Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2 Early Trade Theories:"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 2 Early Trade Theories: Mercantilism and the Transition to the Classical World of David Ricardo
2Course Learning Outcomes To have a sound knowledge of the quantitative and qualitative methods that will help to examine the premises of different theories for an applied subject so that a contribution to solving current economic problems can be made.(7) To have sufficient practical and theoretical knowledge base in order to define the economic agents and their interaction both in the national and global level
3Learning Objectives Describe Mercantilist concepts and policies. Examine Hume’s price-specie flow mechanism and its challenge to Mercantilist thought.Discuss Smith’s ideas of wealth and absolute advantage as foundations of international trade.
4MercantilismA collection of economic thought in Europe during the period between 1500 and 1750.Mercantilism is often called the political economy of state building.
5The Mercantilist Economic System A country’s wealth is measured by its holdings of precious metals (specie).International trade is a zero sum game.A country should maintain a positive trade balance (that is, export more than it imports).Mercantilism employed the labor theory of value: commodities were valued relatively in terms of their relative labor content
63 Components of Economic System Manufacturing sectorRural sectorForeign colonies
7Von Hornick’s Manifesto Every inch of a country’s soil be utilized for agriculture, mining or manufactoringAll raw materials found in a country be used in domestic manufacture, since finished goods have a higher value than raw materialsA large, working population be encouragedAll export of gold and silver be prohibited and all domestic money be kept in circulationAll imports of foreign goods be discouraged as much as possible
8Von Hornick’s Manifesto cont. Where certain imports are indispensible they be obtained at first hand, in exchange for other domestic goods instead of gold and silverAs much as possible, imports be confined to raw materials that can be finished at homeOpportunities be constantly sought for selling a country’s surplus manufacturers to foreigners, so far as necessary, for gold and silverNo importation be allowed if such goods sufficiently and suitably supplied at home
9The Role of Government“Bullionism”: the control of government on the use and exchange of precious metalsSubstantial regulation of the domestic economy, includinggovernmental granting of monopolies, andcontrol of labor
10The Role of Government Policies to ensure low wages, including policies to discourage importation and encourage exportation, andpolicies to discourage exportation of specie.
11The Paradox of Mercantilism To be rich, a country needed to have a lot of poor people! Arthur Young (1771) “Everyone but an idiot knows that the lower classes must be kept poor or they will never be industrious.” Specie was accumulated at the expense of current consumption High spending of specie for protection
12The Challenge to Mercantilism by Early Classical Writers In the early 1700s, questions began to emerge regarding the logic of mercantilism.
13Hume’s Challenge: the Price-Specie Flow Mechanism Hume (mid-18th century): maintaining a trade surplus forever is impossible.Trade surplus inflow of specieinflow of specie increased Msincreased Ms higher prices (and wages)higher prices lower exports and higher imports
14AssumptionsFormal link between money and prices as provided in the quantity theory of moneyMs V = PYDemand for traded goods is price elasticPerfect competition in both product and factor marketsGold standard exists
15Smith’s Challenge: Absolute Advantage Smith believed trade to be a positive-sum game.Countries should export those goods which they can produce efficiently, and import those which they cannot.If countries trade according to this principle, all will gain from trade (trade will be mutually beneficial).
18Smith’s ChallengeA nation’s wealth is reflected in its productive capacity not in its holding of precious metals.Growth in productive capacity was fostered best in an environment where people were free to pursue their own interestsLittle need for government controlLaissez faire (allowing individuals to pursue their own activities within bounds of law and order and respect property rights)
20Absolute Advantage: An Example Suppose Turkey and Italy agree to trade at a ratio of 1W = 4C (or 1C = ¼ W).Suppose further that Italy will specialize in wine and Turkey in corn.From Turkey’s perspective:Can now buy wine at a lower price (1W = 6C in autarky, but 1W = 4C in trade).Can sell corn at a higher price (1C = 1/6 W in autarky, but 1C = ¼ W in trade).
21Absolute Advantage: An Example From Italy’s perspective:Can now sell wine at a higher price (1W = 5/3C in autarky, but 1W = 4C in trade).Can buy corn at a lower price (1C = 3/5 W in autarky, but 1C = ¼ W in trade).
22Absolute Advantage: An Example Bottom line: both countries gain from trade, even if certain industries (wine industry in Turkey, corn industry in Italy) stand to lose.
23Limits to Smith’s Thinking If one country has an absolute advantage in the production of both (or all) goods, Smith would say that that country cannot gain from trade.
24Absolute Advantage: The Limits to Smith’s Thinking
25Limits to Smith’s Thinking If one country has an absolute advantage in the production of both (or all) goods, Smith would say that that country cannot gain from trade.But David Ricardo’s Principle of Comparative Advantage (1817) took Smith’s work farther: even in the above example, trade can be mutually beneficial!