3 About This Program Defining Job Safety Analysis Roles and ResponsibilitiesJob Safety AnalysisPreparationObservation & AnalysisHazard identificationFollow upBenefits of JSAThis day is divided into two parts and can be taught as a one day or two half day sessions depending on the needs of an agency. Agencies may chose to split the session in half to accommodate Risk Analysis and internal planning before they go ahead with the practical session. This allows for the study of a task chosen during risk assessment, which is done during the preparation phase of JSA.The first half of the day is theory and the following information will be discussed at this time. Defining Job Safety Analysis…..All attendees must attend the theory portion of the course to be eligible for the practical portion.The second half of the day is spent on practicing JSA procedures for a task chosen and prepared for at this agency.
4 Definitions Job Safety Analysis (JSA) is a technique to identify the health and safety hazards of specific tasks in orderto reduce the risk of injury to workers.Job Task Analysis (JTA) is a tool used to assist withan effective return-to-work program. It documentsthe physical and psychological demands of a worker’sassigned work tasks.SAHO has defined JSA and JTA to avoid confusion between the two as they relate to SAHO courses.JSA….JTA…
5 DefinitionsProcedure – step by step instructions on how to perform a specific task, usually for critical tasks.Practice – general guidelines (do’s and don’ts) for performing a specific task, usually a low risk task that is done several times a day by many people.Safe Work Practices are the simple do’s and don’ts of low risk everyday tasks performed regularly for example re-stocking a ward’s clean laundry area a detailed step by step procedure for each and every small piece of laundry carried would be unreasonable – however development of guidelines that identify the hazards and controls required to prevent injury would satisfy the employer’s responsibility.Safe Work Procedures are detailed step by step instructions on exactly how to perform a specific task, similar to a JSA – the format makes it easier for the reader to understand and follow. Required for tasks that are high hazard, infrequently performed or new to the department or facility or required by the legislation for example: Utilizing lifts, violence in the workplace, confined space, lock out
6 Job Safety AnalysisIs a Proactive Risk Management process, which includes:Identifying all health and safety hazardsEvaluating the risk in each hazardsControls for eliminating or reducing the risk in eachhazardTo further elaborate on a JSA it is meant to be a proactive process to avoid accident/incident pitfalls. It can certainly be utilized post incident if one is not in place. And if one was in place post accident the OHC should review the JSA sometime during the investigation process to ensure that the JSA reflects current work practices.A JSA is part of a bigger loss control task analysis which reviews not only safety but damage to property/equipment, environmental and production/quality criteria too. While an overall program is an ultimate goal we will only be dealing with the safety side at this time.
7 Job Safety Analysis Assists In : identifying hazardsdevelopment or improvement of practices and proceduresincident investigationsimprovement of workers training, preventative maintenance lists…identification immunization and infection control issuesimproved communicationJSA is an important program in your safety system. Good JSA can assist in…
8 Defining JTA Method to document demands of assigned tasks. Detailed- includes amount of time required to perform each task.Compares the demands of the task to the abilities of the worker- benefiting workers on return-to-work programs.
9 Responsibilities Outlined: ManagementSupervisorWorkerOccupational Health and Safety CommitteeRegional Safety CoordinatorAll members of the WRS have responsibilities to the Job Safety Analysis process and the safe work procedures which can be developed from the JSA.
10 Management Ensure that: Review and/or approve new policies / procedures that are madeEnsure that:there are assigned task force / job safety analysis teamscontrol systems are initiated and maintained, that are necessary to protect workers from exposure to hazardous conditions.approved recommendations made are implemented.Management must oversee the entire process and ensure that hazards are being controlled and eliminated or reduced to a reasonable extent as per their legislated responsibilities – OH&S Act section 3 and Regs section 12(General Duties of Employer)Management to:Review and/or approve new policies / procedures that are madeEnsure that there are assigned task force / job safety analysis teamsEnsure that control systems are initiated and maintained, that are necessary to protect workers from exposure to hazardous conditions.When required, assist in the identification of work-place hazards, through the job safety analysis process.Ensure that approved recommendations made are implemented and enforced.Assist on a task force / job safety analysis team, when necessary.Continue to evaluate and monitor effectiveness of any new/revised procedures and policies related to JSA process.
