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Dr Mark Cook Consultant Haematologist University Hospital Birmingham.

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Presentation on theme: "Dr Mark Cook Consultant Haematologist University Hospital Birmingham."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dr Mark Cook Consultant Haematologist University Hospital Birmingham

2  Demonstrate there is a role for allogeneic stem cell transplant in myeloma and evaluate some of the composite elements of the transplant process  Review the evidence to understand the current state of play  Discuss how allogeneic transplant needs to evolve to be more commonly considered as an option

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4 IMW 2011 Paris The Haematologist Who Suggested Allogeneic Transplant is Useful in Myeloma

5  Data on allograft in myeloma is generally a dog’s breakfast

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7  Inter-trial comparison is understandably fraught with difficulties, but is generally all we have

8  Data on allograft in myeloma is generally a dog’s breakfast  Inter-trial comparison is understandably fraught with difficulties, but is generally all we have  Opinion is just that- an individual’s perspective on the data betrays their underlying instincts and biases

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10 Tricot et al Blood 1996

11 Perez-Simon, BJH, 2003, 121; 104-8

12 Copyright ©2005 American Society of Hematology. Copyright restrictions may apply. Crawley, C. et al. Blood 2005;105: Figure 4. Overall survival with respect to the presence of chronic graft-versus-host disease

13 Copyright ©2005 American Society of Hematology. Copyright restrictions may apply. Crawley, C. et al. Blood 2005;105: Effect of alemtuzumab on progression

14 . Corradini P et al. Blood 2003;102: ©2003 by American Society of Hematology

15  Thus graft versus myeloma is evidenced by: Response to DLI Link with GVHD (esp chronic GVHD) Increased relapse with T-cell depletion  And If you can get a deep response, you can get a durable response  So why is use not more widespread? Age Comorbidities Performance status

16 Years Probability of Survival, % HLA-matched sibling, Allo (N=878) autologous transplant (N=22,254) Unrelated, Allo (N=143) P < % 47% 28%

17  The lure of GvM raises the prospect of cure  TRM rates decreasing  Prospects are better of post-transplant options

18 Kumar et al Blood 2011

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20 Roos-Weil et al Haematologica 2011

21 Nishihori et al Cancer Control 2011

22 Presented by Giralt IMW 2011

23 Roos-Weil et al Haematologica 2011

24 Lokhorst et al Blood 2004

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27 . El-Cheikh J et al. Haematologica 2008;93: ©2008 by Ferrata Storti Foundation

28 Kroger et al Blood 2004

29  13/24 patients given pre-emptive DLI after partial T-depleted allograft  4/13 developed GVHD grade II or above Levenga et al Bone Marrow transplant 2007

30  38 patients treated with RIC allo (2Gy TBI) 2-6 months post auto  Lenalidomide 10mg daily for 21/28 days started 1-6 months post transplant  14 patients (47% of those evaluable) stopped lenalidomide by the end of the 2 nd cycle, primarily due to GVHD

31  Utilising the following: RIC approach rather than myeloablative to increase the potential treatment population and reduce toxicity Combined Auto- RIC allo to optimise pre allo disease status If T-depleting, then a strategy to minimise risk of relapse post-transplant Pre-emptive DLI

32 LenaRIC

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34  Primary endpoint: Progression free survival at 2 years post-transplant  Secondary endpoints: Donor engraftment Day +100 and 1 year post-transplant non-relapse mortality Graft versus host disease Disease free survival at 1 and 2 years post-transplant Overall survival at 1 and 2 years post-transplant  Exploratory endpoints: Immune reconstitution samples NK receptor genetics and transplant outcome Flow cytometry assessment for minimal residual disease LenaRIC

35  (1) use a prior debulky autologous Transplantation  (2) limit the procedure to patients with sensitive disease  (3) use the best conditioning with fludarabine/melphalan or low-dose TBI with or without fludarabine and with no T- cell depletion  (4) optimize DLI (ie, with low-dose thalidomide) for suboptimal responses

36 Presented by Einsele IMW 2011

37  Clarify the group that will benefit

38  Overhaul conditioning

39  Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with anti-CD66 promising in autologous transplant  ?potential role in allogeneic transplant Buchmann et al Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2009

40  Clarify the group that will benefit  Overhaul conditioning  Look at the graft

41 Gabriel et al Blood 2010Benson et al prePub Blood October 2011

42 Towards Personalised Medicine Population Efficacy – Toxicity + Efficacy – Toxicity - Efficacy + Toxicity + Efficacy + Toxicity - Treatment e.g. Transplant

43  To conclude:  Whilst trying to ignore my own biases, allografting offers the prospect of cure/long-term immune mediated control  However, effective delivery remains hampered by toxicity which is especially high in the non- myeloablative context  RIC allografting reduces toxicity but thereby diminishes efficacy  The challenge is to transform how RIC allos are delivered, to reduce toxicity further and to increase efficacy  There remain opportunities in the peri and post transplant period to effect further progress


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