's role within the European Disarmament Conference and application for membership of the Disarmament Committee of the United Nations 9. The continued development of a network of bilateral agreements on defence co-operation with other west European nations 10. Dialogue between political forces to achieve agreement on a joint strategic plan. Source: PSOE, Una politica de paz y seguridad (Madrid, 1985) socialists and western reformism
The Constitution of 1978 The new constitution, the product of negotiations among the leading political groups, came into effect in December 1978. It declared that Spain was a constitutional monarchy. DEPARTURE FROM CAUDILLO (Europeanization) The monarch is the head of state and the highest representative of the state in international affairs. The monarch's role, however, is defined as being strictly neutral and apolitical in nature. He is also commander in chief of the armed forces, although without actual authority over them He is the symbol of national unity. His most important functions include the duty formally to summon and dissolve the legislature, appoint and accept the resignation of the prime minister and Cabinet ministers, and ratify laws, declare war, and sign treaties decided upon by the government.
The legislature, known as the Cortes Generales, is composed of two houses, the Congress of Deputies (Congreso de los Diputados) and the Senate (Senado). The former generally takes precedence over the latter. [UK] They are elected by universal suffrage of all citizens 18 years of age or over. Their term of office is four years, although it may be less if the legislature is dissolved early. Each of the 50 provinces is an electoral district, [USA] with the actual number of deputies from each province being determined by its population. Ballots are cast for a province wide party list, not for individual candidates in individual districts. Seats are distributed on the basis of proportional representation. [EUROPE, USA]
The Senate is described in the constitution as the "chamber of territorial representation," (GERMANY) but only about 20 percent of senators are actually chosen as representatives of the autonomous communities. The rest are elected from the 47 mainland provinces (with each province having four), the islands (the larger ones having four and the smaller ones having one each), and Ceuta and Melilla (with two each).
The executive consists of the prime minister deputy prime minister the members of the Cabinet. The monarch formally appoints the prime minister, after consultation with the Cortes; [UK, EUROPE] the Cabinet ministers, chosen by the prime minister, are also appointed by the king. [UK] Since the executive is responsible to the legislature and must be approved by a majority vote, the prime minister is usually the leader of the party that has the most deputies. The Congress of Deputies can dismiss a prime minister through a vote of non-confidence. [UK, EUROPE]
The judiciary The judicial system, known as the poder judicial, is independent of the legislative and executive branches of government. It is governed by a General Council (Consejo General), which is composed of lawyers and judges. [USA] There are a number of different levels and types of courts. at the apex of the system is the Supreme Court, the country's highest tribunal except for questions of constitutional law, which are handled by a special Constitutional Court. Each province has a high court, the audiencia, which tries criminal cases. Below these are courts of first instance, courts of judicial proceedings, which do not pass sentences, penal courts and municipal courts. The figure of the ombudsman, defensor del pueblo, was created by a law in 1981. The role of the ombudsman, who reports to parliament, is to defend citizens' rights and to monitor the activities of all branches of government. [SWEDEN, EUROPE]
Structural Funds (a bit of history) The term ‘structural funds’ is used to denote the European Social Fund (ESF), the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), the ‘guidance’ section of the European Agricultural Guidance and Guarantee Fund (EAGGF) and the Fisheries Guidance Instrument (FGI) The Funds are the principal means whereby aid is directed toward the less-developed regions of the EU. The funds represent about 1/3 of the EU’s budget.
Structural Funds (a bit of history) In 1988 the Funds were reformed and came into effect in 1989. The reforms created five basic objectives: 1.assisting underdeveloped regions; 2.assisting regions affected by the decline of traditional industries; 3.combating long-term unemployment (defined as more the 12 months) and the integration of young people (under 25s) into the labor market; 4.helping workers adapt to technological change; 5.structural reform of a.agriculture and b.rural areas of these, objective 1 is the most important (absorbing 66 % of the total funds) The negotiations with Austria, Finland, Norway, and Sweden resulted in 6.assistance to the Arctic region. To qualify for 6, an area has to have a population density of fewer than 8 people AND a below-average per capita GDP.
Structural Funds (a bit of history) The ERDF is concerned mainly with Objective 1 and 2; the ESF with Objectives 3 and 4; the EAGGF Objective 1 and 5. All three can contribute to Objective 5b. Objectives 1, 2, 5b and 6 require maps to be redrawn constantly. This is done by the Commission in consultation with member states.
