Presentation on theme: "NO Chemtrails - NO SAG (Stratospheric Aerosol Geoengineering)"— Presentation transcript:
1NO Chemtrails - NO SAG (Stratospheric Aerosol Geoengineering) Novel strategies to slow climate change and fight global warming New ideas (5) on how to cool GaïaEnhancement of atmospheric convection to increase outgoing long wave radiationRead the open source paper:MING Tingzhen, de_RICHTER Renaud, LIU Wei, and CAILLOL Sylvain. Fighting global warming by climate engineering: Is the Earth radiation management and the solar radiation management any option for fighting climate change? Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2014, vol. 31, p
2The concepts of Atmospheric Convection Management and Earth Radiation Management GHGs act as very good insulators that prevent heat to escape from the planet atmosphere to the outer space.Taking the example of a house/building: to have a good insulation, a thick insulator layer is indeed needed (to prevent convection), but it is also necessary to prevent thermal bridges (conduction process).In the case of the Earth, it is the contrary that is needed! Gaïa experiences global warming because the insulation provided by GHGs is too good and too powerful.A solution to cool down the planet can be to create “IR thermal shortcuts” or “radiative thermal bridges”, and “convection bridges or shortcuts” between the surface and altitude in order to allow the IR to be evacuated out to space.Atmospheric convection enhancement (i.e. increasing natural convection by atmospheric vortex engines, solar chimneys, energy towers, …) increases the amount of heat transferred from surface to outer space.Earth Radiation management (i.e. increasing outgoing thermal heat radiation by clear sky cooling by the atmospheric window, heat pipe thermosyphons, …) aims to transfer heat from surface to outer space.Geoengineering Solar Radiation Management prevents incoming solar radiation from reaching the Earth surface by modifying the albedo.
3Targets for ACM, ERM and SRM SRM also called Sunlight Reflection MethodsSRM TargetsACM TargetsERM TargetsCDR & GHGR Targets ≠ CCSImage fromTargets for ACM, ERM and SRMRead the open source review that can be accessed at:And listen to a 5 minute audio slide show by the authorsSolar radiation management SRM and Carbon dioxide removal CDR are considered Geoengineering. CDR is complementary from Carbon capture and sequestration CCS. Greenhouse gas removal GHGR targets the other GHGs (CH4, N2O, CFCs, etc.). SRM targets short wave radiation. Earth radiation management ERM targets long wave radiation. Atmospheric convection management ACM aims to enhance natural atmospheric convection processes… Like ERM, as a result, ACM increases heat release to the outer space and cools the Earth
4A way to Cool the Earth, is to favor technologies that increase the outgoing long wave radiation, this is possible by Atmospheric Convection Management (ACM)Enhancing atmospheric convectionwill allow more long wave heat radiation energy to escape to the outer space.Conceptual illustration of a vortex engine by Louis MichaudSchematic representation of a solar updraft towerAtmospheric Vortex Engines (AVEs) are able to produce artificial tornados
6Man made vortices and fire whirls Deliberate Fire whirls Source: Nate SmithArtificial tornado at the Mercedes-Benz Museum in Stuttgart, Germany
7The thermodynamic basis of the AVE is the same as that of the solar chimney. The solar chimney at the upper left was built in Spain in the 1980’s had a chimney 200 m high and an electrical output of 50 kW. It operated successfully for 7 years.The proposed Australian solar tower at the lower left would have a chimney 1 km high and an electrical capacity of 200 MW.A chimney is a cylinder in radial compression; at any level the pressure is less inside than outside.The glass covered solar collector increases the air temperature by approximately 20°C.The pressure difference at the base of the chimney, the draft, is proportional to the temperature difference and to the chimney height.The AVE replaces the physical wall of the chimney with centrifugal force in a vortex.Notice how short the solar chimneys on the left are compared to the AVE on the right.For a given air flow power production is proportional to draft and draft is proportional to temperature difference and to chimney height.With a chimney 1000 m high the 50 kW of the Spanish chimney could have produced with a temperature difference of 4°C.With a chimney 10 km high the 50 kW of the Spanish chimney could have produced with a temperature difference of 0.4°C.With a chimney high enough there is no need for a solar collector. There are many natural sources of surface heat warmer than the overlying air.Slide copied from
8Hurricanes act like "heat engines" Hurricanes cool the ocean by acting like "heat engines" that transfer heat from the ocean surface to the atmosphere through evaporation.Cooling is also caused by upwelling of cold water from below due to the suction effect of the low-pressure center of the storm.Additional cooling may come from cold water from raindrops that remain on the ocean surface for a time. Image Jenny Wu and Bill Lau, Climate and Radiation Branch, NASA-GSFC.Vertical profile of temperature and salinity profile 1 day before till 2.5 days after hurricane Frances passage.
