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CH250 Intermediate Analysis – Part 1 Materials & Nanotechnology Dr Raymond Whitby C407.

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Presentation on theme: "CH250 Intermediate Analysis – Part 1 Materials & Nanotechnology Dr Raymond Whitby C407."— Presentation transcript:

1 CH250 Intermediate Analysis – Part 1 Materials & Nanotechnology Dr Raymond Whitby C407

2 Overview 1.Defining nano 2.Formation of nanocarbon 3.Viewing the nanoscale; direct analysis 4.Indirect analysis of the nanoscale 5.Adsorption experiment

3 1. Defining nano © iPod Nano © Tata Nano

4 Nanoscale OmmatidiaLens 50nm 2nm © Google images

5 “We define (the nanoscale) to be from 100nm down to the size of atoms (approximately 0.2nm) because it is at this scale that the properties of materials can be very different from those at a larger scale” The Royal Society

6 Geometry x y z Nanomaterials are materials that have a structural component smaller than 100 nanometers (nm) in at least one dimension 100nm

7 Componentry atom cluster / particle Single polymer strand benzene At present there is no clear differentiation between nanomaterials and molecules, therefore, traditional chemistry can be viewed as a form of nanoscience. Deciding factors? Stability, chemical reactivity or inertness, solubility, inorganic materials?

8 Two main reasons cause nanomaterial properties to significantly change from their bulk scale equivalents, those being an increase in the relative surface area and quantum effects. These can led to dramatic changes or enhancement of their fundamental properties such as material strength, electrical or thermal characteristics and heightened (bio)chemical reactivity. Importance of nano (1) 30nm = 5% of atoms on surface 10nm = 20% of atoms on surface 3nm = 50% of atoms on surface N.B. not to scale!

9 Effects of gold on the nanoscale © Yanfeng, et al., Journal of Semiconductors, Vol. 31, No. 1 January 2010 A model relating gold nanoparticle size and melting temperature for VLS grown silicon nanowire

10 As matter is reduced in size, quantum effects can become the dominant factor of a material’s properties. This is particularly evident when approaching the smaller end of the nanoscale. Importance of nano (2) “The harmonic oscillator and the systems it models have a single degree of freedom. More complicated systems have more degrees of freedom, for example two masses and three springs (each mass being attached to fixed points and to each other). In such cases, the behavior of each variable influences that of the others. This leads to a coupling of the oscillations of the individual degrees of freedom. For example, two pendulum clocks (of identical frequency) mounted on a common wall will tend to synchronise. This phenomenon was first observed by Christaan Huygens in 1665.” Wikipedia

11 Quantum confinements in dots © Benoit Dubertret 2004 & Wikipedia on Quantum dots “quantum dots are semiconductors whose conducting characteristics are closely related to the size and shape of the individual crystal. Generally, the smaller the size of the crystal, the larger the band gap, the greater the difference in energy between the highest valence band and the lowest conduction band becomes, therefore more energy is needed to excite the dot, and concurrently, more energy is released when the crystal returns to its resting state” CdSe quantum dots

12 Allotropes of carbon Diamond Coal Graphite © Google images

13 Nanocarbons 1985 to 1992 C 60 – Buckminster fullerene Single-walled carbon nanotube Multi-walled carbon nanotube 1nm © Google images

14 A reflection on size

15 Nanocarbon gallery © Google images

16 Delocalised attraction of modified pyrene Bio-molecule immobilisation © H. Dai, JACS, 2001, 123 (16), pp 3838–3839

17 Ferritin covalently coupled to MWCNTs Bio-molecule cross-linking © Huang, et al., Nano Letters, 2002, 2 (4), pp 311–314

18 Carbon nanotube-enhanced thermal destruction of cancer cells in a noninvasive radiofrequency field © Gannon, et al., Cancer Dec 15;110(12): Cancer treatment

19 Enhancement of lipase activity in non-aqueous media upon immobilization on multi-walled carbon nanotubes Candida rugosa Lipases (CRL) in hydrolysis of p-nitrophenylpalmitate © Shah, et al., Chem Cent J. 2007; 1: 30 Enzymatic activity enhancement

20 DNA sensor © M.

21 © Prof. Toru Maekawa, Toyo University, Japan Magnetic manipulation

22 Nanocontact Manipulation ©

23 Carbon nanotube circuitry Carbon nanotube advantages: 1.Small diameter 2.High aspect ratio 3.Highly conductive along axis 4.High mechanical strength 5.High thermal conductivity © M.

24 © Easton-Bell Sports and Carbon nanotube reinforcement

25 “the addition of Zyvex’s NanoSolve™ Materials to (Easton’s Stealth CNT) baseball bats strengthens composite structures to provide improved handle designs with optimized flex, responsiveness, and more ‘kick’...” Commercial products © Easton-Bell Sports


27 Multiwall carbon nanotubes enhance the fatigue performance of physiologically maintained methyl methacrylate–styrene copolymer © Marrs, et al., Carbon, 2007, vol. 45, no10, pp Bone replacement material

28 Carbon nanofibres Advanced uses

29 Carbon nanofibres Advanced uses

30 Strengthening the future ©

31 Questions on nano 1.What is the definition of the nanoscale? What about nanomaterials? 2.Describe the differences between atoms and nanomaterials? 3.What is the difference between nanoscience and nanotechnology? 4.Which area of science is the best to invest in for nanotechnology enhancement?

32 All material under copyright was scanned under a CLA licence

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