Presentation on theme: "Introduction to work with children and young people"— Presentation transcript:
1Introduction to work with children and young people Put your logo hereIntroduction to work with children and young peopleBy the end of the training you should be able to:Recognise how your role supports children and young peopleUnderstand how your organisation fits into the Every Child Matters frameworkKnow what your legal responsibilities are in relation to keeping children and young people safeDescribe the actions you need to take if you have concerns about a child or young personSuggest some ways of including and promoting positive outcomes for the children and young people with whom you work
2Lord Laming in the Victoria Climbié Inquiry Report, January 2003. Every Child Matters“The support and protection of children cannot be achieved by a single agency. Every service has to play its part. All staff must have placed upon them the clear expectation that their primary responsibility is to the child and his or her family”.Lord Laming in the Victoria Climbié Inquiry Report, January 2003.
3Every Child Matters - 5 outcomes The ambition is to improve these outcomes for all children and young people and to narrow the gap between those who do well and those who do not.Be HealthyStay SafeEnjoy and achieveMake a positive contributionAchieve economic well-being
4Integrated Working - Processes and tools Integrated Processes and ToolsLead ProfessionalChildren’s Services DirectoryInformation SharingContact PointCommon Assessment FrameworkMulti-agency servicesImproved outcomes:Be HealthyStay safeEnjoy and achieveMake a positive contributionAchieve economic well-beingIntegrated frontline service delivery
5Legislation, policies and initiatives Every Child MattersIntegrated workingThe Children Act (2004)A range of others…The Children’s Plan: Building brighter futures2020 Children and Young People’s Workforce StrategyYouth Matters and Targeted Youth Support21st Century SchoolsUN Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989)For more information go toThe Every Child Matters website:The Children’s Workforce Development Council website:
6Safeguarding: a legal definition (Children Acts 1989 and 2004) Safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children means:Protecting children from maltreatment;Preventing impairment of children’s health or development;Ensuring that children are growing up in circumstances consistent with the provision of safe and effective care; andUndertaking that role so as to enable those children to have optimum life chances and to enter adulthood successfully
7Safeguarding - a continuum........................ Preventative workProactively seeking to involve the whole community in keeping children safe and promoting their welfare.Child protectionProtecting individual children identified as either suffering or at risk of suffering significant harm as a result of abuse or neglect.CAFcommon assessment framework – for early interventionInitial assessment(social care)Child in need - not at risk of significant harm but intervention is neededCore assessment(social care)where initial assessment suggests there is risk of imminent harm
8Definition of bullying “Behaviour by an individual or group, usually repeated over time, that intentionally hurts another individual or group either physically or emotionally”.(DCSF 2007)Key issues:Cyber bullying – the use of information and communication to deliberately hurt or upset someone or get them into troublePrejudice-driven bullying – bullying that is motivated by racism, disablism, sex/gender or homophobia
9Bullying – schools’ duties: Duty of care – preventing foreseeable harmDuty to have an anti-bullying policy, stating how you will work to prevent and respond to bullying. This should include reference to cyber bullying, prejudice-driven bullying, bullying outside school and bullying of staffDuty to promote equality and tackle prejudice driven bullyingDuty to safeguard and protect children, including from bullyingDuty to promote community cohesionDuty to support children in achieving the ECM outcomes
10Bullying – schools’ powers: Power to regulate behaviour off school site ‘to such an extent as is reasonable’Power to search and confiscate mobile phonesThe option to use these powers must be written into their anti-bullying policyChildren Act 2004:Section 10 – the five outcomes are:- Physical and mental health and well-being- Protection from harm and neglect (specifically includes bullying)- Education, training and recreation- Making a positive contribution to society (also includes mention of bullying in terms of promoting positive behaviour)Social and economic well-beingGuidance on Section 11 defines “safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children” as:- Protecting children from maltreatment- Preventing impairment of children’s health or development- Ensuring that children are growing up in circumstances consistent with the provision of safe and effective care.- Undertaking that role so as to enable those children to have optimum life chances and to enter adulthood successfully.Common law duty of care – failure to meet this can result in payment of fines and/or damagesIf it is felt that a concern about bullying is not handled appropriately, the school’s complaint process should be followed
11Supporting a child being bullied Listen to them and try not to judge any actions they have taken/not taken so far. They have done the best they could. Provide emotional support.Discuss next steps – what do they want to happen? Follow them if you can.Agree when/how to reviewContact the police about suspicion of illegal content (cyber bullying)Involve schools/parents/carers/other support/agencies as required