9Multiple causes to sea surface cooling Vincent et al investigated the processes controlling the sea surface cooling induced by Tropical Cyclones using an ocean general circulation model forced from reconstructed wind perturbations associated with more than 3000 observed Tropical Cyclones over the 1978–2007 period.Vincent E.M., et al. "Processes setting the characteristics of sea surface cooling induced by tropical cyclones." Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans (2012), 117.C2.In reality hurricane’s energy, including kinetic energy of small eddies and the released latent heat is transported far away from the hurricane area. It further dissipates to thermal radiation and is emitted to space from an area much larger than the one occupied by the hurricane and at a power similar in its order of magnitude to the global mean power of the absorbed solar radiation.Makarieva, A. M., Gorshkov, V. G., & Li, B. L. (2008). On the validity of representing hurricanes as Carnot heat engine. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, 8(5),Hurricanes also bring torrents of fresh water to replenish crops and ground water. For instance Liu and Weng found that in August 2005 the total rainwater carried into China’s inland by Typhoon Matsa amounts to about 135 billion tons. The rainfall over the northern China eased severe drought in summer Although Matsa caused floodings and heavy damages in China, the rainwater Matsa transported into the northern parts eased the drought there and relieved heat waves in summer 2005.Liu Q. & Weng F. Radiative cooling effect of Hurricane Florence in 2006 and precipitation of Typhoon Matsa in Atmospheric Science Letters, 2009, 10(2),All these effects can combine to produce a dramatic drop in sea surface temperature over a large area in just a few days (see figures previous slide and next slide).
10Sea surface temperature effect of hurricanes Isabel & Fabian as observed from satellite, before and after their passageBeforeAfter IsabelCooled areaChlorophyll concentration boom after hurricane passageAfter Fabian before IsabelThe blue path is this satellite image clearly shows the cooling effect of hurricane Isabel.Orange represent SST over 30°C; blue represents SST under 27°C.The wet bulb temperature of pre hurricane surface air with a typical relative humidity of 80% is 25°C.The wet bulb temperature of hurricane eyewall air with 97% relative humidity is approximately 24°C.The passage of a hurricanes can reduce SST by 3 to 6°C.The evaporatively cooled droplets fall back in the sea and cool the SSTThe cooled surface water sinks and is replaced by underlying water so long as there is underlying warm water thereby preventing the surface water from cooling below approximately 25°C.Source: NASA GSFC
11Hurricanes modify albedo At the center of the image hurricane Lili is visible and tropical storm Kyle is located to the upper right. Lili developed into a major category 4 hurricane and made land fall over the coast of Louisiana two days later. Both of these tropical cloud systems have a tendency to cool the Earth by reflecting a large amount of sunlight back to space (white and green areas in the left image)…Cloud cover also plays a role in cooling the ocean by shielding the ocean surface from direct sunlight before and slightly after the storm passage.Hurricane Isabel from ISS
12Hurricanes cool the Earth Tropical cyclones ease the climate warming because their convective and cumulus clouds reflect a large portion of the incoming solar radiation back to space, reducing the radiative heating.The reflectivity of the clouds is about 70%, much larger than the reflectivity of oceans of 5%. But clouds also have the opposite effect: they trap more longwave radiation, because a cloud absorbs high temperature longwave radiation from the surface, and reemits relatively low radiation at its colder temperature (cloud temperature) to space. Poetzsch- Heffer et al. (1995) studied the radiative effect for various clouds. They found that most clouds have radiative cooling effect except for thin cirrus cloud. The cloud net radiation forcing is −0.7 W m−2 (IPCC, 2007).Radiative cooling effect of Hurricane Florence in 2006Hurricane Florence developed in the sub-tropic Atlantic Ocean on 4 September 2006 and became a hurricane on 10 September 2006.The hurricane clouds reflect more solar radiation back to space or, in other words, the Earth-atmospheric system absorbs less solar radiation. In general, the net radiation cloud forcing during daytime is negative.In the absence of solar radiation during night time, the net radiation cloud forcing is positive. The authors then studied the accumulated radiation effect of the hurricane. Hurricane Florence decreased the energy of the Earth atmospheric system by about −0.5×1020 J.Liu, Q., & Weng, F. (2009). Radiative cooling effect of Hurricane Florence in 2006 and precipitation of Typhoon Matsa in Atmospheric Science Letters, 10(2),
13The hurricane as a Carnot heat engine This two-dimensional plot of the thermodynamic cycle shows a vertical cross section of the hurricane, whose storm center lies along the left edge. Colors depict the entropy distribution; cooler colors indicate lower entropy. The process mainly responsible for driving the storm is the evaporation of seawater, which transfers energy from sea to air.Kerry Emanuel, Hurricanes: Tempests in a greenhouse. Physics Today 59(8), 74 (2006);As a result of that transfer, air spirals inward from A to B and acquires entropy at a constant temperature. It then undergoes an adiabatic expansion from B to C as it ascends within the storm’s eyewall. Far from the storm center, symbolically between C and D, it exports IR radiation to space and so loses the entropy it acquired from the sea. The depicted compression is very nearly isothermal. Between D and A the air undergoes an adiabatic compression. Voilà, the four legs of a Carnot cycle.