Structural and Cohesion Funds now “The Structural Funds and the Cohesion Fund are the financial instruments of European Union (EU) regional policy, which is intended to narrow the development disparities among regions and Member States. The Funds participate fully, therefore, in pursuing the goal of economic, social and territorial cohesion.” http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/glossary/structural_cohesion_fund_ en.htm http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/glossary/structural_cohesion_fund_ en.htm For the period 2007-2013, the budget allocated to regional policy amounts to around € 348 billion, comprising € 278 billion for the Structural Funds and € 70 billion for the Cohesion Fund. This represents 35% of the Community budget and is the second largest budget item.
Structural and Cohesion Funds now There are two Structural Funds: the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) is currently the largest. Since 1975 it has provided support for the creation of infrastructure and productive job-creating investment, mainly for businesses; the European Social Fund (ESF), set up in 1958, contributes to the integration into working life of the unemployed and disadvantaged sections of the population, mainly by funding training measures.
Structural and Cohesion Funds now In order to speed up economic, social and territorial convergence, the European Union set up a Cohesion Fund in 1994. It is intended for countries whose per capita GDP is below 90% of the Community average. The purpose of the Cohesion Fund is to grant financing to environment and transport infrastructure projects. However, aid under the Cohesion Fund is subject to certain conditions. If the public deficit of a beneficiary Member State exceeds 3% of national GDP (EMU convergence criteria), no new project will be approved until the deficit has been brought under control.
Structural and Cohesion Funds now These Funds will be used to finance regional policy between 2007 and 2013 in the framework of the three new objectives, namely: the "convergence" objective to accelerate the convergence of the least developed EU Member States and regions by improving growth and employment conditions. This objective is financed by the ERDF, the ESF and the Cohesion Fund. It represents 81.5% of the total resources allocated. The co-financing ceilings for public expenditure amount to 75% for the ERDF and the ESF and 85% for the Cohesion Fund; the "regional competitiveness and employment" objective to anticipate economic and social change, promote innovation, entrepreneurship, environmental protection and the development of labour markets which include regions not covered by the Convergence objective. It is financed by the ERDF and the ESF and accounts for 16% of the total allocated resources. Measures under this objective can receive co-financing of up to 50% of public expenditure; the "European territorial cooperation" objective to strengthen cooperation at cross-border, transnational and interregional levels in the fields of urban, rural and coastal development, and foster the development of economic relations and networking between small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). This objective is financed by the ERDF and represents 2.5% of the total allocated resources. Measures under the Territorial Cooperation objective can receive co- financing of up to 75% of public expenditure
Structural and Cohesion Funds now Structural Fund and Cohesion Fund support for the three objectives always involves co-financing. The rates of co-financing may be reduced in accordance with the "polluter pays" principle or where a project generates income. All projects must of course comply with EU legislation, particularly with regard to competition, the environment and public procurement.
Spain’s Funds from the European Union (€ billion) 2000-062007-13 Structural funds 54,00027,300 CAP funds 43,96744,129 Other funds 8,03319,017 Total payments from EU106,00090,446* Total payments to EU 61,28574,265 Net balance 48,715 billion16,181 billion (*) Including payments from the 2000-06 period. Source: European Commission and Spain’s Presidency.
Between 1986 and 2005 Spain was a net recipient of €93.3 billion, equivalent to a transfer of 0.83% of its GDP every year. The net funds it will receive in 2007-13 represent an annual transfer of 0.2% of GDP
A SNAPSHOT OF ACHIEVEMENTS 1 200 km of new roads and motorways (2000–06) An extension of some 850 km to the Spanish high-speed rail network (2000–06) 377 000 people received support as part of self-employment and social/economic activities (2000–05) Renovation of 2 000 km of water pipelines and construction of 600 km of new pipelines (2000–06) An investment of around €4 billion on R&D and innovation (2000–06)
THE ESSENTIALS, 2007–13 €12 billion for R&D, innovation, entrepreneurship, transport and the environment €7.5 billion for transport infrastructure €4 billion for management and distribution of water and for waste water treatment €3.6 billion to attract and retain more people in employment
1.Madrid peace talks between Palestinians and Israelis 2.Involvement in CSCE (Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe) -> OSCE and UN 3.Participation in the Gulf War and Kosovo SPAIN AND THE WIDER WORLD