11 Supervisor Assign members to the JSA team Coordinate and assist in the identification of hazardsActively participate in the JSA processImplement approved recommendations made as a result of the JSAInitiate and maintain control systemsEnsure the need for new policies/procedures are identified and referred to OHC.Supervisor is a key person within the Job Safety Analysis process, they need to be an active member of the assessment team – consistently promoting safety within the facility/department.Supervisor to:Ensure the need for new policies / procedures are identified and referred to OHCAssign members to the JSA team, when necessaryInitiate and maintain control systems, necessary to protect workers from exposure to hazardous conditions.Coordinate and assist in the identification of work-place hazards, through the JSA process.Implement approved recommendations made, as a result of the JSA.Actively participate in the identification of workplace hazards, through the job safety analysis process.Implement approved recommendations made as a result of the workplace JSA.Assist on JSA task force, when necessary
12 WorkerParticipate and cooperate with others in the identification of hazards in the workplaceComply with the changes made as a result of the job safety analysis recommendationsInform supervisors of changes in the workplace that affect existing workplace safe work practicesIt is crucial that the workers that are performing the tasks being assessed are involved in the process, they will know better than anyone the hazards associated with the task.Worker to:Participate and cooperate with others in the identification of workplace hazards through the JSA process.Comply with the changes resulting from the JSA recommendations.Inform supervisors of changes in the workplace that affect existing workplace safe work practicesWorkers should be empowered to monitor the effectiveness of any new policy or procedure. They need to know that any defects/ limitations or hazards are reported to their supervisor.If they are trained and skilled in identification of hazards and what controls they can activate at their level. Allowing a worker to assist in JSA will help to build this capability into their job situation.Too many times workers feel that they must complete the task regardless of risk.
13 Occupational Health Committees Assist in the identification of hazards, assessment of risk and control measures takenProvide input and advice throughout the processReview all Job Safety Analysis, policies and procedures to make sure they stay relevant and current with conditions, workers, equipment etc.Do follow-up evaluation of the effectiveness through inspections etc.Occupational Health & Safety Committee to:Assist in the identification of workplace hazards, the assessment of risk and implementation of recommended control systems.Provide input and advice throughout the processDo follow-up evaluation of the effectiveness through inspections etc. and continue to monitor processes.Review JSA to make sure they stay relevant and current with conditions, workers, equipment etc.Many OHCs have JSA trained members on the committee and therefore many OHC members are active participants in JSA procedures. This is especially true when their department expertise would be advantageous to the observation process.
14 Regional/Agency Safety Coordinator Act as a resource during the assessmentsCoordinate with Management, Supervisors and the Occupational Health Committees, to have or assist with or undertake a job safety analysisUse the job safety analysis as the basis for establishing workplace policy, procedures, practices and other components of the Occupational Health and Safety ProgramEnsures communicationRegional Safety Coordinator is a resource person, they are not responsible for conducting JSA in all facilities/departments. Upon completion of the assessments the coordinator may delegate facilities/departments JSA’s that require development.Regional Safety Coordinator to:Act as resource people ( collect data, current research, guidelines, standards, and other items related to the JSA review.Co-ordinate with Management, Supervisors and the Occupational Health and Safety Committees, to have or to assist with or undertake a JSA whenever health hazards are reported or suspected.Use the JSA as the basis for establishing workplace policy, procedures, and practices and other components of the Occupational Health and Safety Program.At times the regional safety coordinator will facilitate the involvement of specialized safety professions such as consultants, engineers, hygienists and others to assist in the JSA process.
