Presentation on theme: "Newspapers vs New Media"— Presentation transcript:
1 Newspapers vs New Media Week 5 –Tutor: Anna GabaliHND MEDIA PRODUCTION HNCM 001 CONTEXTUAL STUDIES FOR CREATIVE MEDIA PRODUCTION
2 Learning Objectives:1 Understand the institutional context of creative media production and its influence on production2 Understand creative media products in the context of their reception
3 Remember You are required to critically analyse media: You must understand media in their social context:Historical contextRelationships between media and audienceStructure of the mediaIdeologiesCulturenarrativesThis involves:Defining the problem/research questionReview of related literaturePlanning the researchWhat methodology will you use?What data do you want to use/produce?How feasible is your research approach?Ethical considerations.
4 Media Technologically Constructed Evolution of media Technology trough the years:Print (Industrialisation)- (Since 18th century daily News Papers)Newspapers readership The Times is the oldest News Paper on Record (1785), at the time news papers’ audience was the Elite, but the rise of the middle and the French revolution created a demand for more accessible news and informationTelegraph (Communication)TelephoneRadioTelevisionAnd Now New Media (News Papers biggest competitor)
5 British Press Introduction The growth of mass circulation news-papers in Britain was a direct result of the process of industrialisation during the 18th and 19th centuries.During the 18th century, newspaper readership had been largely confined to the upper classes and wealthier sections of the middle classIn the early years the newspaper industry was subject to a great deal of govern-mental control
6 British Newspapers British Press is essentially cultural Newspaper readership is culturally ruled byClassEducationCultural backgroundIt is important to consider very carefully how an audience might react to, or engage with a text.
7 Press also uses demographics A Top management, bankers, lawyers, doctors and other professionalsB Middle management, teachers, many 'creatives' e.g. graphic designers etcC1 Office supervisors, junior managers, nurses, specialist clerical staff etcC2 Skilled workers, tradespersons (white collar)D Semi-skilled and unskilled manual workers (blue collar)E Unemployed, students, pensioners, casual workersAudiences are also looked at in other categories:-agegenderraceLocationSocial class
8 British Press landscape Quality papers -- Top end of the market - a high proportion of Oxbridge graduatesTelegraph, Independent, Guardian, The Times, Financial Times, Sunday Telegraph, ObserverPopular papers --Sun, Mirror, Express, Mail, Star, News of the World, Sunday Mirror, Sunday Express, Mail on Sunday, Sunday People, News on Sunday
9 British Press landscape Freedom of Press:British newspapers are free from government control and censorship and can print what they like;But this year events have changed the landscapeWhat are the eventsThe Official Secret Act (legal Act):A legal act that stipulates that government information is kept secret, and any newspaper breaking this act would be fined, and prison sentence (for the writer)The Advertising Code.Newspapers must ensure all advertisements are legal, respect the principles of fair competition.
10 The British press landscape Not legally obliged to retain standards of decency, taste, accuracy and balance.Page 3Paparazzi
11 Ownership of the British Press Commercial media ownership has increasingly becoming merged.News International (Rupert Murdoch), also owns other media productions companies (Sky) giving him global control and ownerships
12 Product flow in the newspaper and magazine supply chains Newspaper publishers typically print their newspapers by using asmall number of print centres spread throughout the UK. Some of the print centres are owned directly by publishers and othersprovide printing services to the publisher on an agency basis.Source:
13 News Papers Market (UK) News International (Rupert Murdoch)Sun, Times, Sunday Times, News of the World35%Trinity Mirror plcMirror, Sunday Mirror, People, Daily Record25%Viscount RothermerDaily Mail and General TrustMail, Mail on Sunday19%Northern & Shell (Richard Desmond)Express, Express on Sunday, Star14%Telegraph Group (Barclay brothers)Daily Telegraph, Sunday Telegraph, The Business7%Guardian Media Group (Scott Trust)GuardianGuardian, Observer3%Pearson plc Financial Times1%
14 Free Press – because of new media Evening StandardMetro
15 Journalists’ Code of Ethics Self-restraint is better than Censorship Seek truth and report itBe honest, fair and courageousMinimize HarmTreat sources, subjects and colleagues as human beings and deserving of respectAct independentlyBe fee of any obligation to interest groups other than the public’s right to knowBe accountableBe Accountable to readers, listeners, viewers and each other(See chapter 14, page 438 , Media Now, Straubhaar & LaRose)
16 Criticism of the Press Profit only? Newspapers are profitable businessesQuality only?Public service is the primary objectiveBoth quality and profit?Make a profit as well as serve the peopleHow does this apply to other media?Broadcast Television the exception? Why?
