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Combining Thread Level Speculation, Helper Threads, and Runahead Execution Polychronis Xekalakis, Nikolas Ioannou and Marcelo Cintra University of Edinburgh.

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Presentation on theme: "Combining Thread Level Speculation, Helper Threads, and Runahead Execution Polychronis Xekalakis, Nikolas Ioannou and Marcelo Cintra University of Edinburgh."— Presentation transcript:

1 Combining Thread Level Speculation, Helper Threads, and Runahead Execution Polychronis Xekalakis, Nikolas Ioannou and Marcelo Cintra University of Edinburgh

2 ICS Introduction  Single core, out-of-order cores don’t scale –Simpler solution: multi-core architectures  No speedup for single thread applications –Use Thread Level Speculation to extract TLP –Use Helper Threads or RunAhead to improve ILP  However for different apps. (or phases) some models work better than some others  Our Proposal: –Combine these execution models –Decide at runtime when to employ them

3 ICS Contributions  Introduce mixed Speculative Multithreading (SM) Execution Models  Design one that combines TLS, HT and RA  Propose a performance model able to quantify ILP and TLP benefits  Unified approach outperforms state-of-the-art SM models: –TLS by 10.2% avg. (up to 41.2%) –RA by 18.3 % avg. (up to 35.2%)

4 ICS Outline  Introduction  Speculative Multithreading Models  Performance Model  Unified Scheme  Experimental Setup and Results  Conclusions

5 Helper Threads  Compiler deals with: –Memory ops miss/ hard- to-predict branches –Backward slices  HW deals with: –Spawn threads –Different context –Discard when finished  Benefit: –ILP (Prefetch/Warmup) ICS 20095

6 RunAhead Execution  Compiler deals with: –Nothing  HW deals with: –Different context –When to do RA –VP Memory –Commit/Discard  Benefit: –ILP (Prefetch/Warmup) ICS 20096

7 7 Thread Level Speculation  Compiler deals with: –Task selection –Code generation  HW deals with: –Different context –Spawn threads –Detecting violations –Replaying –Arbitrate commit  Benefit: TLP/ILP –TLP (Overlapped Execution)  + ILP (Prefetching)

8 ICS Outline  Introduction  Speculative Multithreading Models  Performance Model  Unified Scheme  Experimental Setup and Results  Conclusions

9 ICS Understanding Performance Benefits  Complex TLS thread interactions, obscure performance benefits  Even more true for mixed execution models  We need a way to quantify ILP and TLP contributions to bottom-line performance  Proposed model: –Able to break benefits in ILP/TLP contributions

10 Performance Model  Sall = Sseq x Silp x Sovl 1.Compute overall speedup (Sall) ICS Tseq/Tmt

11 Performance Model  Sall = Sseq x Silp x Sovl 1.Compute overall speedup (Sall) 2.Compute sequential TLS speedup (Sseq) ICS Tseq/T1p

12 Performance Model  Sall = Sseq x Silp x Sovl 1.Compute overall speedup (Sall) 2.Compute sequential TLS speedup (Sseq) 3.Compute speedup due to ILP (Silp) ICS (T1+T2)/(T1’+T2’)

13 Performance Model  Sall = Sseq x Silp x Sovl 1.Compute overall speedup (Sall) 2.Compute sequential TLS speedup (Sseq) 3.Compute speedup due to ILP (Silp) 4.Use everything to compute TLP (Sovl) ICS Sall/(Sseq x Silp)

14 ICS Outline  Introduction  Speculative Multithreading Models  Performance Model  Unified Scheme  Experimental Setup and Results  Conclusions

15 Unified Execution Model  Can we improve TLS? 1.Some of the threads do not help 2.Slack in usage of cores  Improve TLP: –Requires a better compiler  Improve ILP: –Combine TLS with another SM ! –Most of the HW common ICS

16 ICS Combining TLS, HT and RA  Start with TLS  Provide support to clone TLS threads and convert them to HT  Conversion to HT means: –Put them in RA mode –Suppress squashes and do not cause additional squashes –Discard them when they finish  No compiler slicing  purely HW approach

17 Intricacies to be Handled  HT may not prefetch effectively!  Dealing with contention –HT threads much faster  saturate BW  Dealing with thread ordering –TLS imposes total thread order –HT killed  squashes TLS threads ICS

18 Creating and Terminating HT  Create a HT on a L2 miss we can VP –Use mem. address based confidence estimator –VP only if confident  Create a HT if we have a free processor  Only allow most speculative thread to clone –Seamless integration of HT with TLS –BUT: if parent no longer the most spec. TLS thread, the HT has to be killed  Additionally kill HT when: –Parent/HT thread finishes –HT causes exception ICS

19 ICS Outline  Introduction  Speculative Multithreading Models  Performance Model  Unified Scheme  Experimental Setup and Results  Conclusions

20 ICS Experimental Setup  Simulator, Compiler and Benchmarks: –SESC (http://sesc.sourceforge.net/)http://sesc.sourceforge.net/ –POSH (Liu et al. PPoPP ‘06) –Spec 2000 Int.  Architecture: –Four way CMP, 4-Issue cores –16KB L1 Data (multi-versioned) and Instruction Caches –1MB unified L2 Caches –Inst. window/ROB – 80/104 entries –16KB Last Value Predictor

21 ICS Comparing TLS, RunAhead and Unified Scheme

22 ICS Comparing TLS, RunAhead and Unified Scheme  Almost additive benefits

23 ICS Comparing TLS, RunAhead and Unified Scheme  Almost additive benefits  10.2% over TLS, 18.3% over RA

24 Understanding the extra ILP  Improvements of ILP come from: –Mainly memory –Branch prediction (improvement 0.5%)  Focus on memory: –Miss rate on committed path –Clustering of misses (different cost) ICS

25 Normalized Shared Cache Misses  All schemes better than sequential  Unified 41% better than sequential ICS200925

26 Isolated vs. Clustered Misses.  Both TLS + RA  Large window machines  Unified does even better ICS

27 ICS Outline  Introduction  Multithreading Models  Performance Model  Unified Scheme  Experimental Setup and Results  Conclusions

28 Also on the paper …  Dealing with the load of the system  Converting TLS threads to HT  Multiple HT  Effect of a better VP  Detailed comparison of performance model against existing models (Renau et. al ICS ’05) ICS

29 ICS Conclusions  CMPs are here to stay: – What about single threaded apps. and apps with significant seq. sections?  Different apps. require different SM techniques –Even within apps. different phases  We propose the first mixed execution model –TLS is nicely complemented by HT and RA  Our unified scheme outperforms existing SM models –TLS by 10.2% avg. (up to 41.2%) –RA by 18.3 % avg. (up to 35.2%)

30 Combining Thread Level Speculation, Helper Threads, and Runahead Execution Polychronis Xekalakis Nikolas Ioannou and Marcelo Cintra University of Edinburgh


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