14The hurricane as a Carnot heat engine The figure illustrates the four legs of a hurricane Carnot cycle.From A to B, air undergoes nearly isothermal expansion as it flows toward the lower pressure of the storm centre while in contact with the surface of the ocean, a giant heat reservoir. As air spirals in near the surface, conservation of angular momentum causes the air to rotate faster about the storm’s axis. Evaporation of seawater transfers energy from the sea to the air and increases the air’s entropy.Once the air reaches the point where the surface wind is strongest—typically 5–100 km from the centre of the hurricane— it turns abruptly (point B in the figure) and flows upward within the sloping ring of cumulonimbus cloud known as the eyewall. The ascent is nearly adiabatic.In real storms the air flows out at the top of its trajectory (point C in the figure) and is incorporated into other weather systems; in idealized models one can close the cycle by allowing the heat acquired from the sea surface to be isothermally radiated to space as IR radiation from the storm outflow. Finally, the cycle is completed as air undergoes adiabatic compression from D to A.Kerry Emanuel, Hurricanes: Tempests in a greenhouse. Physics Today 59(8), 74 (2006);
15Hurricanes are not all bad and are essential to maintain certain environmental factors In spite of their destructive power hurricanes are not all bad and hurricanes help maintain the heat balance throughout the world and act as safety valves to release excess energy.In the tropical areas more heat is received than is being radiated, while in the North and South poles region, more heat is being radiated into space than is being received and absorbed. Hurricanes help to keep the balance of heat and cold by transferring heat accumulated in the tropics and sub-tropics toward the polar regions, thus distributing the sun’s radiant energy.Many authors usually attribute hurricane Sea cooling to upwelling and mixing of cold water from below (D'Asaro E.A. Sanford T.B. Niiler, P.P. & Terrill E.J. Cold wake of hurricane Frances. Geophysical Research Letters, 2007 ,34(15). But Michaud L. proposes the opposite hypothesis, namely that: “Hurricane sea cooling is almost entirely due to heat removal from above and not to cold water from below”. Eyewall spray can increase sea-to-air heat transfer by a factor of 100. Spray provides a mechanism where by the huge heat content of the sea can quickly be transferred to the lower atmosphere.The heat content of sea water is much greater than that of air. The heat given up in cooling the top 100m of the ocean by 1°C is 400 times the heat required to warm the bottom 1 km of the atmosphere by 1°C. Hurricanes significantly reduce the heat content of the sea and do not significantly decrease the heat content of the tropical atmosphere. Huge quantities of heat can be transferred from sea to air through the well understood isenthalpic mixing of spray and air process. Cooling of spray can account for both hurricane precipitation and sea cooling.
16Sunlight reflection SRM ERM ACM Here is another view the AVE Power Cycle.The efficiency of an ideal cycle is essentially equal to the efficiency of a Carnot cycle wherein the hot and cold source temperatures are the log average of the temperatures at which heat is received and given up.An ideal cycle requires an expander to constrain the expansion and to capture the resulting work.Slide copied from
17Inventors proposed different configurations Many scientists have been working on open power generating systems using as a cold sink the high atmosphere, allowing heat loss into space.Those vortex power generators (artificial hurricanes or tornadoes) utilize as hot sink waste heat or hot unstable air, rising in a central tower where it turns blades and powers a generator. Among these inventors: Edgard Nazare, Louis Michaud, Donald Cooper, Brian Monrad, Alain Coustou, Paul Alary, Slobodan Tepic, Valentin Zapata, Evgeniy Aseev, Mamulashvili, Svetlana Tkachenko, Leonardo A. Vulcano, and many, many others…
18The most advanced project is the AVE Petrolia 4 m prototype vortexVideo available at:Illustration by: Charles FloydPETROLIA PROTOTYPE VORTEX
19Atmospheric Vortex Engine Work is produced when heat is carried upward by convection in the atmosphere because more work is produced by the expansion of a warm gas than is required to compress the same gas after it has been cooled.For more information visit:Contact: Louis Michaud, P. Eng.President, AVEtec Energy Corporation1269 Andrew Ct.Sarnia, Ontario, N7V 4H4Tel: (519)The Atmospheric Vortex Engine harnesses work of convection to produce electricity. The AVE produces perfectly green electrical energy from low temperature heatSlide copied from
20Wet cooling tower AVE – Side view Capacity approximately 200 MW Slide copied from
21Electricity from Atmospheric Convection Manzanares Solar Chimney200 m high, 10 m diameterCollector 0.04 sq. km50 kW, 130 J/kg, 1 Mg/sEfficiency 0.2%Prototype BUILT in Spain 1982 to 1989EnviroMission Solar Chimney1 km high, 130 m diameterCollector 38 sq. km200 MW, 800 J/kg, 300 Mg/sEfficiency 1.5%PROJECTS: Australia, Arizona, Texas…The AVE replaces the physical chimney with centrifugal force in a vortexThe AVE eliminates the solar collector by using waste heat or natural low temperature heat sources.Slide copied from
