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Backlund Transformations for Non-Commutative (NC) Integrable Eqs. Masashi HAMANAKA University of Nagoya (visiting Glasgow until Feb. 13 and IHES Feb13 - Mar13 2009) Based on Claire R.Gilson (Glasgow), MH and Jonathan J.C.Nimmo (Glasgow), ``Backlund trfs for NC anti-self-dual (ASD) Yang-Mills (YM) eqs.’’ arXiv:0709.2069 (to appear in GMJ) & 08mm.nnnn. MH, NPB 741 (2006) 368, JHEP 02 (07) 94, PLB 625 (05) 324, JMP46 (05) 052701…

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NC extension of integrable systems Matrix generalization Quarternion-valued system Moyal deformation (=extension to NC spaces =presence of magnetic flux) plays important roles in QFT a master eq. of (lower-dim) integrable eqs. (Ward’s conjecture) 1. Introduction 4-dim. Anti-Self-Dual Yang-Mills Eq. All variables belong to NC ring, which implies associativity.

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4-dim. NC ASDYM eq. (G=GL(N))

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Reduction to NC KdV from NC ASDYM :NC ASDYM eq. G=GL(2) :NC KdV eq.! Reduction conditions

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Reduction to NC NLS from NC ASDYM Reduction conditions :NC ASDYM eq. G=GL(2) :NC NLS eq.!

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NC Ward’s conjecture: Many (perhaps all?) NC integrable eqs are reductions of the NC ASDYM eqs. NC ASDYM NC Ward ’ s chiral NC (affine) Toda NC NLS NC KdV NC sine-Gordon NC Liouville NC Tzitzeica NC KP NC DS NC BoussinesqNC N-wave NC CBS NC Zakharov NC mKdV NC pKdV Yang ’ s form gauge equiv. Infinite gauge group Solution Generating Techniques NC Twistor Theory, MH[hep-th/0507112] Summariized in [MH NPB 741(06) 368] In gauge theory, NC magnetic fields New physical objectsApplication to string theory [MH &K.Toda, PLA316(03) 77]

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Plan of this talk 1. Introduction 2. Backlund Transforms for the NC ASDYM eqs. (and NC Atiyah-Ward ansatz solutions in terms of quasideterminants ) 3. Origin of the Backlund trfs from NC twistor theory 4. Conclusion and Discussion

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2. Backlund transform for NC ASDYM eqs. In this section, we derive (NC) ASDYM eq. from the viewpoint of linear systems, which is suitable for discussion on integrability. We define NC Yang’s equations which is equivalent to NC ASDYM eq. and give a Backlund transformation for it. The generated solutions are NC Atiyah-Ward ansatz solutions in terms of quasideterminants, which contain not only finite-action solutions (NC instantons) but also infinite-action solutions (non-linear plane waves and so on.)

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A derivation of NC ASDYM equations We discuss G=GL(N) NC ASDYM eq. from the viewpoint of NC linear systems with a (commutative) spectral parameter. Linear systems: Compatibility condition of the linear system: :NC ASDYM eq.

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Yang’s form and NC Yang’s equation NC ASDYM eq. can be rewritten as follows If we define Yang ’ s J-matrix: then we obtain from the third eq.: :NC Yang ’ s eq. The solution reproduce the gauge fields as is gauge invariant. The decomposition into and corresponds to a gauge fixing

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Backlund trf. for NC Yang’s eq. G=GL(2) Yang ’ s J matrix can be reparametrized as follows Then NC Yang’s eq. becomes The following trf. leaves NC Yang’s eq. as it is:

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Backlund transformation for NC Yang’s eq. Yang ’ s J matrix can be reparametrized as follows Then NC Yang’s eq. becomes Another trf. also leaves NC Yang’s eq. as it is:

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Both trfs. are involutive ( ), but the combined trf. is non-trivial.) Then we could generate various (non- trivial) solutions of NC Yang’s eq. from a (trivial) seed solution (so called, NC Atiyah- Ward solutions)

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Generated solutions (NC Atiyah-Ward sols.) Let ’ s consider the combined Backlund trf. Then, the generated solutions are : Quasideterminants ! (a kind of NC determinants) [Gelfand-Retakh] with a seed solution:

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Quasi-determinants Quasi-determinants are not just a NC generalization of commutative determinants, but rather related to inverse matrices. For an n by n matrix and the inverse of X, quasi-determinant of X is directly defined by Recall that some factor We can also define quasi-determinants recursively : the matrix obtained from X deleting i-th row and j-th column

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Quasi-determinants Defined inductively as follows [For a review, see Gelfand et al., math.QA/0208 146] convenient notation n+1 by n+1n by n

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Explicit Atiyah-Ward ansatz solutions of NC Yang’s eq. G=GL(2) [Gilson-MH-Nimmo. arXiv:0709.2069] Yang ’ s matrix J (gauge invariant) [Gilson-Gu, GHN] The Backlund trf. is not just a gauge trf. but a non-trivial one!

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We could generate various solutions of NC ASDYM eq. from a simple seed solution by using the previous Backlund trf. Proof is made simply by using special identities of quasideterminants (NC Jacobi’s identities and a homological relation, Gilson-Nimmo’s derivative formula etc.), in other words, ``NC Backlund trfs are identities of quasideterminants.’’ A seed solution: NC instantons NC Non-Linear plane-waves (common feature in commutative Backlund in lower-dim.!)

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3. Interpretation from NC twistor theory In this section, we give an origin of the Backlund trfs. from the viewpoint of NC twistor theory. NC twistor theory has been developed by several authors What we need here is NC Penrose-Ward correspondence between sol. sp. of ASDYM and ``NC holomorphic vector bundle’’ on a NC twistor space. [Kapustin-Kuznetsov-Orlov, Takasaki, Hannabuss, Lechtenfeld-Popov, Brain-Majid … ]

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NC Penrose-Ward correspondence Linear systems of ASDYM ``NC hol. Vec. bdl’’ Patching matrix 1:1 ASDYM gauge fields are reproduced We have only to factorize a given patching matrix into and to get ASDYM fields. (Birkhoff factorization or Riemann-Hilbert problem) [Takasaki]

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Origin of NC Atiyah-Ward (AW) ansatz sols. n-th AW ansatz for the Patching matrix The chasing relation is derived from: OK!

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Origin of NC Atiyah-Ward (AW) ansatz sols. The n-th AW ansatz for the Patching matrix The Birkoff factorization leads to: Under a gauge ( ), this solution coincides with the quasideterminants sols! OK!

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Origin of the Backlund trfs The Backlund trfs can be understood as the adjoint actions for the Patching matrix: actually: The -trf. leads to The -trf. is derived with a singular gauge trf. OK! 1-2 component of The previous -trf!

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4.Conclusion and Discussion NC integrable eqs (ASDYM) in higher-dim. ADHM (OK) Twistor (OK) Backlund trf (OK), Symmetry (Next) NC integrable eqs (KdV) in lower-dims. Hierarchy(OK) Infinite conserved quantities (OK) Exact N-soliton solutions (OK) Symmetry (NC Sato’s theory) (Next) … Quasi-determinants are important ! Profound relation ?? (via Ward conjecture) Quasideterminants might be a key … [Etingof,Gelfand,Retakh, Gilson,Nimmo,Ohta,Li,Sooman,Tamizhmani,MacFarlane, Dimakis,Muller-Hoissen, MH,..] cf, NC binary Darboux trf. [Saleem-Hassan-Siddiq]

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We will use Gauss-Jordan elimination to determine the solution set of this linear system.

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