15 Regional StrategyRegions can divide up job descriptions throughout regionRegions can focus on a specific job description and divide up the tasks that are associated with that job description throughout the regionGeneral JSA can be distributed to all regional agencies and then made agency specificGeneral JSAs which apply to a number of disciplines can be shared between the disciplines and then made job description specificHow a region takes on this huge responsibility is often left up to the regional safety coordinators and their staff. SAHO can provide assistance at a number of levels.There are several approaches to JSA and how they are regionally attacked.First a region can opt to give agencies specific job descriptions to perform JSAs on. For example one agency may do EMS/ambulance, one may do lab and x-ray while another is assigned SCA and RN. The results of these JSAs would then be shared within the region and local OHC and supervisor/worker teams would be able to use the general JSAs for agency review and agency specific JSA.Secondly a region could choose to start with the job description that has been shown to have the highest risk associated riskt and concentrate on that description first. For example Special Care Aides (SCA) from the job description agencies may be requested to divide up specific tasks such as getting a patient out of bed, bathing, feeding and others. Again these general JSAs would be circulated and agency specific JSA would be the goal.It is important to note that tasks performed by a number of job descriptions can be shared. Duplication is not necessary as long as the steps in each task are the same for all groups. For example getting a client out of bed might be done by RNs, PT, SCA and others within an agency. Even if they are not exactly the same general JSA can still decrease the amount of work necessary when doing job description. However as with any policy or procedures the agency should review the general JSA for agency specific techniques and norms and work toward making all generic JSAs, agency specific. Emergency plans, on-site equipment, trained personnel and other factors all indicate that agency specific JSAs must be the goal.
16 Involve employees by:Explaining why JSA is necessary and that their expertise is crucial to a strong JSA program.Explaining that the team is studying the task not worker performanceIt is extremely important that all staff members understand that the job is being evaluated for potential hazards…not on performance or their personal level of safety.
17 Involve the employees by: Making them part of the observation teamReferring the JSA back to them after each analysis stepConferring with them when JSA is completeIf we make the process open and forthright then a number of concerns will be put to rest. Involving employees at every level of the process, not only allows us to tap their expertise but it also let’s them buy into the results and allows them to, in some degree, have more input into their job satisfaction.
18 Job Safety Analysis Step 1: PreparationObservation & AnalysisHazard identificationControl identificationFollow upGood preparation is very important to the JSA process. It is during preparation that an agency lays out the plan for which job descriptions will be identified as top priority. This is done through a risk assessment for each job description. We will be discussing this in detail over the next few slides.
19 Preparation Make a list of all job descriptions Make an initial task list from the job descriptionsExample:Lab TechnologistSample collectionWard, ER, OutpatientsSample analysisWaste disposalEquipment maintenanceA job description will go along way in identifying the task list for a specific group.Having employee input at this point will often identify tasks that are not even in the job description. This allows two things to happen: supervisors and workers are alerted to fluctuations in job descriptions, which might be putting untrained staff at risk; job descriptions that should be reviewed due to changes in an agency are brought to the forefront.In the case of getting a client out of bed it is not as simple as that. We have to consider whether they are getting into a wheelchair, to their feet, to a stretcher etc. So each task might need it’s own JSA or lend from another to complete the documentation.
20 Pay particular attention to: High risk job descriptions or tasksComplex proceduresRarely performed tasksNew tasksRecently modified tasksIt is important that teams pay particular attention not only too the tasks but also the environment in which the tasks are performed throughout the year. This is especially important in the areas of maintenance, housekeeping and home care whose duties are greatly affected by seasonal changes.
21 Preparation: Priority We determine priority by doing a risk assessment on each task within the description by considering three key factors.SeverityFrequencyProbabilitySeverity: if the employee comes in contact with the hazard how severe would the injury be?Frequency: How often does an employee come in contact with that hazard in a day, hour etc.?Probability: What is the likelihood of personnel coming in contact with the hazard and being injured.
