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Co-management of wildlife and protected areas Cooperating with communities.

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Presentation on theme: "Co-management of wildlife and protected areas Cooperating with communities."— Presentation transcript:

1 Co-management of wildlife and protected areas Cooperating with communities

2 Themes today What is co-management? Fortress conservation Pros and cons of co-management Examples The CAMPFIRE model The Uluru model Obstacles to effective co-management Different motivations Community-government relations Community representation Case study: lobster co-management in Maine

3 What is co-management? Cooperation in regulating a resource government or non-governmental organization local communities “Community-based management” or “community- based conservation” 3 components: community participation in decisions community ownership of natural resources linking conservation to economic benefits Decentralisation

4 Fortress conservation People threaten “wilderness” Resistance breaking rules protesting appealing to human rights advocates Ineffective management corruption cookie-cutter solutions

5 Pros and cons of co-management Local knowledge and experience more effective easier acceptance Problems invasions lack of resources disagreements

6 Managing protected areas Regulations Enforcement Dispute resolution

7

8 Examples Communal Areas Management Program for Indigenous Resources (CAMPFIRE) Uluru

9 The CAMPFIRE model Decision-making power Financial incentives Producer communities ward and village development committees wildlife committees

10 Managing protected areas: CAMPFIRE Regulations Enforcement Dispute resolution  X X

11 The Uluru model Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park Freehold title granted to a land trust Leased back to government Managed by Aboriginal board Community members get entrance rights rental payments park fees direct and indirect employment Dispute resolution by lawyer

12 Managing protected areas: Uluru Regulations Enforcement Dispute resolution   

13 Obstacles to effective co-management Different perceptions and incentives Community-government relations Intra-community conflict

14 Different motivations Governments and NGOs financial benefits attracting funds recreational potential species’ rights Local residents may share these But may have different interests and concerns

15 Addressing different perceptions Legislation prioritize wildlife resentment from local people Yield to requests Compromise

16 Community-government relations Communication difficulties language cultural differences inaccessibility different decision-making processes Mistrust Disagreements over land control Unequal power relations Lack of “ownership”

17 Community representation Inappropriate administrative boundaries Intra-community rivalry Capture by elite

18 Lobster co-management in Maine Acheson, James M The lobster fiefs revisited: economic and ecological effects of territoriality in Maine lobster fishing. Pp in B.J. McCay and J.M. Acheson (eds.) The question of the commons: the culture and ecology of communal resources. Tucson: The University of Arizona Press. Acheson, James M. and Laura Taylor The anatomy of the Maine lobster comanagement law. Society and Natural Resources 14:

19 Common property lobster management Harbor gangs Zone Management Law lobster policy management zones elected councils of lobster license holders councils succeeded where legislation failed disagreements about management issues of representation Swan’s Island Conservation Zone

20 Changes Technology Population growth Disputes Fishermen need government Government needs fishermen


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