17 Criticism of the press Manipulation Suppression by omissionAttack and destroy (the target)Labeling as discriminationFace-value transmissionFalse balancingFramingImage manipulationPublish first
18 Criticism of the pressFear of lawsuits prevents tackling controversial subjectsTendency to have patriotic biasFocus on crime, particularly murderConcerned with ratings and profitLess respectful of human rights, particularly privacyLess concern with jeopardizing legal process
19 Criticism of the press Stereotypes Generalizations about ethnic group, race class or gender without much thoughtKnowledge of motivation critical to interpretation: careless or insulting or simple misrepresentation?Need for accurate and detailed description: character development to correctQuestion: are the portrayals of persons realistic? Believable? Authentic?Danger is superficial belief or acceptance: development of negative attitudes and behaviors
20 What to look with arguments with stereotyping What ethnic culture/race/gender is being portrayed?Is this culture unique?Is their treatment ….Stereotypical?Exploitative?Demeaning?Complimentary?Affirming?Accurate?Can you identify with it from your viewpoint?Does it seem natural and authentic?Who has the power?Are there victims?Is there justice or equity in treatment?Perpetrators?Is there conflict? How is it resolved?
21 The Press affects us in different ways Strongly (over estimation)Gradually (subconsciously)Indirectly (over time)Selectively, (over time)It depends on what the source is…….It depends on the audience’s background….It depends on the consumers beliefs & valuesNot at all? (under estimation)
22 Using theories with the Press MediumMedium BMedium CMovement over time enables communication and sharingMutual understanding and cooperationSharing and cooperationpossible thoughdigitizationConvergence Theory: communication media have varying capacities for resolving ambiguity, negotiating varying interpretations, and facilitating understanding.This theory is good to demonstrate how the new media is offering more that on sided version of the press. Global , Interactive, cheap, everyone is involved •Interaction and feedback. The only issue is digital divide
24 Using theory with Press Mass productionWarehouse2FactoryWholesaler13AdAgency6MediaRetailer45Consumer7ECONOMIC DETERMINISM – Shiller & BagdikianProfit is the motivation throughout the system
25 Using Theory with the Press USES AND GRATIFICATION:Beliefs and values lead to consumption of particular media which reinforce beliefs and values over timeConsumptionParticular programsMediaBeliefs andValuesMediamediaMediaGratificationReinforcement over time
26 Using theory with the press Agenda setting theoryBernard Cohen (1963) stated: “The press may not be successful much of the time in telling people what to think, but it is stunningly successful in telling its readers what to think about.”
27 Using theory with the press Core: In medium theory, a medium is not simply a newspaper, the Internet, a digital camera and so forth. Rather, it is the symbolic environment of any communicative act. Media, apart from whatever content is transmitted, impact individuals and society. McLuhan’s thesis is that people adapt to their environment through a certain balance or ratio of the senses, and the primary medium of the age brings out a particular sense ratio, thereby affecting perception.Statement: Some of the metaphors used by McLuhan are: The medium is the message! The medium is the massage. We live in a mess-age. The content of a new medium is an old medium.
28 Using Theory with the Press In fundamentalist Marxism, ideology is 'false consciousness', which results from the emulation of the dominant ideology by those whose interests it does not reflect. From this perspective the mass media disseminate the dominant ideology: the values of the class which owns and controls the media. According to adherents of Marxist political economy the mass media conceal the economic basis of class struggle; 'ideology becomes the route through which struggle is obliterated rather than the site of struggle' (Curran et al. 1982: 26).
29 What is New Media?“New media represents a convergence of two separate historical trajectories: compu0ng and media technologies.” (Lev Manovich;2001)
30 Before new mediaThe media audience relationship was:One way
31 Now with New Media There is a change: Convergence theory The MediaThere is a change:Convergence theoryGood because we make the news and have a say in what is happening in the world. AffiliationsBad because a Digital Divide (some countries are not included) . For example Turkey and China have strict rules . Also we also loose our right to privacy, and have issues with copyright infringements.
32 So, in digital times Consumers are also producers The means of media production is:GlobalSocialCheapUbiquitous
33 Starter Session: Something to think about POWER OF SOCIAL MEDIAFacebook was the catalyst in the 11/12 Egyptian revolution.In April 08 two young activists started a group called “Day of Rage”, which gained popularity amongst young Egyptians.The group was able organise protests around the country in an attempt to change their society.Let’s discuss different issues:In your opinion, is social media a powerful tool?What is Digital divide in this case? What did the government do to shut down western involvements (social media).To what extent social media has power?And just for the sake of it;Did we social media and Web scholars beat the Media (News, Press) in spreading the news on the global scale? Was the media able to manipulate the news?
35 What are the implications for the ‘old media’? Digital journalism is quickerDigital journalism is cheaperDigital journalism can be more expansiveDigital journalism is interactiveConsumers may also be producersThere is more choiceOld media are losing not just sales but, crucially, advertising revenue
36 Changing Mass Media Newspapers On line Meaner and leaner Profit driven Paperless?Electronically composed/edited More graphicCompetitiveEntertainment oriented
37 Research“Social Media is a communication technology that helps develop networks of friends (relationships become commodities)”Research the different types of social networks and explain how they can be used in media:Professional social network (linkedin)Micro blogging (Twitter)Personal blogging (Facebook, Myspace)BloggingGeo tags (Blackberry)I am giving you a example : in 2010, Facebook helped generating hundred thousand votes (or more) in the 2010 American congressional elections. How? if I post about my vote, it is likely that my friends will vote too.