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Introduction IMD09120: Collaborative Media Brian Davison 2011/12.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction IMD09120: Collaborative Media Brian Davison 2011/12."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction IMD09120: Collaborative Media Brian Davison 2011/12

2 Contents General introduction – main themes Module overview A little history Short break Social psychology Statistical evaluation Summary: Grudin’s 8 challenges

3 Introduction What are computers for? –Doing difficult maths –Communication Email: invented in 1971 - accounted for 75% of Internet traffic by 1973 –Hobbes Internet timelineHobbes Internet timeline The main themes of this module are –Social psychology of cooperation –Computer Mediated Communications (CMC) –The evaluation of social systems using statistical methods

4 People http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2008/aug/27/endangered.languages Social behaviour is an essential human characteristic It is biologically based Individuals have differences which affect social situations Social situations influence individual behaviour

5 Technology Provides a medium for communication Can facilitate or be a barrier Can distract from the social behaviour itself Can generate new phenomena www.officemuseum.com/communications_equipment.htm

6 PACT People Activities Contexts Technology Planning, decision-making, problem- solving, team-working, developing, trading, negotiating, co-authoring, discussing, critiquing, providing mutual support, maintaining a community As a job, for fun, as part of a community, as a friend, as a professional, as a parent, in an office, outdoors, at home, while travelling, in a foreign country, in a competition

7 Is Collaborative Media all about HCI? No HCI is about the individual’s communication with the system across the user interface CM is about the communications behaviour between people using the system as a channel The design of the interface is important, but not the main focus

8 Is CM all about social networking? No Social networking is an obvious example of a social phenomenon Not clear that collaboration is the central focus

9 Evaluation Not the same as testing Testing: Does it work? Evaluation: How well does it work? Does it have the intended effect? Which option is better?

10 Evaluation problems No hard and fast facts Must be based on collected data Often relies on pooled opinion Statistical methods deal with variation

11 Statistics in this module Basic concepts Different types of test How to interpret statistical results How to define an experiment How to draw conclusions from the results Minimum maths Maximum use of Excel functions

12 Module structure Lectures –Theoretical concepts Practicals –Statistics –Prototype building Tutorials –Group exercises –Discussions –Assessment preparation

13 Assessment 2 components: 1.Week 9: Critical assessment of an existing collaborative system and proposed redesign 2.Week14: Prototype of your redesign and evaluation using the instrument provided Note the timing: One week each

14 A little history 1971: Email 1973: Plato Notes 1978: CBBS 1984: Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) 1985: The WELL 1988: Internet Relay Chat (IRC) 1989: Lotus Notes 1990: Mosaic Web browser 1990: LambdaMOO 1996: ICQ chat 1997: Blogs 1997: SixDegrees 2003: MySpace 2003: Second Life 2006: Facebook

15 PLATO Education was one of the first beneficiaries of collaborative systems

16 Definition of CSCW “ … the design of computer-based technologies with explicit concern for the socially organised practices of their intended users.” (Suchman, 1989) the study of work in situ which involves people working cooperatively (i.e. not in parallel) towards some common end or goal using networked IT systems

17 Some basic vocabulary Time –Synchronous: working together at the same time –Asynchronous: working together at different times Space –Co-located or face to face (f2f ): in the same physical space –Remote: in different places

18 The place-time matrix Time Place SameDifferent Same Meeting support Design tools Email Post-it notes Different Teleconferencing Videoconferencing Instant messaging Letters Email Discussion forums After Applegate, 1991

19 Technology There are two predominant metaphors –Shared information spaces Sites Navigation Pages Go to... Save... –Conferencing Conversation Thread Participate

20 Short break

21 Main themes The social psychology of cooperation Computer Mediated Communications (CMC) Statistical evaluation

22 Social psychology Sociology Cognitive psychology Social psychology Social thinking: How we perceive ourselves and others, our judgements, beliefs and attitudes Social influence: Cultural and social pressures that affect our behaviour Social relations: Prejudice, aggression, attraction, helping, group identity

23 Studying cooperation Anthropological and naturalistic animal studies (especially in primatology) Experimental and social psychological Mathematical Explicit CSCW studies

24 The Prisoner ’ s Dilemma

25 A General Form of the Prisoner ’ s Dilemma Strategies: Cooperate Defect Payoffs You CD Me C(3, 3)(0, 5) D(5, 0)(1, 1)

26 Individual variation Personality preferences are one type of variation Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Extravert Sensing Thinking Judging Introvert Intuitive Feeling Perceiving Focus Perception Judgement Strategy E S T J I N F P

27 Myers-Briggs types

28 Effects and biases Identified behaviours that are more or less predictable eg Spotlight effect

29 Common sense? Paul Lazarsfeld (1949) studied American WWII soldiers: –Better-educated soldiers suffered more adjustment problems ie – Intellectuals were less prepared for battle stresses –Southern soldiers coped better in hot climates that Northerners ie – Southerners were more accustomed to hot weather –White privates were more eager for promotion than black privates ie – Years of oppression had damaged achievement motivation –Southern blacks preferred Southern to Northern white officers ie – Southern officers were more accustomed to interacting with them

30 Hindsight bias I knew it all along... That’s just common sense... It’s obvious... http://www.sigmaxi.org/resources/merchandise/harris.descriptions.shtml

31 Theory formulation You must try to discover the rule that connects the three numbers below. To work it out, you may propose different sets of three numbers, and I will tell you whether they obey the rule. 12 24 48

32 Confirmation bias The tendency to seek confirmatory evidence for one’s own belief This is natural – everyone does it This is one reason we need statistics

33 Statistics Allow us to draw objective conclusions based on the mathematical characteristics of populations and samples Population: whole group we are interested in Sample: a small number drawn from the population for testing

34 Samples and populations General public Students UG students Napier UG students SoC UG students IMD students Year 3 IMD students You Is a high-cue environment more effective than low-cue for small group decision making?

35 Distributions Agreed measure of effectiveness Number of scores Central tendency Mean Median Mode Spread Variance Standard deviation

36 Comparing distributions Agreed measure of effectiveness Number of scores High-cueLow-cue } ?

37 Eight challenges for developers Jonathan Grudin wrote a seminal paper in 1994 on what the key issues are in designing for groupware 1.Disparity in work and benefit 2.Critical mass and the prisoner’s dilemma problems 3.Disruption of social processes 4.Exception handling 5.Unobstrusive accessibility 6.Difficulty of evaluation 7.Failure of intuition 8.The adoption process.

38 Six Difficulty of evaluation –The almost insurmountable obstacles to meaningful, generalisable analysis and evaluation of groupware prevent us from learning from experience –Group applications necessarily must be evaluated from multiple perspectives

39 Seven Failure of intuition –Intuition in product development environments is especially poor for multi-user applications, resulting in bad management decisions and an error prone design process.

40 What’s next? Statistics tutorial Personality typing Next week: –Social psychology –Statistics practical exercises –Group exercises – what is your Myers-Briggs type?


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