Presentation on theme: "GGR 413 Watershed Hydroecology"— Presentation transcript:
1GGR 413 Watershed Hydroecology ½ courseWednesdays 1:00-3:00 pm, 2125 SSJing M. ChenDepartment of GeographyUniversity of TorontoOffice: Room 305, 45 St. George St.Physical Geography BuildingConsultation Time: Mondays 1-3 PMCo-Instructor Dr. Mustapha El Maayar, Room 306, 45 St. George St.This space is for references
2Evaluation2 assignments_______________ 40%Mid-term exam______________ 20% Project report _______________ 40%Late assignment reports will be penalized at 10% of the portion of the assignment for each day of delay, i.e., a multiplying factor of 0.9 will be used for 1-day delay, and 0.8 for 2-day delay, etc.
3Reference Books and Papers Chen, J. M., X. Chen and W. Ju, X. Geng Distributed hydrological model for mapping evapotranspiration using remote sensing inputs. J. Hydrology, 305:Black, P. E., Watershed Hydrology. Prentice Hall. London , Toronto . ISBN X.Band, L. E., P. Patterson, R. Nemani, S. W. Running, Forest ecosystem processes at the watershed scale: incorporating hillslope hydrology. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology , 63:Matzner, E., Biogeochemistry of Forested Catchments in a Changing Environment: A German Case Study. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidenberg. ISBN
4Definition of Hydrology “Hydrology is the science dealing with the waters of the earth, their occurrence, distribution and circulation, their chemical and physical properties and their interaction with the environment”Ward and Robinson, 2000
5Definition of Ecology“The scientific study of the interrelationships among organisms and between organisms, and between them and all aspects, living and non-living, of their environment”.Ernst Heinrich Haeckel is usually credited with having coined the word ‘ecology’ in 1866Oxford: A Dictionary of Ecology in Earth & Environmental Sciences
6Definition of Hydroecology A branch of ecology that emphasizes on the effects on hydrological processes on living and non-living organisms and their interrelationships in terrestrial ecosystems.Definition of this course
7TerrainLab-BEPS1. TerrainLab: A distributed hydrological model (Chen et al., Journal of Hydrology), which is based on remote sensing inputs.2. BEPS: Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator, which simulates plant growth, carbon, water and energy fluxes using remote sensing inputs. (Chen et al., Ecological Modeling; Liu et al., 2003, Water Resources Research.
8Global Water CycleSignificance: represents the largest movement of matter at the Earth’s surface; associates with the global climate system; affects human activities (population distribution, industry, transportation, etc.)Ward and Robinson (2000)
9Water Table in a Hydrological System Ward and Robinson (2000)
10Soil Water ForcesCapillarity: surface tension at the interface between soil air and soil waterAdsorption: electrostatic forces in which the polar water molecules are attached to charged faces of the solids. They occur only very close to the surface of solids.Osmosis: forces due to solutes in soil water. Saline water, for example, can have large osmosis that prevents plant roots from extracting the water.Gravity: vertical forces exerted to water by gravity of the Earth.Pressure: forces that increase below water table
11Soil water potentialThe potential energy of soil water relative to that of water in a standard state (elevation, purity, atmospheric pressure, temperature) is the total water potentialg is gravitational potentialp is pressure potentialo is osmotic potential
12Water Potential What is the physical meaning of water potential? It is energy per unit volume.It has the same unit as pressure (bar, mb, Pascal)Unit of mass: kg (or g)Units of forces: kg m/s2Units of pressure, i.e., force per unit area:(kg m/s2)/m2= kg/(ms2)=PascalUnits of energy (equivalent to force times distance):J=kg m/s2 m = kg m2/s2Units of energy per unit volume (pressure):(kg m2/s2)/m3=kg/(ms2)