22 Severity… What will most likely happen if something goes wrong? Scale of 1-3Severity:1- Injuries: Minor injury taken care of onsite often noted as a no time lost.Property Damage: Less than $1,000Environmental: In-house clean-up and internal reporting onlyOften indicates ward notification but other areas would not know about the incident2- Injuries: Lost time injury with reporting to WCBProperty Damage: claim is within the $1-10,000 rangeEnvironmental: incident requires outside assistance from other response teams and environment resources may be involved.Incident most likely affects other agency areas such as lab, x-ray, emergency etc. And an in-depth investigation is most likely required.3- Injuries: Disabling or fatalProperty Damage: in excess of $10,000Environmental: Environment Canada is involvedA scale of three often indicates that work processes stop completely or are greatly affected by the incident. Outside resources such as Sask. Labour, RCMP etc would be involved
23 Frequency How often will a worker come in contact with the hazard? Scale of 1-3Scale: To consider a rating for frequency you must consider how many workers will be exposed to the hazard how many times a day. Both parts of consideration are important because the more people exposed the greater the frequency. However one worker doing it many times a day also increases risk.Any reproduceable system of rating frequency can be used. Attached is a suggested chart that could be use for this task.It is important to not that the frequency of a task also increases in risk if a task or series of tasks are compressed into a smaller time frame. For example doing a task 6 times in a half hour or doing it 6 times in a day.Sindi can we insert the chart you are redesigning in here.
24 Probability…What is the likelihood that something will go wrong during the task?Scale of 1-3When analyzing the probability of a worker being injured several consideration must be given to the situation.The environment that surrounds the situation, routine or emergency, equipment being used during the task and others like….The scale for probability might be laid out like this.1- Unlikely to cause injury or loss during task performance but probability still exists.2- A worker could be realistically be injured during the task.3- it is very likely that hazards associated with the task could injure a workerExamples of tasks that might fit into this category scale are:1- sweeping the side walk2- shoveling the sidewalk after a heavy snow fall.3- cleaning snow of a peak roof of a facility1- performing a venapuncture on a health adult female.2- performing a venapuncture on a one year old child.3- performing a venapuncture on a HIV positive/ seizing patient in EREmphasis how training/skill/knowledge of worker can impact their safety.
25 To determine the S-F-P values Review incident reportsReview WCB statisticsReview Sask. Labour Reports incl. contraventionsReview maintenance logsSpeak with employees who perform the taskThis list is by no means exhaustive and other avenues for information should be explored by JSA teams.
26 Risk Assessment & JSA Priority Add up the severity, frequency, probability ratings to determine the highest ranking job descriptions.From those targeted descriptions compare the task ratings within the description.The JSA team and those involved set the plan for the region, agency and team as to which job descriptions and task should be targeted first.Once the risk assessment has been done the overview should be discussed with the team responsible for spearheading the effort. The opinions of all concerned is again vitally important for this project to be successful.Time spent decided the priority of targeted task will save resources and add to the success of the project. Good discussion and research at this time cannot be emphasized enough.A regional coordinator may determine the most critical tasks that need to be addressed first. It is practice that the tasks with the highest risk assessment rating be done first.
27 Job Safety Analysis Step 2: PreparationObservation and AnalysisHazard identificationControl identificationFollow upOnce you have performed your risk assessment and the plan for attack is set the team now has the daunting task of performing the analysis portion of the JSA through observation and discussion. It is suggested that the best way to perform analysis is by discussing the task to be reviewed and reviewing any documents, legislation, safe work procedures etc. that might assist the team in a better understanding of the task. Involve your regional safety professional for current guidelines, best practices etc. Once prepared the team will go out and observe the task in progress and once that is completed discuss again the steps noted and other concerns, for example emergency situations etc. that might affect the performance of the job.A perfect example of an emergency situation that should be considered is a trapped employee in a confined space. Egress from that confined space would be much different during this scenario that when a confined space entry is completed with no emergency.Analysis can be done through discussion only, sort of a round table discussion, but this method is considered inferior.
