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BTEC National Children’s Play learning and Development: Unit 1Learning aim B: Understand theories and models of development and how they relate to aspects.

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Presentation on theme: "BTEC National Children’s Play learning and Development: Unit 1Learning aim B: Understand theories and models of development and how they relate to aspects."— Presentation transcript:

1 BTEC National Children’s Play learning and Development: Unit 1Learning aim B: Understand theories and models of development and how they relate to aspects of children’s development

2  You will be expected to show an understanding of aspects of theory;  To analyse how theories and models of development relate to observations of children’s development;  To identify the strengths and weaknesses of theories; to apply different theoretical approaches to unfamiliar scenarios;  To compare theoretical approaches to specific areas of child development;  To identify which theories or models of development link to what has been observed and explain why associations have been made;  To be able to use the theories or models of development to make a judgement about what is being observed.  In applying these theories to unfamiliar scenarios, aspects of these theories and models of development will apply to a broader age range than birth up to 8 years, if the child’s performance exceeds that of a 7 year old

3 Theories that consider the development of cognition and language  ● Piaget’s model of how children’s logic and reasoning develops –  stages of cognitive development;  the development of schemas;  his tests of conservation;  egocentrism and how his model may explain children’s thoughts and actions.

4 Theories that consider the development of cognition and language: Piaget  Sensory-Motor Period  According to Piaget's theory, children are born with basic "action schemas," such as sucking and grasping. He described the sensory-motor period (from birth to 2 years) as the time when children use action schemas to "assimilate" information about the world. In his book "The Language and Thought of the Child," Piaget describes two functions of children's language: the "egocentric" and the "socialized."  During the sensory-motor period, children's language is "egocentric": they talk either for themselves or "for the pleasure of associating anyone who happens to be there with the activity of the moment.  "Pre-Operational Period  Piaget observed that during this period (between the ages of 2 and 7 years), children's language makes rapid progress. The development of their mental schemas lets them quickly "accommodate" new words and situations.  From using single words (for example, "milk"), they begin to construct simple sentences (for example, "mommy go out"). Piaget's theory describes children's language as "symbolic," allowing them to venture beyond the "here and now" and to talk about such things as the past, the future, people, feelings and events. During this time, children's language often shows instances of of what Piaget termed "animism" and "egocentrism.

5 Theories that consider the development of cognition and language: Piaget

6  Schemas – a term from Piagetian theory, referring to a collection of concepts or ideas that are highly organised within the brain  Three-year old children may easily accept the existence of Santa Claus, given their very limited knowledge of everyday practical physics, but by the time they are 6 or 7 they will be asking questions such as “How can he come down the chimney if we haven’t got one?” and “How can he get round all the children in the world in one night?”  This indicates that the process of equilibration is occurring and sooner or later the child will realise that the concept of Santa Claus is a myth rather than a reality.  By focusing upon the specific questions that children ask, we can discover what ideas they may be currently engaged in

7 Theories that consider the development of cognition and language:  ● Vygotsky’s approach to the development of children’s reasoning –  the concept of a zone of proximal development, and  the importance of interactions in supporting children.

8 Theories that consider the development of cognition and language: Vygotsky  Vygotsky propsed the concept of a “Zopne of Proximal Development”  The ZPD is an area of competence that a child can access with help from an adult or in collaboration with peers, but cannot achieve alone.  For example a child building a Lego model may not be able to work out how s/he used the different shaped bricks to make a wheel arch on a model of a car but an adult may help by demonstrating and breaking down the task. Two or more children may also put their heads together and work out by discussion, trial and error how it is done.

9 Theories that consider the development of cognition and language: Vygotsky

10 Theories that consider the development of cognition and language: Athey  ● Athey’s identification of schemas,which she proposed children explore at different levels to support their cognitive development.

11 Theories that consider the development of cognition and language: Athey  Following the broad sweep of Piagetian theory, Athey argues that schemas cluster together and are the origins of concepts. She also draws on Piaget's conception of stage theory - schemas are understood to progress through the levels of sensory-motor, symbolic representational, functional dependency, and thought  For example, a child who puts a piece of paper in an envelope, then rolls herself up in the carpet, and then dresses a doll, is not flitting rapidly from one thing to another, without sustained concentration. Instead, according to Athey, she would see the child as following a persistent form of action (enveloping). Her coding would suggest that the child's inner cognitive structures inform a persistent set of actions.

12 Theories that consider the development of cognition and language: Athey

13 Theories that consider the development of cognition and language:  ● Bruner’s theoretical framework –  that learning is an active process in which learners construct new ideas or concepts based on their current/past knowledge.  The learner selects and transforms information, constructs hypotheses and makes decisions, relying on a cognitive structure to do so.

