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Causes and Canada’s Reaction

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1 Causes and Canada’s Reaction
World War I (aka…… WWI, The First World War, The Great War, The War to End All Wars) Causes and Canada’s Reaction

2 NOTE – Turkey/Ottoman Empire = “The Sick-Man of Europe”
EUROPE IN 1914 Last major European war was Franco-Prussian War of 1871 Germany defeated France, won Alsace-Lorraine region of France, France bitter Germany is a new major power in the world Britain & France feel threatened In 1908, Austria-Hungary took over Bosnia and Herzegovina. Many inhabitants not happy; Serbia wants Bosnia to join them NOTE – Turkey/Ottoman Empire = “The Sick-Man of Europe”

3 CAUSES OF WW I M.A.N.I.A.C. Militarism Alliances Nationalism
Imperialism Assassination Crisis

4 Militarism “My army is bigger than your army!!!”
Massive build-up of armed forces to deter rivals “Intimidation” a nation’s armed forces come to dominate its national policy a glorification of the military and war itself Military displays to Show ‘The World’ The tank redefined warfare ARMY French/German desire to be #1. “My army is bigger than your army!!!” HMS Dreadnought Brt. #1 Navy

5 ALLIANCES Triple Entente: Triple Alliance:
Signed treaties in which each nation involved pledges to defend one another if attacked “Friends” “If one goes… they all go.” Triple Entente: “The Allies” Britain, France, Russia Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy*** ***Note – In 1915 Italy joined the Allies

6 Nationalism – ‘Pride in ones country’
Pride and patriotism in one’s nation, belief in national identity. “Nations are like people: pride, jealousy, insults, revenge, do not forgive and forget.” Austro-Hungarian Empire controlled several slavic nations. - several (Bosnia) wanted out. - Serbia wanted to include Bosnia. - Austro-Hungarian nationalists wanted to crush the Serbs. THE BLACK HAND – Bosnian Serbs wanting to form a ‘Greater Serbia.” A CANADIAN EXAMPLE QUEBEC Bosnia (Language, laws, religion)

7 IMPERIALISM – ‘Like Canada was to Britain’
Domination by one country of the political, economic, and/or cultural life of another country or region. Due to Industrial Revolution of the 1800s, some European nations had a large portion of the world under their control. Empires became a show of strength. Countries competed for colonies around the world. Became like a game- “My Dad is Bigger Than Your Dad”

8 ASSASSINATION - June 28, 1914: - Archduke Ferdinand & his wife were assasinated by a Serbian nationalist (Gavrilo Princip) while they visited Sarajevo, Bosnia. - Austria-Hungary was angry & blamed Serbia. - The Serb gov’t was not responsible but A-H saw its chance to declare war. - Russia (also a Slavic nation) backed the Serbs & declared war on A-H. Archduke Franz Ferdinand The ‘Crown Prince’ of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Gavrilo Princip Serbian Nationalist

9 CRISIS – The chain of events leading up to WW I
June 28: The Assassination. July 6: Germany offers A-H Empire “Blank Cheque.” July 23: A-H issues Serbia ultimatum. Assassination investigation / anti A-H supporters removed. July 26: Russia mobilizes forces. July 28: Break down of diplomacy / A-H declares war on Serbia August 1: Germany declares war on Russia; France mobilizes army August 3: Germany declares war on France (Schlieffen Plan – attack France, via Belgium, then focus on Russia) August 4: Germany invades Belgium on way to France; Britain declares war on Germany

10 THE CHAIN OF FRIENDSHIP

11 WORLD LEADERS TRIPLE ALLIANCE ALLIES / TRIPLE ENTENTE ITALY
Vittorio Emanuele Orlando Germany – Kaiser Wilhelm Canada PM Robert Borden United States -***1917 President Woodrow Wilson Austria-Hungary – Emperor Franz Joseph Great Britain PM David Lloyd George France PM Georges Clemenceau Russia Czar Nicholas II

12 CANADA’S RESPONSE “If Britain = war => Canada = war”
CANADA’S FOREIGN POLICY => British controlled “If Britain = war => Canada = war” “Ready, Aye Ready! Aug. 8:55pm, 1914 news reached Ottawa. Cheering crowds ‘Last Til Christmas’ Bring French & English together????? Truce between gov’ts Soldiers to return heroes

13 CANADA’S RESPONSE “If Britain = war => Canada = war”
CANADA’S FOREIGN POLICY => British controlled “If Britain = war => Canada = war” ENLISTMENT promised => 30,000 Canadians enlisted Reasons: British patriotism, adventure, honour, travel, a job, visit the ‘old country’. DISCRIMINATION - Women – rejected except for nurses or ambulance drivers. Minorities – at first not allowed to enlist; eventually accepted => not promoted. (Aboriginal, African, Japanese) CANADIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE CREATED It was assumed Canadians would join British forces => Can. Identity created

14 Canada’s Response (cont.)
WAR MEASURES ACT -1914 Gave gov’t power to do whatever necessary to protect Canada. - censorship - suspend habeus corpus - deport enemy aliens - internment camps ASSIGNMENT Was the WMA necessary? Is it constitutional? Why did the Liberals agree to it? Sam Hughes – Minister of Militia- ‘Goat to Hero’ Awarded manufacturing contracts to friends (war profiteers) Poor quality equipment and supplies (ex. Ross rifle) Behind schedule Fired in 1916 BOOTS Cardboard Sole?? ROSS RIFLE

15 THE WAR ON LAND THE SCHLIEFFEN PLAN
1. Quickly through neutral Belgium => Paris, France. 2. Turn attention on Russia BASED ON TWO ASSUMPTIONS Russia would be slow to mobilize X Britain = neutral X Note – Almost worked but Western Front = trench warfare and became a stalemate. TRENCH WARFARE Battle of Attrition No Man’s Land Trench Foot Gas attacks Chlorine Gas NEW TECHNOLOGY VS. ATTRITION ??

