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Heat Transfer Due to Atmospheric Motion

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Presentation on theme: "Heat Transfer Due to Atmospheric Motion"— Presentation transcript:

1 Heat Transfer Due to Atmospheric Motion
Page 224 to 228

2 What causes wind? Wind is the horizontal movement of air in the atmospheric system Winds result from differences in air pressure Differences in air pressure are caused by differences in temperature & gravity E.g. pressure falls rapidly with height Low pressure area High pressure area wind

3 Average pressure at sea level is 1013mb LOW v HIGH
Increased temperatures Air heats & expands Less dense & rises Creates low pressure below Drop in temperature Air cools & contracts More dense & sinks Creates high pressure below

4 Draw 2 diagrams to show facts below
Blows inwards Rising Anticlockwise Strong winds –steep pressure gradient HIGH Out-blowing Descending Clockwise Gentle winds – gentle pressure gradient

5 Air movement on a rotation free earth
If earth did not rotate If earth was entirely either land or water There would be just one large cell Wind would move directly from high to low pressure HOW EVER EARTH IS NOT LIKE THIS

6 Tricellular Model 1686 – Halley – one cell
1735 – Hadley – expanded one cell theory 1856 – Ferrel – discovered three cells 1941 – Rossby – refined the 3 cell theory

7 Latent heat & moisture picked up from tropical oceans
Towering cumulonimbus clouds typical of equatorial climate Mid-latitude depressions form Horse latitudes – calm seas slowed sailors, no food for animals, dead horses thrown overboard Doldrums – gentle, variable winds


9 Mid-latitude depressions at the polar front
Cumulonimbus clouds at ITCZ Mid-latitude depressions at the polar front Clear skies due to high pressure

10 The Coriolis Force It is a deflecting motion or force
Suggested by G.G. de Coriolis in 1835 Developed by W. Ferrel in 1855 The rotation of the earth causes a body moving across its surface to be deflected to the right in the N hemisphere and to the left in the S hemisphere

11 Coriolis Force 3 controls on wind: Pressure gradient Coriolis Force
Friction with land surface Coriolis Force

12 - eastwards flights faster than westwards
ROSSBY WAVES = a belt of upper air westerlies which often follow a meandering path. Evidence: pilots in WW 2 noticed: - eastwards flights faster than westwards - N-S flights often blown off course

13 Seasonal change in number of meanders – 4 to 6 in summer, 3 in winter

14 Their purpose is the rapid transfer of energy
Jet streams = narrow bands of extremely fast moving air found within the Rossby Waves Their purpose is the rapid transfer of energy Speeds can exceed 230km/hr Can carry volcanic ash around earth in 1-2 weeks 5 recognised jet streams: 2 significant - POLAR FRONT JET STREAM - SUBTROPICAL JET STREAM 1 seasonal – EASTERLY EQUATORIAL J.S.

15 Normal path of J.S. over Britain is to NE so frequent wet & windy weather as warm air moves north

16 Polar Front Jet Stream (divides Ferral & Polar cells)
Where J.S. moves south: Cold air Descends Clockwise Dry Stable High pressure Anticyclones Where J.S. moves north: Warm air Rises Anticlockwise Strong winds Heavy rain Low pressure Depressions

17 SUBTROPICAL J.S. 25-30 degrees Divides Hadley & Ferral Cells Meanders less than PFJS Lower wind velocities Similar west to east path EASTERLY EQUATORIAL J.S. Seasonal Associated with summer monsoons Indian subcontinent MONSOON = a seasonal reversal of wind direction in S.E. Asia

18 Balloon uses jet stream to orbit the earth


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