12and problem solving skills Responding to bullyingrescueempowerhelp build resilienceand problem solving skills
13Responding to bullying Examples of possible actionsThings that they can doRunning awayMaking a lot of noiseIgnoringFoggingBlocking (texts, websites etc)Fighting backStaying with groupsAsking friends for supportThings that adults can doDirect action – challengingthose who are bullyingIndirect action –assemblies, group workGive help to identify andaccess other sources ofsupportrescueempower
14Children who bullyTalk with them about what they have done and help them to think about why they have done itMake it clear that bullying is not acceptable behaviourTry to identify other issues in their lives which may be affecting their behaviourWork with the school to help develop positive behaviours.Talk with the school about other help and support they may needThese examples come from the DCSF guidance:Threats and intimidation – e.g. by text, or posting messages on websitesHarassment or stalking – e.g. sending unwanted texts/ s, even if they are not offensive, or monitoring someone’s online activitiesVilification / defamation – e.g. putting upsetting or insulting remarks online about someone or sending them round by textOstracising / peer rejection / exclusion – e.g. not letting someone join a friendship group online, or everyone in a group refusing to return messages or texts from one personIdentity theft, unauthorised access and impersonation – e.g. pretending to be someone else and sending s or texts as if they were from themPublicly posting, sending or forwarding personal or private information or images - e.g. posting horrible things on internet sites, sending round video clips by mobileManipulation e.g. putting pressure on someone to do things through online friendships, or using something someone has posted online or said in a text and are embarrassed about to blackmail them into doing things
15Forms of abuse and effects of abuse Forms of abuse include:Physical abuseSexual abuseEmotional abuseNeglectFaltering growthDomestic abuseInstitutional abuseBullying and harassmentSelf-harmingAbuse via the internetSexual exploitationAbuse is likely to have a deep and long lasting impact on:Self-imageSelf-esteemHealthDevelopmentWell-being
16Signs of abuseThe following non-specific signs may indicate something is wrong:Sudden withdrawal from othersSuspicious bruisesFear of strangersExtreme anger or sadnessAggressive and attention-seeking behaviourLack of self-esteemSelf-injuryDepressionAge inappropriate sexual behaviour
17All workers shouldConsider safety and well-being issues in all aspects of their workKnow who to speak to if they have any concerns or questions about a child’s or young person’s safety or well-beingBe willing to work with others, where necessary, to make sure children and young people are safe and their well-being is promoted. Where appropriate, this will involve sharing information.Remember that an allegation of child abuse or neglect may lead to a criminal investigation, don’t do anything that might put a police investigation at risk (e.g. asking a child leading questions or attempting to investigate the allegations of abuse)Record in writing all concerns, discussions about the child, decisions made, and the reasons for those decisions.
18If you have concerns about a child.. Discuss concerns with your manager or designated member of staff. Make a record of this and any decision madeIn most cases, try to talk with the child or young person, as appropriate to their age and understanding, and with their parents, and seek their agreement to making a referral, unless such a discussion would place the child at an increased risk of significant harm.If appropriate, make a referral using agreed local procedures.
19If a child or young person discloses abuse: React calmlyReassure them that they were right to tell and that they are not to blame - take what they say seriouslyCheck your understanding but keep questions to a minimum. Don’t try to investigate or ask about explicit detailsReassure them but do not promise confidentialityTell them what you will do nextMake a full and written record of what has been said/heard as soon as possible and don’t delay in passing on the information to the named person and/or your line manager.
20Safeguarding legislation and national guidance CAF training for trainersApril 2006Safeguarding legislation and national guidanceChildren Act 2004 and 1989Children Act 1989Education Act 2002Working together to safeguard children (2006)What to do if you’re worried a child is being abused (2006)Safeguarding children in education (2004)The children’s plan (2007)The staying safe action plan (2007)For more information go to:The Every Child Matters websiteThe Children’s Workforce Development Council website
21Health and safety legislation and policy CAF training for trainersApril 2006Health and safety legislation and policyLegislation:Health and Safety at Work Act 1974The Management of Health and Safety at work regulations 1999Policy:The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) enforces health and safety legislation.Work environment’s individual health and safety policies
22Both employers and employees have responsibilities regarding health and safety Employers must:Have regard for all relevant legislation and policyHave a health and safety policy relevant to their settingUndertake and act upon risk assessmentsSupport their staff in understanding and implementing legislation and policyEmployees must:Take reasonable care of their own and others’ health and safetyCo-operate with their employersCarry out activities in line with training and instructionsInform the employer of any serious risks.