14 Theories that consider the development of cognition and language: Bruner  Bruner describes scaffolding as a temporary support structure parents build around a child's quest to learn and comprehend new information. They often provide this type of assistance in day-to-day play interactions.  Teachers commonly use instructional scaffolding with students of all ages.  Types  Oral scaffolding can be as simple as when a teacher introduces a new lesson by asking the children to describe what they already know about the subject, or reviews key concepts at the end of a lesson.  Visual scaffolding relies extensively on the use of visual aides in a lesson.  Goal  The purpose of instructional scaffolding is to guide the child through the learning process, lending support until it becomes evident that the child has achieved task independence. Bruner's belief is that scaffolding can ultimately help a child to become a self-regulated, independent

15 Theories that consider the development of cognition and language: Bruner

16 Theories that consider the development of cognition and language:  ● The information processing theory of cognitive development –  the role of memory and attention, and how this may be used to explain why young children may not focus on, and remember, the same things as older children or adults

17 Theories that consider the development of cognition and language: Information processing theory of cognitive development  Information processing theory approach to the study of cognitive development evolved out of the American experimental tradition in psychology.  Developmental psychologists who adopt the information-processing perspective account for mental development in terms of maturational changes in basic components of a child’s mind.  The theory based on the idea that humans process the information they receive, rather than merely responding to stimuli.  This perspective equates the mind to a computer, which is responsible for analyzing information from the environment. According to the standard information-processing model for mental development, the mind’s machinery includes attention mechanisms for bringing information in, working memory for actively manipulating information, and long term memory for passively holding information so that it can be used in the future  This theory addresses how as children grow, their brains likewise mature, leading to advances in their ability to process and respond to the information they received through their senses. The theory emphasizes a continuous pattern of development, in contrast with Cognitive Developmental theorists such as Jean Piaget that thought development occurred in stages

18 Theories that consider the development of cognition and language: Information processing theory of cognitive development

19 Theories that consider the development of cognition and language: . ● Chomsky’s model in relation to how children acquire language –  Language Acquisition Device (LAD);  the concept of a critical period in which children may learn language, which may explain how children seem to instinctively gain language.

20 Theories that consider the development of cognition and language: Chomsky  Chomsky's theory of language development in children is built upon the principle "that our language is the result of the unfolding of a genetically determined program.”  Chomsky asserts that children initially possess, then subsequently develop, an innate understanding of grammar, regardless of where they are raised. The term Chomsky affixes to this innate grammatical system, which underpins all human language systems, is "Universal Grammar.”  Children learn language most effectively during a critical period, which spans roughly from birth into puberty. Chomsky emphasizes that children pass through a stage of linguistic alertness, during which their understanding of language is more pliable than during later periods of their lives.  If children are frequently exposed to numerous languages during this formative period, they are usually able to express multilingual capabilities.

21 Theories that consider the development of cognition and language: Chomsky

22 Task:  Discuss how Tarik’s stage of cognitive development can be explained by the theories of  Piaget  Vygotsky  Athey  Bruner  (use your normative age for cognitive development as a guide)

23 Homework Task: Hand written essay of 400 words which  Identifies two aspects of Pamin’s language which are in advance of the norm  Explains Chomsky’s model of how children acquire language using two examples of approaches used with Pamina

24 Theories that consider personality and the development of self-esteem:  ● Erikson’s psychosocial stages of personality – the role of adults in the first three stages and how this can be used to explain how children’s personality might be influenced by their parents and adults who are significant in their lives. .

25  Psychosocial Stage Trust vs. MistrustTrust vs. Mistrust  The first stage of Erikson's theory of psychosocial development occurs between birth and one year of age and is the most fundamental stage in life. The first stage of Erikson's theory of psychosocial development occurs between birth and one year of age and is the most fundamental stage in life.  Because an infant is utterly dependent, the development of trust is based on the dependability and quality of the child's caregivers.If a child successfully develops trust, he or she will feel safe and secure in the world. Because an infant is utterly dependent, the development of trust is based on the dependability and quality of the child's caregivers.If a child successfully develops trust, he or she will feel safe and secure in the world.  Caregivers who are inconsistent, emotionally unavailable, or rejecting contribute to feelings of mistrust in the children they care for. Failure to develop trust will result in fear and a belief that the world is inconsistent and unpredictable.Psychosocial Caregivers who are inconsistent, emotionally unavailable, or rejecting contribute to feelings of mistrust in the children they care for. Failure to develop trust will result in fear and a belief that the world is inconsistent and unpredictable.Psychosocial

