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Introduction to work with children and young people

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1 Introduction to work with children and young people
Put your logo here Introduction to work with children and young people By the end of the training you should be able to: Recognise how your role supports children and young people Understand how your organisation fits into the Every Child Matters framework Know what your legal responsibilities are in relation to keeping children and young people safe Describe the actions you need to take if you have concerns about a child or young person Suggest some ways of including and promoting positive outcomes for the children and young people with whom you work

2 Lord Laming in the Victoria Climbié Inquiry Report, January 2003.
Every Child Matters “The support and protection of children cannot be achieved by a single agency. Every service has to play its part. All staff must have placed upon them the clear expectation that their primary responsibility is to the child and his or her family”. Lord Laming in the Victoria Climbié Inquiry Report, January 2003.

3 Every Child Matters - 5 outcomes
The ambition is to improve these outcomes for all children and young people and to narrow the gap between those who do well and those who do not. Be Healthy Stay Safe Enjoy and achieve Make a positive contribution Achieve economic well-being

4 Integrated Working - Processes and tools
Integrated Processes and Tools Lead Professional Children’s Services Directory Information Sharing Contact Point Common Assessment Framework Multi-agency services Improved outcomes: Be Healthy Stay safe Enjoy and achieve Make a positive contribution Achieve economic well-being Integrated frontline service delivery

5 Legislation, policies and initiatives
Every Child Matters Integrated working The Children Act (2004) A range of others… The Children’s Plan: Building brighter futures 2020 Children and Young People’s Workforce Strategy Youth Matters and Targeted Youth Support 21st Century Schools UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) For more information go to The Every Child Matters website: The Children’s Workforce Development Council website:

6 Safeguarding: a legal definition (Children Acts 1989 and 2004)
Safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children means: Protecting children from maltreatment; Preventing impairment of children’s health or development; Ensuring that children are growing up in circumstances consistent with the provision of safe and effective care; and Undertaking that role so as to enable those children to have optimum life chances and to enter adulthood successfully

7 Safeguarding - a continuum........................
Preventative work Proactively seeking to involve the whole community in keeping children safe and promoting their welfare. Child protection Protecting individual children identified as either suffering or at risk of suffering significant harm as a result of abuse or neglect. CAF common assessment framework – for early intervention Initial assessment (social care) Child in need - not at risk of significant harm but intervention is needed Core assessment (social care) where initial assessment suggests there is risk of imminent harm

8 Definition of bullying
“Behaviour by an individual or group, usually repeated over time, that intentionally hurts another individual or group either physically or emotionally”. (DCSF 2007) Key issues: Cyber bullying – the use of information and communication to deliberately hurt or upset someone or get them into trouble Prejudice-driven bullying – bullying that is motivated by racism, disablism, sex/gender or homophobia

9 Bullying – schools’ duties:
Duty of care – preventing foreseeable harm Duty to have an anti-bullying policy, stating how you will work to prevent and respond to bullying. This should include reference to cyber bullying, prejudice-driven bullying, bullying outside school and bullying of staff Duty to promote equality and tackle prejudice driven bullying Duty to safeguard and protect children, including from bullying Duty to promote community cohesion Duty to support children in achieving the ECM outcomes

10 Bullying – schools’ powers:
Power to regulate behaviour off school site ‘to such an extent as is reasonable’ Power to search and confiscate mobile phones The option to use these powers must be written into their anti-bullying policy Children Act 2004: Section 10 – the five outcomes are: - Physical and mental health and well-being - Protection from harm and neglect (specifically includes bullying) - Education, training and recreation - Making a positive contribution to society (also includes mention of bullying in terms of promoting positive behaviour) Social and economic well-being Guidance on Section 11 defines “safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children” as: - Protecting children from maltreatment - Preventing impairment of children’s health or development - Ensuring that children are growing up in circumstances consistent with the provision of safe and effective care. - Undertaking that role so as to enable those children to have optimum life chances and to enter adulthood successfully. Common law duty of care – failure to meet this can result in payment of fines and/or damages If it is felt that a concern about bullying is not handled appropriately, the school’s complaint process should be followed

11 Supporting a child being bullied
Listen to them and try not to judge any actions they have taken/not taken so far. They have done the best they could. Provide emotional support. Discuss next steps – what do they want to happen? Follow them if you can. Agree when/how to review Contact the police about suspicion of illegal content (cyber bullying) Involve schools/parents/carers/other support/agencies as required

12 and problem solving skills
Responding to bullying rescue empower help build resilience and problem solving skills

13 Responding to bullying
Examples of possible actions Things that they can do Running away Making a lot of noise Ignoring Fogging Blocking (texts, websites etc) Fighting back Staying with groups Asking friends for support Things that adults can do Direct action – challenging those who are bullying Indirect action – assemblies, group work Give help to identify and access other sources of support rescue empower

