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Confident? Success Criteria < C

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Presentation on theme: "Confident? Success Criteria < C"— Presentation transcript:

1 Confident? Success Criteria < C
NO IDEA I NEED HELP NEVER HEARD OF IT OK I CAN DO THIS WITH SUPPORT SOME GUIDANCE NEEDED NEARLY AT MY TARGET GOT IT! VERY CONFIDENT WILL HIT MY TARGET GRADE EXCEED TARGET Success Criteria < C Candidates need to be familiar with hierarchical structures, and can describe some benefits and disadvantages C > Should be able to analyse the advantages and disadvantages B > Make judgements on the performance of an organisational structure with recommendations. A > QOWC and SPAG Confident?

2 Investigating Job Roles
Unit 2: People in Business Photo © 2007 Jupiterimages Corporation Icons key: For more detailed instructions, see the Getting Started presentation Flash activity. These activities are not editable. Teacher’s notes included in the Notes Page Extension activities Sound Web addresses 2 of 27 2 of 24 © Boardworks Ltd 2007 © Boardworks Ltd 2007

3 Learning objectives How are different businesses structured?
What are organisation charts? How can they help to define job roles within a business? What are the key job roles within a business and what are the differences between them? 3 of 42 3 of 24 © Boardworks Ltd 2006 © Boardworks Ltd 2007

4 Overview For a business to be successful, everyone who works in that business must know what they and others should be doing. Each individual in a business will have a different job role. A job description is a document describing a job role. Different levels of job roles in a business are shown on an organisation chart. Photo © 2007 Jupiterimages Corporation

5 What is an organisation chart?
An organisation chart is a diagram which shows the internal structure of a business, and how the different jobs within it fit together. QUESTIONS How do you think a structure might be organised? What do you think it looks like?

6 What is an organisation chart?
This is an organisation chart showing how the subject departments (functional areas) of Science, English and Maths are organised in one school. Headteacher Deputy Head Head of Maths Head of English Head of Science The task of drawing a school organisation may be more complicated than it first appears if there are lots of layers, unclear reporting lines, people doing a mixture of roles, etc. This should lead to some discussion about the nature of organisations. Maths Teacher English Teacher Science Teacher What do the horizontal and vertical lines indicate?

7 10 Minutes Span of Control Chain of command Hierarchy
KEY TERMS RESEARCH 10 Minutes Span of Control Chain of command Hierarchy

8 Chain of command and span of control
In an organisation chart, the people near the top have responsibility for those below them. The chain of command refers to the number of layers through which messages (commands) have to pass in order to get from the person at the top level of authority to staff at the bottom level. The larger the business, the longer the chain of command is likely to be. Photo © 2007 Jupiterimages Corporation The span of control is the number of people under the supervision of any given manager (i.e. the people below them in the chart).

9 Chain of command

10 Case study: Thorpe Park
Thorpe Park is a large business with many different functional areas. This organisation chart shows the structure of the Marketing department at Thorpe Park. General Manager Marketing Manager Marketing Analyst Brand Manager PR Manager Marketing Executive Questions to ask: How many different job roles are there in the Marketing department? How many different levels of responsibility are there? What is the Marketing Manager’s span of control? How long is the chain of command between the Marketing Executive and the General Manager?

11 Case study: Thorpe Park
The students could be asked to continue creating an organisation chart of their school which includes the various other subjects on offer (note: some of the teachers may appear more than once on the chart). More able students could be asked to add on branches to reflect the administration and operations side of their school, e.g. administration: office manager, secretaries; operations: caretaker, cleaners; chef, dinner ladies, etc.

12 Hierarchical and flat structures
Large businesses and organisations such as Thorpe Park and your school will usually have a hierarchical structure. This is a form of organisation with many different levels of responsibility. The more levels in a business, the more opportunities there are for promotion up the hierarchy. Smaller businesses or organisations will tend to have flat structures – where there are only two or three levels. These types of business are more informal, with close contact between managers and the rest of the staff. This might be the right time to look at some organisation charts from various businesses which represent the two structures. This will facilitate a class discussion on the advantages and disadvantages of both. Suggested starting points for the discussion might be: Flat structures – mean fewer layers for decisions to pass down, which means there is less chance of miscommunication. Hierarchical structures – are more formal and work better for large organisations. There is more scope to move up a hierarchical structure, for example in terms of possibilities for promotion. What advantages and disadvantages of flat and hierarchical structures can you think of?

