Presentation on theme: "GOVERNMENTS AND CULTURE Clive Gray, University of Warwick, United Kingdom"— Presentation transcript:
GOVERNMENTS AND CULTURE Clive Gray, University of Warwick, United Kingdom C.J.Gray@Warwick.ac.uk
Motivations for Government Action: I 1.National Glory 2.Inducement and Reward 3.Placebo 4.Education 5.Welfare Service 6.Compensation 7.Commercial 8.Order and Control
Motivations for Government Action: II 9. Ideological 10. Moral 11. Social 12. Political 13. Common Sense 14. Faith 15. ‘Cultural’
Functions of Policy 1.Intrinsic – ‘art’ based reasons 2.Instrumental – using culture for non-cultural ends 3.Attachment – linking culture to sources of support 4.Explicit – directly affecting cultural production/distribution/consumption 5.Implicit – cultural consequences of other policy aims
Multi-functional Policy ‘Architecture had a variety of purposes – self- gratification, self-glorification, social indoctrination and nationalistic self-assertion’ (F. Spotts, Hitler and the Power of Aesthetics (London, Hutchison, 2002), 311)
The Role of Government: a Providing mechanisms for cultural choice? Directly providing culture? Supporting cultural production? Supporting cultural distribution? Supporting cultural consumption?
How Can Governments Do These?: I Democratic means: 1.Plebiscitary democracy – referenda 2.Representative democracy – governments and parliaments 3.Democratic elitism – arm’s-length organisations 4.Deliberative democracy – value clarification
How Can Governments Do These?: II All depend upon: 1.Active participation 2.Effective and independent civil society 3.Political literacy 4.Education 5.Legitimacy 6.Trust
The Role of Government: b 1.Support all of the above
Active or Passive Government? Representative democracy expects governments to have their own objectives And that these should be openly pursued But they should also be subject to open criticism Passive government is seen as stagnant government
Explicitly Active Governments: I 1.Problematic cases: Nazi Germany/Stalinist Soviet Union Did they have lasting effects? Not really 2.Acceptable cases: France/United Kingdom/Australia/Canada Did they have lasting effects? Some – but limited by political acceptability
Explicitly Active Governments: II Cultural imposition does not work Top-down policies require bottom-up support Bottom-up policies require top-down support What role should governments pursue: 1.Top-down? 2.Bottom-up? 3.Both?