28 Observation TeamIs often the area supervisor and may include other workers and members of the local OHCA more rounded group of observers ensures that key points are not being missedSuggestion: If the task is a multi-discipline task have a variety of job descriptions on the observation team.A video taping of the task being performed may assist the team. Especially in the early stages of a JSA within an agency as the team will be quite green.
29 Pre-Observation Team should: review JSA proceduresreview legislation related to the jobreview best practices if applicableensure they are trained and supplied with all PPE needed to observe the tasks safelySound knowledge of the equipment being used to perform the task is also important. Especially in the case of maintenance, lab or x-ray tasks or other highly specialized equipment usage areas.
30 Employee to be observed: Should be:experienced in their jobsafety consciouscapable of doing all steps in taskencouraged to explain what is being doneencouraged to ask questions of the observation teamA mature worker is chosen for the task as this procedure could make a new employee very nervous. If a worker does not feel comfortable being observed consider someone else for the task. If a worker does not feel comfortable they will not perform in a natural way.
31 Analysis Observe task under normal working conditions Breakdown the task into steps as it is being observedMake sure to record the steps in orderDecrease observations to 10 steps or less whenever possible.Use action words to describe stepsNormal conditions means: the normal time of day- if it is a task that is only performed at night then it should be observed at night. If the employees being observe use a specific lift on their ward then that lift should be used during observation, not a new one because the old one is under repair.However if a normal deviation is acceptable review that deviation for hazards too. For example: one nurse puts on Mr. B’s socks/shoes before putting him in his chair, another nurse put them on once he is in the chair.Have every team member list their own observed task steps for comparison later. Remember that everyone sees things slightly different and therefore a good JSA will reflect that.Try not to interrupt the performance of the task with questions as this will break the flow of work and cause the worker to possibly fall out of normal practice. If questions of clarification are necessary it would be advised to do so out of the client’s room. Once the questions have been answered the task could be watched again using another client or site to ensure everything is well understood and defined.Reinforce: to workers being observed that this is an analysis not part of their job performance evaluation but a fact finding process to evaluate hazards and how they can be managed and controlled.
32 RecommendationsBe sure not to make the steps too general or too detailed.Make sure steps reflect what is being done NOT how it is being done.Ask questions???Have other participants review the basic steps before hazard identificationIf you start to find your list of hazards is too many or too few for an observed step then consider breaking up into more steps or combining steps.What is being done: Insert needle into arm NOTHow it is being done: Hold skin taut, hold needle at angle, pierce skinRefer to page 11 of the SL document; go over some of the questions listed there and get the participants involved in discussion.This is the stage to pick up step observation errors as leaving it till later will increase the work put into the project dramatically. Have employee groups in-house review the steps noted, the supervisor and anyone else who has a good understanding of the task being performs. If the task observed is done by a variety of job descriptions: Example:Task: Taking a client out of bedPerformed by: RN, SCAHave all those groups review the steps as they will all be sharing the same general JSA for this taskInstructor should perform a task for break down in class. CPR is used in this demonstration but others can be used. The worksheet is found in the student handout as Appendix….
33 JSA Example: Adult CPR Sequence of Job Task Potential Health and Safety HazardControls and ResourcesCheck scene safetyDon PPECheck for consciousnessOpen airway, check breathingGive two breaths, check pulseLandmark, begin chest compressions
34 Job Safety Analysis Step 3: PreparationObservation & AnalysisHazard IdentificationControl IdentificationFollow upOnce you have observed the task the JSA then comes back to the discussion table. At this time the focus moves to hazard identification.
35 Hazard Identification Identify hazards relating to each stepConsider all potential hazards during:Normal situationsUnexpected eventsJob modification situationsRefer to legislation, best practice, expert opinion to assistOnce you have observed the task the JSA then comes back to the discussion table. At this time the focus moves to hazard identification.