13 Key job levels Businesses organize themselves to achieve their specific aims and objectives, which means that no two businesses will share the same structure. However, in in all medium-to-large businesses, there will usually be four key job levels. Owner/Directors Managers Point out to students that the pyramid shape shows that there are fewer people in the higher level roles and more in the lower level roles. Point out that there are subsections within sections – e.g. support staff having their own structure. Supervisors Operatives and Support staff

14 Differences between job roles
There are a number of differences between key job levels in a business. The roles of staff in managerial, supervisory, operative and support roles will vary in terms of: their key responsibilities their tasks or activities – what the job entails their job security decisions to make and problems to solve the skills, qualifications and personal qualities they require the related pay and benefits. Think about the job roles of a supermarket manager and a checkout assistant. How do you think they are likely to differ in terms of each of these things?

15 What is a job description?
Businesses often set out the activities and duties of their employees using job descriptions. A job description is a document that summarizes the key tasks the job holder will be expected to perform and the responsibilities they will have. Many organisations have job descriptions for every job within the business, from the managing director to the cleaner. Job title: Theme park cleaner Department: Housekeeping and Maintenance Hours of work: 35 hours per week Duties & responsibilities: Work as part of the park cleaning team to ensure that litter is collected and that the outside areas of the park remain clean and tidy at all times.

16 Understanding job descriptions
Imagine you are the Human Resources Manager at Thorpe Park. During the busy summer months you need to recruit temporary staff to help out at the park. Select one of the following job roles and write a job description for it. Ride technician Food and beverage team leader Customer assistant Theme park gardener See for details of current jobs available at Thorpe Park. As an alternative activity students could be asked to look up job descriptions on websites such as or They could then research different ones to compare and contrast. Students could also be asked to write a teacher’s job description, before comparing it to the real thing.

17 Advantages and disadvantages of job descriptions

18 The role of a manager Managers are often responsible for the work of several other members of staff as well as their own. Key tasks: running a business or department, meeting targets, managing and motivating staff, planning for the future. Job security: dependent on the success of the business. Skills/qualifications: usually educated to degree level. Personal qualities: leadership, ambition, commitment, drive. Pay and benefits: variable depending on the size of the business, but can exceed £100,000. May also also benefit from share option schemes, private healthcare, pension contributions, a company car and performance-related bonus schemes.

19 The role of a supervisor
Supervisors, also known as duty managers or team leaders, are the link between the manager and the operatives. They are responsible for staff within their own department. Key tasks: ensuring the smooth, day-to-day running of their own department and managing and motivating their staff. Job security: variable, although supervisors cost less than managers so they may be less vulnerable to business changes. Skills/qualifications: dependent upon area of work. Personal qualities: attention to detail, ability to motivate staff, reliability. Pay and benefits: dependent on the size of the company, but less than managers.

20 The role of an operative
Operatives are responsible for carrying out specific tasks, which are crucial to the day-to-day running of the business. Key tasks: doing own job professionally, whether it be as a supermarket checkout assistant or restaurant waitress. Job security: dependent upon the demand for the organisation’s products and services. Skills/qualifications: dependent on job. Personal qualities: hardworking, reliable, able to work within a team. Pay and benefits: variable – can be salaried or paid hourly. The operatives are also the people who actually produce the goods or services of the business.

21 The role of support staff
Support staff assist the operatives, supervisors and managers. Their roles are not directly related to the production of an organisation’s goods and services. Key tasks: can include administrative duties, IT support, security, maintenance and cleaning. Job security: variable, although it is rare for any organisation to operate without support staff. Skills/qualifications: variable. Personal qualities: reliability, attention to detail (possible supervisory skills for skilled support staff). Pay and benefits: unskilled support staff often receive minimum wage. Skilled support staff are paid according to their specific skills and level.

22 Whose responsibility?

23 Question time! What information is included in a job description?
Give two advantages and two disadvantages of using job descriptions. Place these job roles in order of seniority: manager, support staff, supervisor, director, operative. Give two reasons why managers should be paid more than operatives. A job description is a document that summarizes the key tasks the job holder will be expected to perform and the responsibilities they will have. Key information found in a job description includes: job title; hours of work; department responsible to; main duties and responsibilities; salary. Advantages include: - everyone knows what their roles and responsibilities are - can help with recruitment – applicants are able to see what the job involves - jobs can easily be compared across the business. Disadvantages include: - employees may be unwilling to complete tasks not in their job description - can be seen as restrictive and may prevent employees taking the initiative and volunteering to take on additional responsibilities - need to be reviewed and updated regularly. Director – manager – supervisor – operative – support staff Possible answers include: managers have more responsibility within the workplace; they are likely to have a more detailed job description requiring more specialist skills than operatives; they are likely to be degree-educated or have other qualifications which help them do their jobs better; their jobs are likely to be more stressful; the personal qualities required of them are likely to be more demanding and specialist; they are more directly responsible for the performance and therefore success of a business; they are in charge of the work of their staff as well as their own work.

24 Who wants to be an A* student?
Answers An organisation chart A chain of command Hierarchical Flat Functional areas Centralized A job description Operatives and support staff Owner/director Supervisor

25 Glossary

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