16 CANADIAN BATTLES BATTLE OF YPRES - April 22 1915.
Can. Hit with Chlorine Gas => now banned 1 month = 6000 Can. Killed / wounded Poem “In Flanders Fields” BATTLE OF THE SOMME - July 1916 - Canadians made a name for themselves The Allies attacked The Somme R. in Fr. Failure – Shelling did not destroy Germ defence. Old Tactics vs machine guns. continued ‘Old Tactics’ despite losses 5 mo. = 13 km & Can. lives BATTLE OF VIMY RIDGE – 1916 - 1st time Can troops attacked together - Can. Captured after years of attempts. - a stunning victory. 3500 dead / wounded created a National Pride & reputation. PASSCHENDALE – Oct. 1917 Gen. Currie on orders from Haig took town of Passchendale at Can lives. Gained 7-8 km & Germ soon recaptured. known for a ‘muddy mess.’

17 THE WAR IN THE AIR & AT SEA
Canada’s small merchant marine ferried munitions and food to Britain. The biplane was used for Reconnaissance and ‘Dog Fights’. The Allies used convoys to protect goods from German U-boats. The German Sinking of the Lusitania and any other vessel in the War Zone brought the USA into the war. Billy Bishop flew in Brt. Royal Flying Corps. Credited with 72 kills => 5 = an “ace” Avg. life expectancy of a pilot was measured in weeks.

18 THE HOME FRONT Canadian’s would do whatever it would take to help the war effort Exports would hit record highs – lumber, minerals, wheat, beef. Result in Canada – economy boomed but… prices rose, wages dropped =>worker discontent, HALIFAX EXPLOSION Two ships collided levelling Much of the city & killing 2000 people. Corporate & Income Tax Rationing Women in WWI Propaganda

19 THE CONSCRIPTION CRISIS
In 1917 Borden Introduced the Military Service Act Led to the Military Voters Act & Wartime Elections Act (Mandatory service) By 1917, it was obvious That more soldiers were needed (men & women overseas) PM Borden promised no conscription (Wives but no Consc. Obj. or enemy aliens) OPPOSITION TO CONSCRIPTION QUEBEC – WHY??? - Farmers needed at home - No connection to Brt. or Fr. - Eng vs. Fr language issues. - Fr. Soldiers not united. - Few Fr. officers. - Bourassa felt Can. had given enough -> bankrupt Can. - Married younger. EXEMPTIONS DENIED Conscientious Objectors Disabled Clergy Special skills Essential jobs – Farmers, Khaki Election of 1917 Fed. Election based on Borden’s efforts. Liberal Laurier opposed conscription. Farmers & Unions also opposed. ‘Rich = richer; Poor go to war’ Ind. Workers

20 THE END OF THE WAR RESULT TWO EVENTS THAT CHANGED THE WAR
RUSSIA’ S “PEACE & BREAD” (Russians tired of war) Czar Nicolas abdicates , provisional gov’t fails, & socialist Bolsheviks negotiate with Central Powers -> Treaty of Brest-Litovsk = Truce U.S.A. ENTERS THE WAR – April2, 1917. “Lusitania” sunk & Germ. Promised support to Mexico Lenin RESULT THE HUNDRED DAYS CAMPAIGN – Allies crush Germans. - Germ. to win Western Front before USA arrives. -launch massive attack. - success until USA arrived (75 km from Paris) - Central Powers Collapse -> Armistice Nov. 11, 11:00am, 1918 Germ. Moves troops from Eastern Front to West .

21 PARIS PEACE CONFERENCE
JAN. 1919 PM BORDEN & CANADA = AUTONOMY CENTRAL POWERS & RUSSIA NOT INVITED TREATY OF VERSAILLES CREATED

22 TREATY OF VERSAILLES - June 28, 1919
Laid out terms of peace for Germany President Wilson proposed ‘14-Point Plan’ based on forgiveness France and Belgium wanted Germany to pay THE WINNERS DICTATE THE TERMS WINNERS WRITE HISTORY ! THE TERMS - German “War Guilt Clause” - Reparations - $30 billion ($300+ billion today) Unable to meet payments - Germany loses land - German army limited to 100,000 soldiers - Not allowed U-boats or an air force - League of Nations formed

23 THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS President Wilson’s idea
Similar to today’s United Nations Collective Security – one country is attacked, others help defend it Britain and France not enthused about League Wanted to remain imperialistic League popular with the public Canada an independent member of League Limitations - Required co-operation Gutless No military force, only economic sanctions Americans refused to join, even though Wilson’s idea

24 EFFECTS OF WWI ON CANADA
National Identity Economy Women’s Rights Canadian Autonomy International Status French-English Relations Racial Discrimination/WMA Thousands Dead and Wounded Country Mobilized Killed Wounded Total Casualties Canada , , , , % Grt Brit. 5,397, ,000 1,663, ,367, % USA ,272, , , , % Spanish Influenza

25 Spanish Influenza After the war, the Spanish Flu swept through he world killing over 21 million people. More than the war itself.

26 Was WW I a positive or negative experience for Canada
Was WW I a positive or negative experience for Canada? Be sure to use Key Terms Positives Negatives Many more…… Many more……


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