Presentation on theme: "Causes and Canada’s Reaction"— Presentation transcript:
1Causes and Canada’s Reaction World War I (aka…… WWI, The First World War, The Great War, The War to End All Wars)Causes and Canada’s Reaction
2NOTE – Turkey/Ottoman Empire = “The Sick-Man of Europe” EUROPE IN 1914Last major European war was Franco-Prussian War of 1871Germany defeated France, won Alsace-Lorraine region of France, France bitterGermany is a new major power in the worldBritain & France feel threatenedIn 1908, Austria-Hungary tookover Bosnia and Herzegovina.Many inhabitants not happy;Serbia wants Bosnia to join themNOTE – Turkey/Ottoman Empire = “The Sick-Man of Europe”
3CAUSES OF WW I M.A.N.I.A.C. Militarism Alliances Nationalism ImperialismAssassinationCrisis
4Militarism “My army is bigger than your army!!!” Massive build-up of armed forces to deter rivals “Intimidation”a nation’s armed forces come to dominate its national policya glorification of the military and war itselfMilitary displays toShow ‘The World’The tank redefined warfareARMYFrench/German desire to be #1.“My army is bigger than your army!!!”HMS DreadnoughtBrt. #1 Navy
5ALLIANCES Triple Entente: Triple Alliance: Signed treaties in which each nation involved pledges to defend one another if attacked “Friends”“If one goes… they all go.”Triple Entente:“The Allies”Britain, France,RussiaTriple Alliance:Germany,Austria-Hungary,Italy*** ***Note – In 1915 Italy joined the Allies
6Nationalism – ‘Pride in ones country’ Pride and patriotism in one’s nation, belief in national identity.“Nations are like people:pride, jealousy, insults, revenge, do not forgive and forget.”Austro-Hungarian Empire controlled several slavic nations.- several (Bosnia) wanted out.- Serbia wanted to include Bosnia.- Austro-Hungarian nationalists wanted to crush the Serbs.THE BLACK HAND – Bosnian Serbswanting to form a ‘Greater Serbia.”A CANADIAN EXAMPLEQUEBECBosnia(Language, laws, religion)
7IMPERIALISM – ‘Like Canada was to Britain’ Domination by one country of the political, economic, and/or cultural life of another country or region.Due to Industrial Revolutionof the 1800s, some Europeannations had a large portionof the world under their control.Empires became a show of strength.Countries competed for colonies around the world.Became like a game-“My Dad is Bigger Than Your Dad”
8ASSASSINATION - June 28, 1914: - Archduke Ferdinand & his wife were assasinated by a Serbian nationalist (Gavrilo Princip) while they visited Sarajevo, Bosnia. - Austria-Hungary was angry & blamed Serbia. - The Serb gov’t was not responsible but A-H saw its chance to declare war. - Russia (also a Slavic nation) backed the Serbs & declared war on A-H.Archduke Franz FerdinandThe ‘Crown Prince’ of theAustro-Hungarian Empire.Gavrilo PrincipSerbian Nationalist
9CRISIS – The chain of events leading up to WW I June 28: The Assassination.July 6: Germany offers A-H Empire“Blank Cheque.”July 23: A-H issues Serbia ultimatum.Assassination investigation / anti A-H supporters removed.July 26: Russia mobilizes forces.July 28: Break down of diplomacy /A-H declares war on SerbiaAugust 1: Germany declares war onRussia; France mobilizes armyAugust 3: Germany declares war on France (Schlieffen Plan – attack France, via Belgium, then focus on Russia)August 4: Germany invades Belgium on way to France; Britain declares war on Germany
11WORLD LEADERS TRIPLE ALLIANCE ALLIES / TRIPLE ENTENTE ITALY Vittorio Emanuele OrlandoGermany –Kaiser WilhelmCanadaPM Robert BordenUnited States -***1917President Woodrow WilsonAustria-Hungary –EmperorFranz JosephGreat BritainPM DavidLloyd GeorgeFrancePM GeorgesClemenceauRussiaCzar Nicholas II
12CANADA’S RESPONSE “If Britain = war => Canada = war” CANADA’S FOREIGN POLICY=> British controlled“If Britain = war => Canada = war”“Ready, Aye Ready!Aug. 8:55pm, 1914 news reached Ottawa.Cheering crowds‘Last Til Christmas’Bring French & English together?????Truce between gov’tsSoldiers to return heroes
13CANADA’S RESPONSE “If Britain = war => Canada = war” CANADA’S FOREIGN POLICY => British controlled“If Britain = war => Canada = war”ENLISTMENTpromised => 30,000 Canadians enlistedReasons: British patriotism, adventure, honour,travel, a job, visit the ‘old country’.DISCRIMINATION- Women – rejected except for nurses or ambulance drivers.Minorities – at first not allowed to enlist; eventually accepted => not promoted. (Aboriginal, African, Japanese)CANADIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE CREATEDIt was assumed Canadians would join British forces=> Can. Identity created
14Canada’s Response (cont.) WAR MEASURES ACT -1914Gave gov’t power to do whatever necessary to protect Canada.- censorship- suspend habeus corpus- deport enemy aliens- internment campsASSIGNMENTWas the WMA necessary?Is it constitutional?Why did the Liberals agree to it?Sam Hughes – Minister of Militia- ‘Goat to Hero’Awarded manufacturingcontracts to friends (war profiteers)Poor quality equipment and supplies (ex. Ross rifle)Behind scheduleFired in 1916BOOTSCardboard Sole??ROSS RIFLE
15THE WAR ON LAND THE SCHLIEFFEN PLAN 1. Quickly through neutral Belgium => Paris, France.2. Turn attention on RussiaBASED ON TWO ASSUMPTIONSRussia would be slow to mobilize XBritain = neutral XNote – Almost worked but Western Front = trench warfare and became a stalemate.TRENCH WARFAREBattle of AttritionNo Man’s LandTrench FootGas attacksChlorine GasNEW TECHNOLOGY VS. ATTRITION ??
