# Prevailing Wind Patterns Weather Dynamics Unit Science 10 Mrs. S. Pipke-Painchaud.

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Prevailing Wind Patterns Weather Dynamics Unit Science 10 Mrs. S. Pipke-Painchaud

Wind “Movement of air in the atmosphere” (Nelson Science 10 516). Local or Regional Winds: –Occur in a localized or small area Prevailing Winds: –Winds that affect large areas (Nelson Science 10 516)

Coriolis Effect Named after Gaspard deCoriolis –French Mathematician Because of the Earth’s rotation anything moving long distances appear to change direction –“apparent change of direction in a moving object in a rotating system is called the Coriolis Effect” (Nelson Science 10 516). (NS10 516) –“tendency for any moving body on or above the earth's surface, e.g., an ocean current or an artillery round, to drift sideways from its course because of the earth's rotation” (InfoPlease.com) http://www.theozonehole.com/c oriolis.htm

Earth rotates Eastward –Northern Hemisphere (counterclockwise) – move to right –Southern Hemisphere (Clockwise) – move to left Noticed the least at the equator and most at the poles

http://www.worldstats.org/general_world/maps/prevailing_winds_big.shtml

http://re search. haifa.ac.il/~mari time/de partm/l essons/ ocean/ wwr199.gif

Convection Currents Video: http://www.wfu.edu/physics/demolabs/dem os/4/4b/4B2010.html http://www.wfu.edu/physics/demolabs/dem os/4/4b/4B2010.html http://www.wfu.edu/physics/demolabs/dem os/4/4b/4B2010.html http://www.wfu.edu/physics/demolabs/dem os/avimov/byalpha/cdvideos.html http://www.wfu.edu/physics/demolabs/dem os/avimov/byalpha/cdvideos.html

Please refer to page 517 in your textbook –Figure 2 –Skim through the information on page 516 Paragraph 2 “to understand why the …” In 1492, Christopher Columbus relied on two important prevailing winds to sail to the Americas and home again. –A) What wind did he use to travel to America? –B) What wind did he use to travel home? A) Northeast trade winds B) Mid-Latitude westerlies

Animations Exploring Earth –**http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_scie nce/terc/content/visualizations/es1904/es1904 page01.cfm?chapter_no=visualization http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_scie nce/terc/content/visualizations/es1904/es1904 page01.cfm?chapter_no=visualizationhttp://www.classzone.com/books/earth_scie nce/terc/content/visualizations/es1904/es1904 page01.cfm?chapter_no=visualization –http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_scienc e/terc/content/visualizations/es1905/es1905p age01.cfm?chapter_no=visualization http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_scienc e/terc/content/visualizations/es1905/es1905p age01.cfm?chapter_no=visualizationhttp://www.classzone.com/books/earth_scienc e/terc/content/visualizations/es1905/es1905p age01.cfm?chapter_no=visualization Danish Wind Industry Association –http://www.windpower.org/en/tour/wres/corioli s.htm http://www.windpower.org/en/tour/wres/corioli s.htmhttp://www.windpower.org/en/tour/wres/corioli s.htm

Causes of Prevailing Winds Please read through pages 518-519 –First five paragraphs Jet Stream: –“a current of fast moving air found in the upper atmosphere” (Univ. Illinois). –Can be 1000s of km long –Few 100 km wide –Few km thick –Generally, located 10-15 km up –The position of this upper-level jet stream denotes the location of the strongest SURFACE temperature contrast” (Univ. Illinois). –http://ww2010.atmos.uiuc.edu/(Gh)/guides/mtr/cyc/upa/jet.rxml http://ww2010.atmos.uiuc.edu/(Gh)/guides/mtr/cyc/upa/jet.rxml

Jet Stream Maps Jet Steam Images: –http://www.weatherimages.org/data/imag192.html http://www.weatherimages.org/data/imag192.html Environment Canada: –http://weatheroffice.ec.gc.ca/jet_stream/index_e.html http://weatheroffice.ec.gc.ca/jet_stream/index_e.html Weather.com –http://www.weather.com/maps/activity/aviation/saturd ayusjetstream_large.html http://www.weather.com/maps/activity/aviation/saturd ayusjetstream_large.htmlhttp://www.weather.com/maps/activity/aviation/saturd ayusjetstream_large.html California Weather Service –http://virga.sfsu.edu/scripts/namjetstream_modelsml.h tml http://virga.sfsu.edu/scripts/namjetstream_modelsml.h tmlhttp://virga.sfsu.edu/scripts/namjetstream_modelsml.h tml

Effects of Prevailing Winds –Distribute solar energy from equator to poles (move air around the earth) –Convection currents enable a return of cold air south –Carry moisture –Help to cause a variety of precipitation types –“Remember that rising air tends to be warm and moist, while falling air tends to be cool and dry” (Nelson Science 10 519). Nelson Science 10 519

Consider where convection currents meet –Equator: cloudy and rainy –30* North Latitude: cool, dry falling air (desert like conditions) Gobi (As), Sahara (Af), Mojave (NA), Great Basin (NA) and Sonoran (NA) Deserts of North America (info on Hot and Cold Deserts of the world) –http://mbgnet.mobot.org/sets/desert/ofworld.htm http://mbgnet.mobot.org/sets/desert/ofworld.htm –60* North Latitude: 2 air systems meet Unsettled conditions Storms are stronger in the winter (because the Arctic receives no light = cold = greater temp difference from equator) Nelson Science 10 519

http://www.mapsofworld.com/world-desert-map.htm

Earth from Different Perspectives **Exploring Earth (examine sea temperatures, earthquakes, etc.) –http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/c ontent/visualizations/es0101/es0101page01.cfm?cha pter_no=visualization http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/c ontent/visualizations/es0101/es0101page01.cfm?cha pter_no=visualizationhttp://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/c ontent/visualizations/es0101/es0101page01.cfm?cha pter_no=visualization Environment Canada –Wind Info: http://lavoieverte.qc.ec.gc.ca/meteo/Documentation/Vent_e.h tml http://lavoieverte.qc.ec.gc.ca/meteo/Documentation/Vent_e.h tml International Polar Foundation: –Katabatic and Anabatic Winds http://www.antarctica.org/UK/Envirn/pag/vents_cata_UK.htm