36 JSA Example: Adult CPR Potential Health and Safety Hazard Sequence of Job TaskPotential Health and Safety HazardControls and ResourcesCheck scene safetyVehicular traffic, by-standers, hidden dangers, weatherDon PPECommunicable diseaseInadequate or no PPE,Inadequate training.Check for consciousnessCombative patientOpen airway, check breathingGive two breaths, check pulseLandmark, start chest compressions
37 Job Safety Analysis Step 4: PreparationObservation & AnalysisHazard IdentificationControl IdentificationFollow upOnce you have observed the task the JSA then comes back to the discussion table. At this time the focus moves to hazard identification.
38 Control Identification Eliminate the hazardReduce the hazardControl the hazard
39 Hazard Controls and Resources Observation team must now identify strategies to protect employees from the hazards noted.Can they:Find a new way to do the taskChange the conditions that create the hazardChange the work procedureChange the time, location etc. that the task is doneNew way: slider sheetsChange conditions: new chemical, less toxic and corrosive, contain the hazard ( fume hood)Change procedure: sewer pump on a rail and saddle so maintenance never enters that systemChange time: combative sleepy patients are allowed to sleep longer, get them up lastRemember Sask. Labour wants us to look at engineering, administrative and PPE controls in that order.
40 Process for Identification EngineeringAdministrationPersonal protective equipmentJSA teams should always look at engineering solutions first. They may not be feasible at the time of observation due to capital restraints but should be passed on to OHC/employer groups for consideration and review.Administrative controls are used when engineering controls are not feasible.- reduce # of employees exposed to hazard and number of times for those who are- job rotation- improving emergency equipment- employee training
41 JSA Example: Adult CPR Potential Health and Safety Hazard Sequence of Job TaskPotential Health and Safety HazardControls and ResourcesCheck scene safetyVehicular traffic by-standers, hidden dangers, weatherEMS vehicle training, reflective jackets. Procedure reviewDon PPECommunicable disease inadequate or no PPE,Inadequate training.Updates from HC, local medical officer. Updated PPE training.Check for consciousnessCombative patientOpen airway, check breathingGive two breaths, check pulseLandmark, begin chest compressions
42 Final DetailsHave all parties review and comment on JSA before it is distributedCommunicate the finalized information and for feedbackDate the JSA for future reference during reviews and updatesAt this stage it is good to get feedback from less experienced staff. They are more likely to pick up confusing or missing information. Also this is a good indicator of how the agencies orientation training program is working.
43 Communication To all employees at all levels affected by analysis OrientationJob updatesGeneral and Safety meetingsOccupational Health Committee Meetings
44 Job Safety Analysis Step 5: PreparationObservation & AnalysisHazard IdentificationControl IdentificationFollow upFollow-up on JSA and how they affect and are incorporated into Safe Work Procedures are vital to the success of the program. The hours and preparation time allow should indicate that once established it is worth the effort to keep it up to date so complete renovation of an existing system is not necessary.Once the task analysis process is complete the findings should be documented on the JSA summary sheet. This sheet captures all the critical information uncovered during the analysis. This summary will allow teams to review at a glance information that can assist them in setting up review times for risk assessment, controls and additional tasks that may develop over a period of time that have not been analyzed before.
45 Review and follow up Periodically When tasks change When concerns are identified by the Workplace Responsibility SystemThere are no set periods for JSA review but I would suggest that at minimum they are reviewed every three years just like the safety program. (Reg. 22) if no other conditions exist to do it sooner.
46 Evaluate Implemented Controls It is important to remember that implemented controls may not work as effectively and efficiently as first thought.Re-evaluation of all enacted controls, procedures etc. should be done regularly throughout the first year after one month, and every three months after that by area supervisors and staff.
47 Recap of JSA Benefits Can be used to update procedures and practices Used to refine training at all levelsUsed to identify deficiencies in the agencies safety management systemJSA can be used during incident investigationJSA can be used to refine inspection listsCan be used to assist with Job Task Analysis and Return to Work ProgramsJob Task Analysis and RTW good intro for bringing in Leanne’s programs and how they might benefit from getting her in to assist them with Disability Management.