16CANADIAN BATTLES BATTLE OF YPRES - April 22 1915. Can. Hit with Chlorine Gas=> now banned1 month = 6000 Can.Killed / woundedPoem “In Flanders Fields”BATTLE OF THE SOMME - July 1916- Canadians made a name for themselvesThe Allies attacked The Somme R. in Fr.Failure – Shelling did not destroy Germ defence.Old Tactics vs machine guns.continued ‘Old Tactics’ despite losses5 mo. = 13 km & Can. livesBATTLE OF VIMY RIDGE – 1916- 1st time Can troops attacked together- Can. Captured after years of attempts.- a stunning victory.3500 dead / woundedcreated a National Pride & reputation.PASSCHENDALE – Oct. 1917Gen. Currie on orders from Haig took townof Passchendale at Can lives.Gained 7-8 km & Germ soon recaptured.known for a ‘muddy mess.’
17THE WAR IN THE AIR & AT SEA Canada’s smallmerchant marineferried munitionsand food to Britain.The biplane was used forReconnaissance and‘Dog Fights’.The Allies usedconvoys to protectgoods fromGerman U-boats.The GermanSinking of theLusitania and anyother vessel inthe War Zonebrought the USAinto the war.Billy Bishop flew in Brt. Royal Flying Corps.Credited with 72 kills => 5 = an “ace”Avg. life expectancy of a pilot wasmeasured in weeks.
18THE HOME FRONTCanadian’s would do whatever it would take to help the war effortExports would hit record highs – lumber, minerals, wheat, beef.Result in Canada – economy boomed but… prices rose, wages dropped =>worker discontent,HALIFAX EXPLOSIONTwo ships collided levellingMuch of the city & killing2000 people.Corporate & Income TaxRationingWomen in WWIPropaganda
19THE CONSCRIPTION CRISIS In 1917 BordenIntroduced theMilitary Service ActLed to theMilitary Voters Act&Wartime ElectionsAct(Mandatory service)By 1917, it was obviousThat more soldiers wereneeded(men & women overseas)PM Bordenpromised noconscription(Wives but no Consc. Obj.or enemy aliens)OPPOSITION TO CONSCRIPTIONQUEBEC – WHY???- Farmers needed at home- No connection to Brt. or Fr.- Eng vs. Fr language issues.- Fr. Soldiers not united.- Few Fr. officers.- Bourassa felt Can. had givenenough -> bankrupt Can.- Married younger.EXEMPTIONS DENIED Conscientious Objectors Disabled Clergy Special skills Essential jobs – Farmers,Khaki Electionof 1917Fed. Election basedon Borden’s efforts.Liberal Laurier opposed conscription.Farmers & Unions also opposed.‘Rich = richer; Poor go to war’Ind. Workers
20THE END OF THE WAR RESULT TWO EVENTS THAT CHANGED THE WAR RUSSIA’ S “PEACE & BREAD” (Russians tired of war)Czar Nicolas abdicates , provisional gov’t fails, & socialist Bolsheviks negotiate with Central Powers -> Treaty of Brest-Litovsk = TruceU.S.A. ENTERS THE WAR – April2, 1917.“Lusitania” sunk & Germ. Promised support to MexicoLeninRESULTTHE HUNDRED DAYS CAMPAIGN – Allies crush Germans.- Germ. to win Western Front before USA arrives.-launch massive attack.- success until USA arrived (75 km from Paris)- Central Powers Collapse -> Armistice Nov. 11, 11:00am, 1918Germ. Moves troops fromEastern Front to West .
21PARIS PEACE CONFERENCE JAN. 1919PM BORDEN & CANADA = AUTONOMYCENTRAL POWERS & RUSSIA NOT INVITEDTREATY OF VERSAILLES CREATED
22TREATY OF VERSAILLES - June 28, 1919 Laid out terms of peace for GermanyPresident Wilson proposed ‘14-Point Plan’ based on forgivenessFrance and Belgium wanted Germany to payTHE WINNERS DICTATE THE TERMSWINNERS WRITE HISTORY !THE TERMS- German “War Guilt Clause”- Reparations - $30 billion ($300+ billiontoday) Unable to meet payments- Germany loses land- German army limited to 100,000soldiers- Not allowed U-boats or an air force- League of Nations formed
23THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS President Wilson’s idea Similar to today’s United NationsCollective Security – one country isattacked, others help defend itBritain and France not enthused about LeagueWanted to remain imperialisticLeague popular with the publicCanada an independent member of LeagueLimitations- Required co-operation GutlessNo military force, onlyeconomic sanctionsAmericans refused to join,even though Wilson’s idea
24EFFECTS OF WWI ON CANADA National IdentityEconomyWomen’s RightsCanadian AutonomyInternational StatusFrench-English RelationsRacial Discrimination/WMAThousands Dead and WoundedCountry Mobilized Killed Wounded Total CasualtiesCanada , , , , %Grt Brit. 5,397, ,000 1,663, ,367, %USA ,272, , , , %Spanish Influenza
25Spanish Influenza After the war, the Spanish Flu swept through he world killing over 21 million people. More than the war itself.
26Was WW I a positive or negative experience for Canada Was WW I a positive or negative experience for Canada? Be sure to use Key TermsPositivesNegativesMany more……Many more……