14 Children who bully Talk with them about what they have done and help them to think about why they have done it Make it clear that bullying is not acceptable behaviour Try to identify other issues in their lives which may be affecting their behaviour Work with the school to help develop positive behaviours. Talk with the school about other help and support they may need These examples come from the DCSF guidance: Threats and intimidation – e.g. by text, or posting messages on websites Harassment or stalking – e.g. sending unwanted texts/ s, even if they are not offensive, or monitoring someone’s online activities Vilification / defamation – e.g. putting upsetting or insulting remarks online about someone or sending them round by text Ostracising / peer rejection / exclusion – e.g. not letting someone join a friendship group online, or everyone in a group refusing to return messages or texts from one person Identity theft, unauthorised access and impersonation – e.g. pretending to be someone else and sending s or texts as if they were from them Publicly posting, sending or forwarding personal or private information or images - e.g. posting horrible things on internet sites, sending round video clips by mobile Manipulation e.g. putting pressure on someone to do things through online friendships, or using something someone has posted online or said in a text and are embarrassed about to blackmail them into doing things

15 Forms of abuse and effects of abuse
Forms of abuse include: Physical abuse Sexual abuse Emotional abuse Neglect Faltering growth Domestic abuse Institutional abuse Bullying and harassment Self-harming Abuse via the internet Sexual exploitation Abuse is likely to have a deep and long lasting impact on: Self-image Self-esteem Health Development Well-being

16 Signs of abuse The following non-specific signs may indicate something is wrong: Sudden withdrawal from others Suspicious bruises Fear of strangers Extreme anger or sadness Aggressive and attention-seeking behaviour Lack of self-esteem Self-injury Depression Age inappropriate sexual behaviour

17 All workers should Consider safety and well-being issues in all aspects of their work Know who to speak to if they have any concerns or questions about a child’s or young person’s safety or well-being Be willing to work with others, where necessary, to make sure children and young people are safe and their well-being is promoted. Where appropriate, this will involve sharing information. Remember that an allegation of child abuse or neglect may lead to a criminal investigation, don’t do anything that might put a police investigation at risk (e.g. asking a child leading questions or attempting to investigate the allegations of abuse) Record in writing all concerns, discussions about the child, decisions made, and the reasons for those decisions.

18 If you have concerns about a child..
Discuss concerns with your manager or designated member of staff. Make a record of this and any decision made In most cases, try to talk with the child or young person, as appropriate to their age and understanding, and with their parents, and seek their agreement to making a referral, unless such a discussion would place the child at an increased risk of significant harm. If appropriate, make a referral using agreed local procedures.

19 If a child or young person discloses abuse:
React calmly Reassure them that they were right to tell and that they are not to blame - take what they say seriously Check your understanding but keep questions to a minimum. Don’t try to investigate or ask about explicit details Reassure them but do not promise confidentiality Tell them what you will do next Make a full and written record of what has been said/heard as soon as possible and don’t delay in passing on the information to the named person and/or your line manager.

20 Safeguarding legislation and national guidance
CAF training for trainers April 2006 Safeguarding legislation and national guidance Children Act 2004 and 1989 Children Act 1989 Education Act 2002 Working together to safeguard children (2006) What to do if you’re worried a child is being abused (2006) Safeguarding children in education (2004) The children’s plan (2007) The staying safe action plan (2007) For more information go to: The Every Child Matters website The Children’s Workforce Development Council website

21 Health and safety legislation and policy
CAF training for trainers April 2006 Health and safety legislation and policy Legislation: Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 The Management of Health and Safety at work regulations 1999 Policy: The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) enforces health and safety legislation. Work environment’s individual health and safety policies

22 Both employers and employees have responsibilities regarding health and safety
Employers must: Have regard for all relevant legislation and policy Have a health and safety policy relevant to their setting Undertake and act upon risk assessments Support their staff in understanding and implementing legislation and policy Employees must: Take reasonable care of their own and others’ health and safety Co-operate with their employers Carry out activities in line with training and instructions Inform the employer of any serious risks.

23 Guidance on premises, policies and procedures
General guidance on premises: Organised in a way that meets the needs of children Adequate space Access suitable for those with disabilities Insured Clean Adequately ventilated At a suitable temperature Well lit, preferable with daylight Practitioners need to be able to: Identify security measures Promote fire safety Work safely when visiting other places

24 Personal safety and security: key issues
Practitioners should think about and work with their managers to: Identify risks to their personal safety Assess the risks involved in situations involving conflict or challenge Identify ways of working that minimise dangers Identify what action need to be taken to stay safe

25 Risk assessments Need to be carried out in relation to places and activities (and sometimes people) Dynamic risk assessment – carried out at the time e.g. during an activity Complete if there is genuine risk Keep it ‘fit for purpose’ Act on it

26 Conducting a risk assessment
CAF training for trainers April 2006 Conducting a risk assessment Identify the hazards Decide who might be harmed and how Record your findings and implement them Review your assessment and revise it if necessary Evaluate the risks and decide on precautions

27 Guidance on safe working practices
CAF training for trainers April 2006 Guidance on safe working practices Documents giving guidance on safe practices when working with children and young people include: Guidance for Safe Working Practice for the Protection of Children and Staff in Education settings (2005) Positively Safe - A guide to developing safe practices (2005) published by the NCVCCO

