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CH250 Intermediate Analysis – Part 2 Materials & Nanotechnology Dr Raymond Whitby C407.

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Presentation on theme: "CH250 Intermediate Analysis – Part 2 Materials & Nanotechnology Dr Raymond Whitby C407."— Presentation transcript:

1 CH250 Intermediate Analysis – Part 2 Materials & Nanotechnology Dr Raymond Whitby C407

2 Overview 1.Defining nano 2.Formation of nanocarbon 3.Viewing the nanoscale; direct analysis 4.Indirect analysis of the nanoscale 5.Adsorption experiment

3 2. Formation of nanocarbon Carbon sp 3 hybridisation Carbon sp 2 hybridisation i.e. diamond i.e. graphite Difference in bonding geometry? © Fessenden & Fessenden, Organic Chemistry, 5 th Edition

4 © invsee.asu.edu Benzene to graphite Properties: Good electrical conductance in-plane Good lubricant in air Good thermal & acoustic properties Poor strength

5 Graphite to nanotube © Youtube 2010

6 Graphite to nanotube m and n are integer lattice points a is the lattice constant of graphite = 0.246nm Diameter: Chiral angle: C h = n a 1 + m a 2 = (n,m)

7 Graphite to nanotube SWNTs: Zig-zag nanotubes (n,0) → Metallic when n is divisible by three Armchair nanotubes (n,n) → All are metallic. Chiral nanotubes (n,m) → Metallic when n-m = 3q, where q is an integer. © M. Terrones, et al. Top. Curr. Chem. 199, 189 (1999) Properties: Good electrical conductance Good thermal & acoustic properties High strength Poor lubricant

8 Graphite bonding defects

9 5-membered ring © Google images

10 Five 5-membered rings Nanohorn © theor.jinr.ru/disorder/nano.html

11 Twelve 5-membered rings C 60 © ©

12 Metallofullerene peapods © J.H. Warner, et al., Nano Lett., Vol. 8, No. 4, 2008

13 C 60 C 240 C 540 C 960 © McKay Nature 331, 328 (1988) Giant fullerenes

14 Russian doll

15 © Florian Banhart, Max Planck Institute in Stuttgart, Germany

16 7-membered ring © Hirsch, Angew Chem Ed, 2002, 41, © theor.jinr.ru/disorder/nano.html 7-membered and 5-membered ring pairing

17 Carbon nanotube growth © Y. Ando & M. Ohkohchi, J. Cryst. Growth, 60(1982), 147 Arc-discharge

18 Carbon nanotube growth Chemical Vapour Deposition © © M. Terrones, et al., Top. Curr. Chem., 199, (1999)

19 Nanocarbon in history 1985 and 1991 C 60 and carbon nanotube © H.W. Kroto, et al., (1985). Nature 318: 162–163 © S. Iijima, Nature 354, (1991) © S. Iijima, Nature 363, (1993)

20 Nanocarbon in history © Oberlin A, Endo M, Koyama T. Filamentous growth of carbon through benzene decomposition. J Cryst Growth 1976;32: unknown recognition

21 Nanocarbon in history 1952 completely missed recognition © Radushkevich LV, Lukyanovich VM. O strukture ugleroda, obrazujucegosja pri termiceskom razlozenii okisi ugleroda na zeleznom kontakte. Zurn Fisic Chim 1952;26:88-95.

22 Nanocarbon in history “The first mention of the possibility of forming carbon filaments from the thermal decomposition of gaseous hydrocarbon (methane) was reported in i.e. literally two centuries ago! – in a patent that proposed the use of such filaments in the light bulbs that had just been presented by Edison at the Paris Universal Exposition the same year.” 1889 totally unknown recognition © M. Monthioux, et al., CARBON 44 (2006) 1621 This refers to details contained within: Hughes TV, Chambers CR. US Patent , 1889

23 Nanocarbon in history 17 th Century Damascus Steel © K. Sanderson (2006). "Sharpest cut from nanotube sword". Nature 444: 286

24 Nanocarbon in history “The Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) event, which occurred about million years ago, is marked by the most severe mass extinction in the geologic record. Recent studies of some PTB sites indicate that the extinctions occurred very abruptly, consistent with a catastrophic, possibly extraterrestrial, cause. Fullerenes (C 60 to C 200 ) from sediments at the PTB contain trapped helium and argon with isotope ratios similar to the planetary component of carbonaceous chondrites. These data imply that an impact event (asteroidal or cometary) accompanied the extinction, as was the case for the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction event about 65 million years ago. ” © Luann Becker, et al., Science, 291, (2001) A really long time ago…

25 Questions on formation 1.If the smallest diameter single-walled carbon nanotube is 0.4nm (N. Wang, et al., Nature 408, (2000)) for a zig-zag configuration, what is n and m? 2.What prevents this value from being smaller? 3.Is this carbon nanotube metallic? 4.What changes to a single sheet of graphite will cause enclosure to form a C 60 molecule? Which ones are needed to form a spiral nanotube?

26 All material under copyright was scanned under a CLA licence


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