26  Stage 2 - Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt Stage 2 - Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt  The second stage of Erikson's theory of psychosocial development takes place during early childhood and is focused on children developing a greater sense of personal control. The second stage of Erikson's theory of psychosocial development takes place during early childhood and is focused on children developing a greater sense of personal control.  Like Freud, Erikson believed that toilet training was a vital part of this process. However, Erikson's reasoning was quite different then that of Freud's. Like Freud, Erikson believed that toilet training was a vital part of this process. However, Erikson's reasoning was quite different then that of Freud's.  Erikson believe that learning to control one's bodily functions leads to a feeling of control and a sense of independence.Other important events include gaining more control over food choices, toy preferences, and clothing selection.Children who successfully complete this stage feel secure and confident, while those who do not are left with a sense of inadequacy and self-doubt Erikson believe that learning to control one's bodily functions leads to a feeling of control and a sense of independence.Other important events include gaining more control over food choices, toy preferences, and clothing selection.Children who successfully complete this stage feel secure and confident, while those who do not are left with a sense of inadequacy and self-doubt

27  Psychosocial Stage 3 - Initiative vs. GuiltInitiative vs. Guilt  During the preschool years, children begin to assert their power and control over the world through directing play and other social interactions. During the preschool years, children begin to assert their power and control over the world through directing play and other social interactions.  Children who are successful at this stage feel capable and able to lead others. Those who fail to acquire these skills are left with a sense of guilt, self-doubt, and lack of initiative Children who are successful at this stage feel capable and able to lead others. Those who fail to acquire these skills are left with a sense of guilt, self-doubt, and lack of initiative

28 Theories that consider personality and the development of self-esteem:  ● Harter’s theory of self-esteem – the ideal self; self-concept.  Four Key Aspects of Improving Children's Self-Esteem  Identifying the causes of low self-esteem and the domains important to the self:Children have the highest self-esteem when they perform competently in the domains important to the self.  Emotional support and social approval: Both adult and peer support are important influences on a child's self-esteem.  Achievement: Erik Eriksons 4th stage of development, "Industry vs Inferiority". Children develop higher self-esteem when they are able to achieve the goals they make.  Coping: Self-esteem increases when a child faces a problem and tries to cope with it rather than avoid it

29 Theories that consider personality and the development of self-esteem:

30  Cooley’s theory of the ‘Looking Glass self’, which can be used to explain levels of confidence in children.  Charles Horton Cooley’s “Looking Glass Self” theory can help explain the societal impact of the price gap between the two dolls. The concept is based on the way people view themselves in a mirror. The person’s reflection represents their view of themselves in the context of how others view them. Thus the person operates as an object, a projection to the world, as opposed to a thinking, feeling subject. This external perception helps form their identity, and the enhancement of that identity depends on a favorable or unfavorable evaluation from the outside world. As people buy these dolls, the unfavorable evaluation of their ethnicity shapes their identity through Cooley’s three-step process: people imagining as they appear using the doll as a model, people believing that others judge them based on their skin color, and people developing feelings of shame when they draw a connection between the price of the doll and their individual worth.The higher price on the so-called “White” doll represents worth compared to the lower price of the so-called “African American” doll, which represents diminished worth. These translations then communicate to people that, depending on their skin color, they are either of a superior or inferior status. This perspective can lead to a negative outlook on one’s identity, and therefore fuel their distortional self-conception

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32 Theories that consider children’s moral development:  ● Kohlberg’s stage model of moral development and Piaget’s stages of moral development, which can be used to explain children’s behaviour.

33  Kohlberg’s stages of moral development (1958) are the stages in thinking about right and wrong that everyone goes through growing up. Each stage builds on the one before so you have to go through them in order. You can get stuck at any stage, though most make it to Stage 4. The first three stages are universally human.  Stage 1: Avoiding punishment  Key concepts: authority, obedience, punishment Those at this stage: small children  Stage 2: Self-interest  Key concepts: fair deal, favours, What’s in it for me? Those at this stage: schoolchildren

34  Stage 3: Good boy attitude  Key concepts: motive, character, doing what society expects. Those at this stage: anyone who lives only in a face-to-face world: early teens, people who live in small towns or tribes cut off from the rest of the world  Stage 4: Law and order morality  Key concepts: law and order, duty to society. Those at this stage: late teens, most people in large, faceless societies

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36 Theories that consider children’s development in relation to their environment:  ● Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory of human development, which is often represented as a series of concentric circles that show how children's development does not happen in isolation, but is closely interrelated to their family, nursery or school, local community as well as the wider society.

37 Theories that consider children’s development in relation to their environment:  Bronfenbrenner provides an ecological model for understanding human development  He explains that children’s development is best understood within the sociocultural context of the family, educational setting, community and broader society.  These various contexts are interrelated and all have an impact on the developing child  For example, even a child in a loving, supportive family within a strong healthy community is affected by the biases of the larger society, such as racism or sexism, and may show the effects of negative stereotyping and discrimination

38 Theories that consider attachment:  Bowlby’s theory of maternal attachment; secure, resistant and avoidant attachment; the stages of separation anxiety  Mary Ainsworth’s research into the security of attachment (secure, resistant and avoidant). How these theories might explain children’s reactions to being separated from their primary carers.


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