28 Cycles of Development – An Overview
CAF training for trainers April 2006 Cycles of Development – An Overview Developmental Stage Examples of key tasks Being (0-6mths) To call for care To learn to trust caring adults Doing (6mths-18mths) To use all senses to explore To get help in times of distress Thinking (18mths-3yrs) To push against boundaries and other people To express anger and other feelings Identity & Power (3-6yrs) To acquire info about the world, self, body and gender role To learn extent of personal power Skills & Structure (6-12yrs) To practice thinking and doing To develop the capacity to cooperate Integration (Adolescence) To emerge as a separate independent person with own identity and values To be competent and responsible for own needs, feelings and behaviours

29 Equality and diversity
Equality is the chance to take part on an equal basis Equality does not mean everyone has to be treated the same All practitioners have a part to play in supporting people to live in the way they value and choose, to be themselves and to be different if they wish Diversity is about the differences in values, attitudes, cultural perspective, beliefs, skills, knowledge and life experience of each individual in any group of people.

30 Relevant legislation The Disability Discrimination Act 2005
The Special Educational Needs and Disability Act 2001 The Race Relations (Amendment) Act 2000 Convention on the Rights of the Child (UN, 1989) The Human Rights Act 1998 The Sex Discrimination Act 1975 (as amended) The Equality Act (2006) Employment Equality (Sexual Orientation) Regulations 2003

31 We have made progress but....
Women still earn, on average, 22.6% less per hour than men Less academically able, but better off children, overtake more able, poorer children at school by the age of six Disabled people are still more than twice as likely to be out of work than non-disabled people If you are from an ethnic minority, you are 13% less likely to find work than a white person One in five older people are unsuccessful in getting quotes for motor insurance, travel insurance and car hire 6 out of 10 lesbian and gay young people experience homophobic bullying at school and many contemplate suicide

32 Single Equalities Bill:
Race Gender Disability Sexual orientation Age Religion and belief What you need to know...... Duty to promote equality Direct and indirect discrimination are illegal Includes ‘by association or perception’

33 Models of disability 1: the medical model
The person is in a tragic situation Disability is part of the individual - belonging to her/him The disabled person's decision-making functions are inevitably impaired Successful rehabilitation is the number of tasks that can be done without help, rather than the number of tasks which can be organised and directed with help Disability centred

34 Models of disability 2: the social model
Disability is not part of the individual - it is a result of society's structures and organisation The disabled person can make her/his decisions, or can be supported in her/his own decision-making process Independence is seen as the ability to organise and direct support to accomplish tasks Society can change to be more accommodating Person centred

35 Person-centred practice
Is holistic Focuses on their priorities, desires, needs, wishes, rights, choices and decisions Focuses on strengths and capabilities and using these to meet needs Is empowering and competency-enhancing Gives choice and the right to make decisions Involves a partnership approach to working, including: active participation power sharing agreeing aims mutual trust respect Requires clear, open, honest, communication, Is respectful and sensitive to family, cultural, ethnic and socio-economic diversity

36 Prejudice and discrimination
Prejudice - unfavourable opinion or feeling formed beforehand without knowledge, thought or reason. It involves feelings or attitudes (positive or negative) towards individuals or groups based on prior assumptions. ……leads to Discrimination - - treating a person less favourably than others in the same or similar circumstances.

37 Anti-discriminatory practice
Fundamental - examination of one’s own values, beliefs, attitudes and expectations, updating, challenging and changing them when necessary Proactive efforts to give all children and young people equality of opportunity at all times. Knowledge of:- equal opportunities legislation, responsibilities under that legislation and putting them into practice organisation’s equal opportunities policy and codes of practice and practitioner responsibilities Use of language and resources in the work setting which promote equal opportunities Respect for all people

38 Inclusion Focus upon ensuring that everyone has opportunity to be engaged and involved in mainstream community life – whether it be education, employment or community involvement Putting values concerned with equity, participation, respect for diversity, community, rights, compassion, and sustainability into action. Valuing all equally and enabling participation

39 CAF training for trainers
April 2006 The behaviour iceberg Observable aspects of behaviour Hidden or motivating aspects of behaviour

40 Building resilience Grotberg (1995) I have I am I can
Trusting relationships Structure and rules at home Role models Encouragement to be autonomous Access to health, education, welfare, and security services . I am Lovable and my temperament is appealing Loving, empathic, and altruistic Proud of myself Autonomous and responsible I can Communicate Problem solve Manage my feelings and impulses Gauge the temperament of myself and others Seek trusting relationships

41 Building resilience Henderson and Milstein (2003)

42 Working to change challenging behaviour
CAF training for trainers April 2006 Working to change challenging behaviour There are no simple solutions - Effectiveness depends on: An effective, open and honest working relationship Selecting the most appropriate approach The time available for the work The confidence, ability and training of the practitioner

43 Strategies Storyboarding Miracle question Exploring consequences
Cost/benefit analysis Self monitoring Modelling Celebrating success

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