22Cooling TowersMechanical Draft: $15 million 40 m tall mechanical draft tower uses 1% to 4% of power output to drive fans. (uses energy)Natural Draft: doesn’t need fans but is 150 m tall and costs $60 million. (saves energy)Industrial plants use cooling towers to send waste heat in the atmosphere.The mechanical draft cooling tower at the upper left uses induced draft fans to draw air through falling water. Driving these fans can consume up 1 to 4% of the power output of a thermal power plant.The natural draft cooling tower at the upper right uses a tall stack to draw the air through the falling water and does not require fans, but it has a much higher capital cost.In the vortex engine at the lower left, the stack effect is achieved without the physical stack. The draft can be high enough to drive turbines and thereby increase the power output of the power plant.Process engineers are skilled at using natural convection to avoid having to provide prime movers such as pumps and fans. Work of convection is rarely sufficient to justify providing equipment for its capture.Vortex Cooling Tower: $15 million 40 m tall to function like a natural draft tower. (produces energy!)Slide copied from
23Slide copied from http://vortexengine.ca/ Here is a comparison of the Earth’s stored energy resources.The latent heat content of the water vapor in the bottom kilometer of the atmosphere is twice the heat content of all the Earth’s petroleum reserves.The sensible heat available by cooling the top 100 m of tropical water by 3°C is 20 times as much as the heat content of the oil reserves.The heat released in an average hurricane is 5 x 1019 Joules/day. Enough to cool a strip of ocean 500 km long by 100 km wide and 100 m deep by 3°C.At the present consumption rate the remaining world’s oil reserve will be used up in approximately 30 years.The cooling effect of hurricanes on sea water and its replenishment time are clearly visible on infrared satellite photos.AVE stands for Atmospheric Vortex Engine.An Atmospheric Vortex Engine is a machine for producing a controlled vortex and for capturing the mechanical energy produced when heat is carried upward by convection.As a process engineer Louis Michaud realized that more work is produced by the expansion of a warm gas than is required to compress the same gas after it has been cooled. The process had to be responsible for tornadoes.Here is a photo of a cooling tower at a Spanish nuclear power plant that has been touched to show what an AVE could look like.
24CFD ResultsOntario Centre of Excellence (OCE) and the University of Western Ontario (UWO) Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel Laboratory (BLWTL) recently completed a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) study of the AVEResults for a 1 m diameter model simulation with a domain height of 2 m are shownSlide copied from
25Typical Vortex Engine Size Circular wall diameter 50 to 200 mCircular wall height 30 to 80 mVortex base diameter 20 to 100 mVortex height 1 to 20 kmHeat input 1000 MW. 20, 50 MW cooling cellsElectrical output 200 MW. 20, 10 MW turbinesSpecific work 1000 to J/kgAir flow 20 to 100 Mg/sWater flow 40 to 200 Mg/sIt is all about upward heat flowEnergy is produced when water is lowered.Energy is produced when heat rises.The energy produced in a large hurricane is more than all the energy produced by humans in a whole year.A mid size tornado can produce as much energy as a large power plant.Atmospheric upward heat convection has an enormous energy production potentialThere is no need for a dedicated solar collector. The solar heat collector is the earth’s surface in its unaltered state.Slide copied from
26Advantages of developing an AVE at a thermal power plant The temperature of the cooling water rejected by thermal power plant (40-50°C) is higher than the sea water temperature responsible for hurricanes (26-31°C).Thermal power plants already need cooling towers. AVE eliminates the need for conventional cooling tower. AVE technology is similar to thermal power plant technology.Power plants are in the power production business. Power plant have appropriate infrastructure: electricity, steam, makeup water etc…Reduces fuel usage, green house gasses, and pollution.Thermal power plants are the low hanging fruit and the most logical implementation pointOther waste heat producers such as refineries and petrochemical plants could also be suitable sites.Power20 to 30% of power plant waste heat converted to electricity in AVE turbo generators.Additional 5% power production from conventional steam turbine as a result of lower cooling water temperature.Additional Power from heat content of ambient air at high power demand timesEnvironmental BenefitReduce fuel usageReduce CO2 emissionsReduce global warmingIncrease local precipitationDecrease local temperature – break heat inversionsGlobal coolingDe-pollutionSlide copied from