23Guidance on premises, policies and procedures General guidance on premises:Organised in a way that meets the needs of childrenAdequate spaceAccess suitable for those with disabilitiesInsuredCleanAdequately ventilatedAt a suitable temperatureWell lit, preferable with daylightPractitioners need to be able to:Identify security measuresPromote fire safetyWork safely when visiting other places
24Personal safety and security: key issues Practitioners should think about and work with their managers to:Identify risks to their personal safetyAssess the risks involved in situations involving conflict or challengeIdentify ways of working that minimise dangersIdentify what action need to be taken to stay safe
25Risk assessmentsNeed to be carried out in relation to places and activities (and sometimes people)Dynamic risk assessment – carried out at the time e.g. during an activityComplete if there is genuine riskKeep it ‘fit for purpose’Act on it
26Conducting a risk assessment CAF training for trainersApril 2006Conducting a risk assessmentIdentify the hazardsDecide who might be harmed and howRecord your findings and implement themReview your assessment and revise it if necessaryEvaluate the risks and decide on precautions
27Guidance on safe working practices CAF training for trainersApril 2006Guidance on safe working practicesDocuments giving guidance on safe practices when working with children and young people include:Guidance for Safe Working Practice for the Protection of Children and Staff in Education settings (2005)Positively Safe - A guide to developing safe practices (2005) published by the NCVCCO
28Cycles of Development – An Overview CAF training for trainersApril 2006Cycles of Development – An OverviewDevelopmental StageExamples of key tasksBeing(0-6mths)To call for careTo learn to trust caring adultsDoing(6mths-18mths)To use all senses to exploreTo get help in times of distressThinking(18mths-3yrs)To push against boundaries and other peopleTo express anger and other feelingsIdentity & Power (3-6yrs)To acquire info about the world, self, body and gender roleTo learn extent of personal powerSkills & Structure (6-12yrs)To practice thinking and doingTo develop the capacity to cooperateIntegration(Adolescence)To emerge as a separate independent person with own identity and valuesTo be competent and responsible for own needs, feelings and behaviours
29Equality and diversity Equality is the chance to take part on an equal basisEquality does not mean everyone has to be treated the sameAll practitioners have a part to play in supporting people to live in the way they value and choose, to be themselves and to be different if they wishDiversity is about the differences in values, attitudes, cultural perspective, beliefs, skills, knowledge and life experience of each individual in any group of people.
30Relevant legislation The Disability Discrimination Act 2005 The Special Educational Needs and Disability Act 2001The Race Relations (Amendment) Act 2000Convention on the Rights of the Child (UN, 1989)The Human Rights Act 1998The Sex Discrimination Act 1975 (as amended)The Equality Act (2006)Employment Equality (Sexual Orientation) Regulations 2003
31We have made progress but.... Women still earn, on average, 22.6% less per hour than menLess academically able, but better off children, overtake more able, poorer children at school by the age of sixDisabled people are still more than twice as likely to be out of work than non-disabled peopleIf you are from an ethnic minority, you are 13% less likely to find work than a white personOne in five older people are unsuccessful in getting quotes for motor insurance, travel insurance and car hire6 out of 10 lesbian and gay young people experience homophobic bullying at school and many contemplate suicide
32Single Equalities Bill: RaceGenderDisabilitySexual orientationAgeReligion and beliefWhat you need to know......Duty to promote equalityDirect and indirect discrimination are illegalIncludes ‘by association or perception’
33Models of disability 1: the medical model The person is in a tragic situationDisability is part of the individual - belonging to her/himThe disabled person's decision-making functions are inevitably impairedSuccessful rehabilitation is the number of tasks that can be done without help, rather than the number of tasks which can be organised and directed with helpDisability centred
34Models of disability 2: the social model Disability is not part of the individual - it is a result of society's structures and organisationThe disabled person can make her/his decisions, or can be supported in her/his own decision-making processIndependence is seen as the ability to organise and direct support to accomplish tasksSociety can change to be more accommodatingPerson centred
35Person-centred practice Is holisticFocuses on their priorities, desires, needs, wishes, rights, choices and decisionsFocuses on strengths and capabilities and using these to meet needsIs empowering and competency-enhancingGives choice and the right to make decisionsInvolves a partnership approach to working, including:active participationpower sharingagreeing aimsmutual trustrespectRequires clear, open, honest, communication,Is respectful and sensitive to family, cultural, ethnic and socio-economic diversity
36Prejudice and discrimination Prejudice - unfavourable opinion or feeling formed beforehand without knowledge, thought or reason. It involves feelings or attitudes (positive or negative) towards individuals or groups based on prior assumptions.……leads toDiscrimination - - treating a person less favourably than others in the same or similar circumstances.
37Anti-discriminatory practice Fundamental - examination of one’s own values, beliefs, attitudes and expectations, updating, challenging and changing them when necessaryProactive efforts to give all children and young people equality of opportunity at all times.Knowledge of:-equal opportunities legislation, responsibilities under that legislation and putting them into practiceorganisation’s equal opportunities policy and codes of practice and practitioner responsibilitiesUse of language and resources in the work setting which promote equal opportunitiesRespect for all people
38InclusionFocus upon ensuring that everyone has opportunity to be engaged and involved in mainstream community life – whether it be education, employment or community involvementPutting values concerned with equity, participation, respect for diversity, community, rights, compassion, and sustainability into action.Valuing all equally and enabling participation
39CAF training for trainers April 2006The behaviour icebergObservable aspects of behaviourHidden or motivating aspects of behaviour
40Building resilience Grotberg (1995) I have I am I can Trusting relationshipsStructure and rules at homeRole modelsEncouragement to be autonomousAccess to health, education, welfare, and security services.I amLovable and my temperament is appealingLoving, empathic, and altruisticProud of myselfAutonomous and responsibleI canCommunicateProblem solveManage my feelings and impulsesGauge the temperament of myself and othersSeek trusting relationships
41Building resilienceHenderson and Milstein (2003)
42Working to change challenging behaviour CAF training for trainersApril 2006Working to change challenging behaviourThere areno simple solutions -Effectiveness depends on:An effective, open and honest working relationshipSelecting the most appropriate approachThe time available for the workThe confidence, ability and training of the practitioner